Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Methodology
Chapter 3. Human Resource Systems
Chapter 4. Knowledge Systems
Chapter 5. Geotechnical Engineering in Hong Kong
Chapter 6. Conclusions
“This book represents a very original study of the cases on innovation of Hong Kong’s companies at the micro level. At the macro level, due to the fact that the Hong Kong government has been formalizing and institutionalizing its innovation and technology policy, the publication of Dr. Kwok Wai Ma’s new book is practically timely and academically significant. While practitioners must ponder the broader policy implications of this important work, academics will find it extremely insightful with theoretical and empirical directions for their future research.” – <strong>Sonny Lo, Professor of Department of Social Sciences, Hong Kong Institute of Education
“For far too many of us, the HR office stands poised at the periphery of our workplace and career. We meet with HR when we’re hired, when we transfer, and/or when we resign or retire. Now, suddenly following an eye-opening read of this book, I’ve changed my opinion entirely. I, along with top level management at organizations well known throughout the world, are seeing HR in the new light of first, being a CXO level contender, and a contributor to the firm’s competitive advantage. Those of us who never viewed HR in a strategic light have been enlightened by the many cases which introduce us to the untapped potential of this heretofore ignored department which we thought we knew and understood so well!” – Dr. Kevin Duffy, Associate Professor of Management Information Systems, Wright State University
“This book is a MUST READ for human resource managers and CEO’s who wish to view their human resources as their strategic advantage. This book is such a timely addition to the body of knowledge of innovation studies and strategic human resource management. Using case studies, the author describes, explains and connects the human resource system with an organizational knowledge system, presents a creative pathway to illustrative how both systems can work together synergistically. The book’s perspective is unique and represents a leap in our understanding of a complex socio-human network at play in all organizations” – Professor Vikram Sethi, Director of Center for Professional Education (CPE), Wright State University
Armstrong, Craig E., & Shimizu, Katsuhiko (2007). A review of approaches to empirical research on the resource-based view of the firm. Journal of Management, 33(6), 959-986.Association of Consulting Engineers of Hong Kong (ACEHK) (2012). Services provided by consulting engineers. Retrieved from: http://www.acehk.org.hk/services.html. Arthur, Jeffrey B., (1992) The link between business strategy and industrial relations systems in american steel minimills. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 45, 488-506. Arthur, Jeffrey B (1994). Effects of human resource systems on manufacturing performance and turnover. The Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 670-687Ashforth, Blake E., & Saks, Alan M. (1996). Socialization tactics: Longitudinal effects on newcomer adjustment, Academy of Management Journal, 39(1), 149-178. Au, S. W. C. (2001a). Rain-induced slope instability in Hong Kong. In K. S. Li, and S. C. R. Lo (eds.). The Practice of Geotechnical Engineering in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Centre for Research & Professional Development. Au, S. W. C. (2001b). Rainfall and slope failure in Hong Kong. In Li, K. S. & Lo, S. C. R. (eds.). The practice of geotechnical engineering in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Centre for Research & Professional Development. Balthasar, Andreas, Bättig, Christoph, Thierstein, Alain, & Wilhelm, Beate (2000). “Developers”: Key actors of the innovation process; types of developers and their contacts to institutions involved in research and development, continuing education and training, and the transfer of technology. Technovation, 20, 523-538. Barras, Richard (1986). Towards a theory of innovation in services. Research Policy, 15, 161-173. Barney, Jay (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.Barney, Jay B. (2001). Is the resource-based “view” a useful perspective for strategic management research? Yes. Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 41-56. Barney, Jay B., & Arikan, Asli M. (2001). The resource-based view: Origins and implications. In Michael A. Hitt, Edward R. Freeman, & Jeffrey S. Harrison (eds.). The Blackwell handbook of strategic management. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Bates, Reid, & Khasawneh, Samer (2005). Organizational learning culture, learning transfer climate and perceived innovation in jordanian organizations. International Journal of Training and Development, 9(2), 96-109. Baxter, Pamela, & Jack, Susan (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), 544-559. Boxall, Peter, & Purcell, John (2000). Strategic human resource management: Where have we come from and where should we be going? International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2(2), 183-203. Brand, E. W., Premchitt, J., & Phillipson, H. B. (1984). Relationship between rainfall and landslides in Hong Kong. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Landslides, Toronto, Vol. 1, 377-384. Casey, Andrea & Olson, Tova (2003). The relationship of organizational identity and memory in knowledge creation. Organizational Learning and Knowledge: 5 International Conference. Lancaster: UK.<br>CEDD (2005). When hillsides collapse: A century of landslides in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Civil Engineering and Development Department, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Census & Statistics Department (1981-2005). Hong Kong Annual Digest of Statistics. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government Printer.Chan, George, Lui, James, Lam, Kelvin, Yin, K. K., Law, C. W., Lau, Ringo, & . . . Hasle, Ronan (2004). Shaft grouted friction barrette piles for a super high-rise building, The Structural Engineer, 82(20), 32-36.Chan, R. K. S. (2007). Challenges in slope engineering in Hong Kong. In Geotechnical Engineering Office (ed.), Thirty Years of Slope Safety Practice in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Chan, R. K. S., & Lau, T. M. F. (2008). Slope safety system and landslide risk management in Hong Kong, Web Proceedings of the First World Landslide Forum 18-21 November, 2008, United Nation University, Tokyo, Japan. Retrieved from: http://www.iclhq.org/ WLFweb/WebProceedings_Index.htm. Chandran, Krish, (1986). Engineering designers in hong kong. The Journal of the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, (May 1986), 15-18.Cohen, W. M., & Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation, Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), 128-152.Coleman, James S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, S95-S120.Conner, Kathleen R., & Prahalad, C. K. (1996). A resource-based theory of the firm: Knowledge versus opportunism. Organization Science, 7(5), 477-501.Coombs, Rod, & Miles, Ian (2000). Innovation, measurement and services: The new problematique. In J. Stanley Mecalfe & Ian Miles (eds.). Innovation Systems in the Service Economy: Measurement and Case Study Analysis. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Criscuolo, Paola, Salter, Ammon, & Sheehan, Tony (2007). Making knowledge visible: Using expert yellow pages to map capabilities in professional services firms. Research Policy, 36, 1603-1619. Delery, John E. (1998). Issues of fit in strategic human resource management: Implications for research. Human Resource Management Review, 8(3), 289-309. Delery, John E. & Doty, D. Harold (1996). Modes of theorizing in strategic human resource management: Tests of universalistic, contingency, and configurational performance predictions. Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 802-835.<br>Delery, John E., & Shaw, Jason D. (2001). The strategic management of people in work organizations: Review, synthesis, and extension, Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, 20, 165-197. Dodgson, Mark, Gann, David, & Salter, Ammon (2004) Think, Play, Do: Technology, Innovation and Organization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Dodgson, Mark, Gann, David, & Salter, Ammon (2008). The Management of Technological Innovation: Strategy and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Eisenhardt, K. M., & Martin, J. A. (2000). Dynamic capabilities: What are they? Strategic Management Journal, 21,1105–1121.Eisenhardt, Kathleen M., & Santos, Filipe M. (2006). Knowledge-based view: A new theory of strategy? In Andrew Pettigrew, Howard Thomas, and Richard Whittington, (eds.) Handbook of Strategy and Management. London: Sage Publications. Endicott, L. J. (2007). Review of 30 years of geotechnical engineering in Hong Kong 1976-2006, Proceedings of the HKIE Geotechnical Division Annual Seminar 2007, 99-108. Engineering Registration Board (2012). About ERB: functions. Retrieved from http://www.erb.org.hk/aboutERB.htm.Evans, W. Randy, & Davis, Walter D. (2005). High performance work systems and organizational performance: The mediating role of internal social structure. Journal of Management, 31(5), 758-774.Fagerberg, Jan (2005). Innovation: A guide to the literature. In Jan Fagerberg, David C. Mowery, and Richard R. Nelson (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Fisher, Cynthia D. (1986). Organizational socialization: An integrative review. In K. M. Rowland, and G R Ferris (eds.). Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Vol. 4, 101-145. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Ganesan, S., G., Chiang, Hall, & Chiang, Y. H. (1996). Construction in Hong Kong: Issues in labour supply and technology transfer. Aldershot: Avebury.Gann, David M., & Salter, Ammon J. (2000). Innovation in project-based, service-enhanced firms: The construction of complex products and systems. Research Policy, 29, 955-972. Gann, David, Salter, Ammon, Dodgson, Mark, & Phillips, Nelson (2012). Inside the World of the Project Baron. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(3), 63-71.Geotechnical Engineering Office (2008). The landslip prevention measure (LPM) programme. GEO Information Notes. Retrieved from: http://www.cedd.gov.hk/eng/ publications/information_notes/doc/in_2008_04e.pdf. Grant, Robert M. (1996). Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17(Winter Special Issue), 109-122. Guildford, C. M. (1997). A look back: Civil engineering in Hong Kong, 1841-1941. Asia Engineer, September 1997, 8-21.Hamel, G., & Prahalad, C. K. (1994). Competing for the Future. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Hipp, Christiane, & Grupp, Hariolf (2005). Innovation in the service sector: The demand for service-specific innovation measurement concepts and typologies. Research Policy, 34, 517-535.<br>HKTDC (2012). Engineering industry in Hong Kong: Service providers. Retrieved from: http://hong-kong-economy-research.hktdc.com/business-news/article/Hong-Kong-Industry-Profiles/Engineering-Industry-in-Hong-Kong/hkip/en/1/1X47J8WG/1X003 URR.htm. Ho, K. K. S., & Pappin, J. W. (2007). Geotechnical failures in Hong Kong. Proceedings of the HKIE Geotechnical Division Annual Seminar 2007, 213-222.Hunter, Laurie, & Beaumont, Phil (2002). Knowledge management practice in Scottish law firms. Human Resource Management Journal, 12(2), 4-21. Huselid, M. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38(3), 635-672.Ichniowski, Casey, Shaw, Kathryn, & Prennushi, Giovanna (1997). The effects of human resource management practices on productivity: A study of steel finishing lines. American Economic Review, 87(3), 291-313. Jackson, Susan E., Chuang, Chih-Hsun, Harden, Erika E., & Jiang, Yuan (2006). Toward developing human resource management systems for knowledge-intensive teamwork, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 25, 27-70. Jackson, Susan E., and Schuler, Randall S. (1995). Understanding human resource management in the context of organizations and their environments. Annual Review of Psychology, 46, 237-264.Kamoche, Ken N. (2001). Understanding Human Resource Management. Buckingham: Open University Press.<br>Kao, C. et al. (1997). Engineering Hong Kong: 50 years of achievements. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press & Henderson & Associates.Koo, Y. C. (1996). Training of geotechnical engineers in Hong Kong—From the Consulting Engineer’s Point of View. In Li, K. S., & Whiteside, P. G. D. (eds.). Human Resources in Geotechnical Engineering (Proceedings of the workshop held on 31 October, 1996). Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, Geotechnical Division and Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering Department. Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen, Spender, J.C., Groen, Aard J. (2010). The resource-based view: A review and assessment of its critique, Journal of Management, 36(1), 349-372.Lau, C M & Ngo, H Y (2004). The hr system, organizational culture, and product innovation. International Business Review, 13, 685-703. Lau, Kenneth (1998). The role of consulting engineers for infrastructure development in Hong Kong and the region. Mimeo, Hong Kong.Laursen, Keld, & Foss, Nicholai J. (2003), New human resource management practices, complementarities, and the impact on innovation performance. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 27, 243-263.Leiblein, Michael J., & Madsen, Tammy L. (2009). Unbundling competitive heterogeneity: incentive structure and capability influences on technological innovation. Strategic Management Journal, 30, 711-735.Lepak, David P., Liao, Hui, Chung, Yunhyung, & Harden, Erika E. (2006). A conceptual review of human resource management systems in strategic human resource management research. Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, 25, 217-271. Lepak, David P., Marrone, Jennifer A., & Takeuchi, Riki (2004). The relativity of HR systems: Conceptualizing the impact of desired employee contributions and HR philosophy. International Journal of Technology Management, 27, 639-655.Lepak, David P., & Snell, Scott A., (1999). The human resource architecture: Toward a theory of human capital allocation and development. Academy of Management Review, 24(1), 31-48. Lepak, David P., & Snell, Scott A., (2002). Examining the human resource architecture: The Relationships among human capital, employment, and human resource configurations. Journal of Management, 28(4), 517-543. Lockett, Andy, Thompson, Steve, & Morgenstern, Uta (2009). The development of the resource-based view of the firm: A critical appraisal. International Journal of Management Review, 11(1), 9-28. Lovegrove, G. W. (1996). Human resources in geotechnical engineering: A consultant’s perspective. In Li, K. S. and Whiteside, P. G. D. (eds.). Human Resources in Geotechnical Engineering. Hong Kong: Geotechnical Division, Hong Kong Institution of Engineers. Lumb, Peter (1975). Slope failures in Hong Kong. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 8, 21-65.Lumb, Peter (1972). Soil engineering in Hong Kong, Asian Building & Construction, 23-26. MacDuffie, John Paul (1995). Human resource bundles and manufacturing performance: Organizational logic and flexible production systems in the world auto industry, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 48(2), 197-221.Malerba, Franco (2005). Sectoral systems: How and why innovation differs across sectors. In Fagerberg, Jan, Mowery, David C., and Nelson, Richard R., (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Malerba, Franco & Adams, Pamela (2014) Sectoral systems of innovation. In Dodgson, Mark, Gann, David M and Phillips, Nelson (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Innovation Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Malone, A. W. (1997). Risk management and slope safety in Hong Kong, Transactions of the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, 4(2&3), 81-90. Martin, R. P., & Whiteside, P. G. D. (1996). The role and supply of engineering geologists in Hong Kong. In K. S. Li & P. G. D. Whiteside (eds.). Human Resources in Geotechnical Engineering (Proceedings of the Workshop Held on 31 October, 1996). Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, Geotechnical Division and Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering Department. Miles, R. E., & Snow, C. C. (1984). Designing strategic human resource systems. Organizational Dynamics, 13(1), 36-52.Miles, Ian, Kastrinos, N., Flanagan, K., Bilderbeek, R., Hertog, P., Huntink, W., & Bouman, M. (1995). Knowledge-intensive business services: users, carriers, and sources of innovation. EIMS Publication No. 15. Luxembourg: Innovation Programme, Directorate General for Telecommunications, Information Market and Exploitation of Research, Commission of the European Communities. Miozzo, M., & Soete, L. (2001). Internationalisation of services: a technological perspective. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 67(2), 159–185.Nahapiet, Janine, & Ghoshal, Sumantra (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 242-266.Newberg, Scott L. (2007). Empirical research on the resource-based view of the firm: an assessment and suggestions for future research. Strategic Management Journal, 28, 121-146. Newberg, Scott L. (2008). Value, rareness, competitive advantage, and performance: a conceptual-level empirical investigation of the resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 29, 745-768. Nonaka, Ikujiro, & Toyama, Ryoko (2003). The knowledge-creating theory revisited: Knowledge creation as a synthesizing process. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 1, 2-10.<br>OECD & Eurostat (2005). Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data (3rd Edition). Paris: OECD Publishing.O’Hare, Mark (1988). Innovate! How to Gain and Sustain Competitive Advantage. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd.Pavitt, Keith (1984). Sectoral patterns of technical change: Towards a taxonomy and a theory. Research Policy, 13, 343-373.Pavitt, Keith (2005). Innovation process. In Jan Fagerberg, David C. Mowery, and Richard R. Nelson, (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Penrose, Edith Tilton (2009). The Theory of the Growth of the Firm. Oxford, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. Prahalad, C. K., & Hamel, Gary (1990). The core competence of the corporation. Harvard Business Review, 68(3), 79-91. Priem, Richard, & Butler, John E. (2001). Is the resource-based “view” a useful perspective for strategic management research? The Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 22-40.Purcell, John (1999a). Best practice and best fit: chimera or cul-de-sac? Human Resource Management Journal, 9(3), 26-41.<br>Purcell, John (1999b). High commitment management and the link with contingent workers: implications for strategic human resource management. In Gerald Ferris (ed.). Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, Supplement 4, 239-257. Roberts, Joanne, Andersen, Brigitte, & Hull, Richard (2000). Knowledge and innovation in the new service economy. In Brigitte Andersen, Jeremy Howells, Richard Hull, Ian Miles, Joanne Roberts (eds.). Knowledge and Innovation in the New Service Economy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Rowlinson, S., Ho, T. K. K., & Yuen, P. H. (1993). Leadership style of construction managers in Hong Kong. Construction Management and Economics, 11, 455-465.Salter, Ammon, & Tether, Bruce S. (2006). Innovation in services: Through the looking glass of innovation studies. A background review paper prepared for the inaugural meeting of the Grand Challenges in Services (GCS) forum, held at Said Business School, Oxford, May 2006. Schein, E. H. (1971). The individuals, the organization, and the career: A conceptual scheme. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 7, 401-426.Schein, Edgar H (1983) The role of the founder in creating organizational culture. Organizational Dynamics, 12, 13-28.<br>Schuler, Randall S., & Jackson, Susan E. (1987). Linking competitive strategies with human resource management practice. The Academy of Management Executive, 1(3), 207-219. Shen, C. K., Lee, C. F., & Luk, S. T. (1996). Some thoughts on the future of geotechnical engineering education in Hong Kong. In K. S. Li and P. G. D. Whiteside (eds.). Human resources in geotechnical engineering. Proceedings of the Workshop Held on 31 October, 1996. Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, Geotechnical Division and Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering Department. Snell, S. A., Youndt, M. A., & Wright, P. M. (1996), Establishing a framework for research in strategic human resource management: Merging resource theory and organizational learning. In G. Ferris (ed.). Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management: Volume 14). Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press. Stake, Robert E. (2005). Qualitative case studies. In Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln (eds.). The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3 edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Sweeting, A. (1990). Education in Hong Kong Pre-1841-1941: Fact and Opinion. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.<br>Takuechi, Riki, Lepak, David P., Wang, Heli, & Takeuchi, Kazuo (2007). An empirical examination of the mechanism mediating between high performance work systems and the performance of Japanese organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 1069-1083. Tether, Bruce S. (2003). What is innovation? Approaches to distinguishing new products and processes from existing products and processes. CRIC Working Paper No. 12. Retrieved from Centre for Research on Innovation and Competition, University of Manchester website: http://www.cric.ac.uk/cric/Pdfs/wp12.pdf. Van Maanen, John, & Schein, Edgar H. (1979). Toward a theory of organizational socialization. In B. M. Staw, (ed.). Research in Organizational Behavior: Volume 1. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Walker, A., & Rowlinson, S. M. (1990). The Building of Hong Kong: Constructing Hong Kong through the Ages. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Wong, Greg (1996). Training and recruitment of geotechnical engineers in the private sector. In K. S. Li and P. G. D. Whiteside(eds.). Human resources in geotechnical engineering Proceedings of the Workshop Held on 31 October, 1996. Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, Geotechnical Division and Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering Department. Works Branch (1995). Selection and remuneration of engineering and associated consultants. Works Branch Technical Circular No. 16/95. Hong Kong: Government Secretariat.Works Bureau (2000). Policy Objective for Works Bureau. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government Printing Department.World Economic Forum (WEF) (2009a) SlimCity knowledge cards facilitation guide. Retrieved from: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_SlimCity_FacilitationGuide_ 2009.pdf. World Economic Forum (WEF) (2009b) SlimCity: A cross-industry public-private initiative on urban sustainability. Retrieved from: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Slim City_UrbanSustainability_Report_2009.pdf. Wright, Patrick M., Gardner, Timothy M., Moynihan, Lisa M., & Allen, Mathew R. (2005). The relationship between hr practices and firm performance: Examining causal order. Personnel Psychology, 58, 409-446.Wright, Patrick M., Dunford, Benjamin B., & Snell, Scott A. (2001). Human resources and the resource-based view of the firm. Journal of Management, 27, 701-721.Wright, Patrick M., & McMahan, Gary C. (1992). Theoretical perspectives for strategic human resource management. Journal of Management, 18(2), 295-320.Wright, Patrick M., McMahan, Gary C., & McWilliams, Abagail (1994). Human resources and sustained competitive advantage: A resource-based perspective. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 5(2), 301-326. Yeung, Albert T. (2002) Peter Lumb biography. In Albert T. Yeung (ed.). A Memorial Collection of Selected Papers and Memoir of Professor Peter Lumb. Hong Kong: Professor Lumb Trust Fund. Yin, Robert K. (2009). Case Study Research: Design and Methods (4 edition). Los Angeles: Sage Publications. Youndt, Mark A. & Snell, Scott A. (2004). Human resource configurations, intellectual capital, and organizational performance. Journal of Management Issues, 16(3), 337-360.
Multidisciplinary in nature, this book should appeal to academics, including professors, researchers, and students specializing in innovation studies, strategic management and/or human resource management. While the subject firms included in the cases described in this book come from the engineering consulting sector, practicing managers from this field and management consultants should be interested in the issues illustrated.