Inflammatory Markers, Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Cell Cycle Regulators in Skin Growths, Pre-Skin Tumors and Skin Tumors

Ana Maria Abreu Velez, MD, PhD (Editor)
Director of Research, Georgia Dermatopathology Associates, Atlanta, GA, USA

Series: Dermatology – Laboratory and Clinical Research
BISAC: MED017000

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Inflammatory markers, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and cell cycle regulators in skin growths represent a series of reports and reviews on skin cancers and precancers, their host immune responses and correlations with medical literature data. We were able to clearly identify an immune response in multiple skin cancers, as well as in cutaneous pre-cancerous conditions. In poorly differentiated tumor areas, some classic immunohistochemical stains did not stain as frequently described in the literature. Other important phenomena we observed are that many cell cycle regulators, cell cycle checkpoints, oncogenes and tumor suppressor gene markers were not only positive inside the tumors, but also in cells around the tumor.

Portions of adjacent skin appendices and in supposedly normal adjacent epidermal and dermal tissue also showed signs of these components. These common findings raised questions concerning marginal definition of cutaneous surgery; that is, many of the immunologic findings could not be correlated on classical hematoxylin and eosin reviews. We also noted that many immunologic cells around skin cancers and/or pre-cancers showed high rates of division defined via markers such as Ki-67; our findings utilizing double color immunohistochemistry also showed that these immune cells are possibly actively duplicating as effector cells. Ki-67 has been cited as a superb proliferation marker in melanoma, but additional review of its utility is warranted given our results. Finally, we also found double staining immunohistochemistry to be of excellent value in detecting melanoma cells metastasizing in blood vessels, lymphatics and/or nerves.
(Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Preface

Chapter 1
Inflammatory Markers, Oncogenes, and Tumor Suppressor Cell Cycle Regulators in Benign, Premalignant and Malignant Skin Lesions
(Ana Maria Abreu-Vélez, Juliana Calle-Isaza, Yulieth Alexandra Upegui-Zapata, Daniel Alberto Vásquez-Hincapié, Eduardo Upegui-Quiceño, Natalia Regina Mesa-Herrera, Carlos Andrés Valencia-Yepes, Jorge Enrique Velasquez-Velez, and Michael S. Howard, Georgia Dermatopathology Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and others)

Chapter 2
Vimentin, Bromodeoxyuridine and Topoisomerase II α Expression in a Mildly Dysplastic Compound Nevus
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Carlos Andres Valencia-Yepes, Michael S. Howard, Georgia Dermatopathology Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and others)

Chapter 3
A Basal Cell Carcinoma with Sebaceous and Squamous Differentiation, with Expression of Proliferating Cell Nuclear antigen, P27Kip1 and Vimentin
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, DA Vásquez-Hincapié, and Michael S. Howard, Georgia Dermatopathology Associates, Atlanta, GA, USA and others)

Chapter 4
A Case of an Inflamed Precancerous Wart, and Immune Response with Factor XIIIa, IgD, CD11c/CD18 and CD79a
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Billie L Jackson, and Michael S. Howard, Georgia Dermatopathology Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and others)

Chapter 5
Squamous Cell Carcinoma Immunohistochemical Staining Reveals Lateral Satellitosis, Undetected via Hematoxylin and Eosin
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Yulieth Alexandra Upegui-Zapata, and Michael S. Howard, Georgia Dermatopathology Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and others)

Chapter 6
Immunologic and Cell Cycle Regulatory Markers in an Inflamed Actinic Keratosis
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Harry D. Vildibill, and Michael S. Howard, Georgia Dermatopathology Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and others)

Chapter 7
Ribosomal Protein S6-pS240, CD45 and Cyclooxygenase-2 in an Inflamed Mildly Dysplastic Junctional Nevus
(Ana Maria Abreu-Velez, Charles J Douchy and Michael S. Howard, Georgia Dermatopathology Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and others)

Chapter 8
Epidermis Above a Nodular Basal Cell Carcinoma Overexpressing Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Billie L Jackson, and Michael S. Howard, Georgia Dermatopathology Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and others)

Chapter 9
Epidermal Tissue near a Basal Cell Carcinoma Overexpresses Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, Cyclin D1, Topoisomerase IIα, Ki-67 and p27kip1
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Billie L. Jackson, and Michael S. Howard, Georgia Dermatopathology Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and others)

Chapter 10
Directed Host Immune Response against a Primary Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Vickie M. Brown and Michael S. Howard, Georgia Dermatopathology Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and others)

Chapter 11
Double Color Immunohistochemistry Analysis of the Immune Response, Angiolymphatic Invasion and Tumor Mitotic Rate in a Superficial Spreading Malignant Melanoma
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, E. D. DeLoach, and Michael S. Howard, Georgia Dermatopathology Associates; Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and others)

Chapter 12
Aggressive Nodular Basal Cell Carcinoma with Expression of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and B-cell Lymphoma 2 Gene
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Rick Lockhart, and Michael S. Howard, Georgia Dermatopathology Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and others)

Chapter 13
Octamer Transcription Factor-2 (OCT-2) and CD25 Expression in a Recurrent Cutaneous Melanoma
(Ana Maria Abreu Velez, Harry D. Vildibill, and Michael S. Howard, Georgia Dermatopathology Associates, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and others)

Index

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