Table of Contents
Based on research and on our own experience as coaches, we have found that motivation is a key ingredient of successful athletic performance over time. Although maximizing motivation has long been of interest to coaches and practitioners, the vast number of motivational theories, principles, and strategies can be overwhelming and confusing to those unfamiliar with the research. Consequently, there is a need for providing more holistic frameworks to coaches and practitioners that not only summarize the essential findings of motivation research but also make the information more understandable and applicable in practical settings. The purpose of this article is to present the MUSIC Model of Motivation as a framework that can be applied in performance environments by coaches and practitioners to improve athletes’ motivation, engagement, and ultimately, performance. The research-based MUSIC model consists of five components: eMpowerment, Usefulness, Success, Interest, and Caring. We explain each MUSIC model component within the context of sports, provide research evidence and examples related to each component, and suggest strategies that coaches can implement related to each component.
Keywords: Achievement motivation, athletes’ motivation, coaching, peak performance