Impact of CO2 Emission, GDP, and Energy Consumption on Health Expenditures in India: ARDL Bounds Testing Approach


Authors: Tahir Hussain Ansari and Ziaul Islam Ansari
Page Range: 385-402
Published in: International Journal of Energy, Environment, and Economics, Volume 30 Issue 4
ISSN: 1054-853X

Table of Contents


The nexus between greenhouse gases and changes in climatic conditions is well-known, as climate change strongly impacts public health. Among greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) stands out as a major contributor that harms the environment and influences human well-being. Similarly, economic growth may also affect the health conditions of the people. Thus, in this study, we investigate the nexus between CO2 emission, GDP, energy consumption, and healthcare spending in India from 1991 to 2019. We use the ARDL method to analyze short-term and long-term effects. The outcomes of our analysis validated cointegration relationships existing among health expenditures, CO2 emissions, GDP growth rate, and energy consumption in India. Based on the results, we provide recommendations that aim to reduce pollution, especially CO2 emissions, without compromising the growth of the economy. Furthermore, we recommend additional healthcare expenditure and green initiatives projects to successfully combat environmental degradation in India.

Keywords: health expenditures, CO2 emission, GDP, energy consumption, ARDL approach, India, bound test

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