How will severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and lead (Pb) exposure interact in the cardiovascular system?

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Author: Emmanuel Obeng-Gyasi
Page Range: 3-10
Published in: International Public Health Journal, 16#1 (2024)
ISSN: 1947-4989

Table of Contents

ABSTRACT

The combined effects of lead exposure and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and how they cause cardiovascular dysfunction are examined in this viewpoint manuscript. Lead was picked as a representative environmental contaminant because it has been studied extensively for more than 40 years, while SARS-CoV-2 illustrates the unpredictability of a new infectious agent that can quickly increase the environmental burden on communities. Given that this interaction represents a plausible combined exposure for many people, it is crucial to discuss how it might happen at a mechanistic level. SARS-CoV-2 causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which can spread by contact and respiratory droplets. One may be exposed to lead and SARS-CoV-2 simultaneously depending on their living situation. Uncertainty exists regarding the consequences of this exposure on cardiovascular disease and its underlying processes. This paper aims to investigate these mechanisms and provide potential causes behind them. The interaction of lead with SARS-CoV-2 and its effects on the cardiovascular system are likely caused by direct damage, the promotion of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In particular, the stimulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) were all identified as potentially important pathways. Blood clotting, cytokine storm cycle development, and increased hypoxia may also be the results of this. In summary, the effects on the immune system, coagulation, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and cardiac contractility were the four primary areas identified.

Keywords: Lead exposure, mixed exposures, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, metals

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