Horizons in Neuroscience Research. Volume 37


Andres Costa (Editor)
Eugenio Villalba (Editor)

Series: Horizons in Neuroscience Research
BISAC: MED057000

The opening chapter of Horizons in Neuroscience Research. Volume 37 suggests a definition and temporal origin of languages that emerge naturally—without linguistic assumptions or preconceptions—from an analytic and predictive theory of mental evolution.

A significant number of Alzheimer’s disease patients present with low circulating plasma leptin levels. As such, studies expressed in the following chapter have shown that leptin treatment reduces amyloid and phosphorylated tau accumulation in cultured cells and animal models, with beneficial effects.

A systematic review of the structure and function of the cerebellum in normal brain and surveys the distribution of the pathology in a major molecular group of neurodegenerative disease is presented, inclduing Alzheimer’s disease, argyrophilic grain disease, corticobasal degeneration, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, guam parkinsonian dementia complex, primary age-related tauopathy, and progressive supranuclear palsy.

The application of Fourier analysis is illustrated with reference to the spatial distribution of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of six cases of Alzheimer’s disease, and it is suggested as a useful statistical method for studying the patterns of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles.

Additionally, the structure and function of the basal ganglia in normal brain are described, and the role that differential pathology in these regions may have in determining the clinical symptoms in neurodegenerative disease is explored.

The authors describe the structure and function of the superior colliculus in the normal brain, as well as the pathological changes in the superior colliculus which may explain eye movement problems in two neurodegenerative disorders: progressive supranuclear palsy and chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

The results obtained in the penultimate chapter corroborate the toxic effects at cellular and molecular levels that the administration of L-DOPA has, even in a healthy system, affirming the need to find a Parkinson disease treatment alternative.

The final study investigates the relationship between the number of flow experiences in daily life and brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy. (Imprint: Nova Medicine and Health)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Neurological Science, Mental Evolution, and the Origin of Language
(David A. Steinberg, Fiddletown Institute, Fiddletown, CA, USA)

Chapter 2. Leptin, Inflammation and Alzheimer’s Disease
(Jane M. Johnston, and Nikolaos Tezapsidis, Neurotez Inc., Bridgewater, New Jersey, USA)

Chapter 3. Structure and Function of the Cerebellum and Its Significance in the Pathology of the Tauopathies
(Richard A. Armstrong, Department of Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom)

Chapter 4. Spatial Patterns of Neurofibrillary Tangles in the Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus of Alzheimer’s Disease Studied Using Fourier (Spectral) Analysis
(Richard A. Armstrong, Department of Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom)

Chapter 5. Structure and Function of the Basal Ganglia and Their Role in Neurodegenerative Disease
(Richard A. Armstrong, Department of Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom)

Chapter 6. Structure and Function of the Superior Colliculus and Its Role in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
((Richard A. Armstrong, Department of Vision Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom)

Chapter 7. L-Dopa as a Reactive Oxygen Species Inducer and Its Impact on the Substantia Nigra, Pallidal, Striatal, Hippocampal and Motor Cortex Neurons in Intact Rats
(Liliana Castro-Cruz, Veronica Anaya-Martínez, José Luis Ordoñez-Librado, Ana Luisa Gutierrez-Valdez, Javier Sanchez-Betancourt, Enrique Montiel-Flores, Patricia Aley-Medina, Jesus Espinosa-Villanueva, Rocio Tron-Alvarez, Leonardo Reynoso-Erazo, and Maria Rosa Avila-Costa, Neuromorphology Lab, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, UNAM, Av. de los Barrios, Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla, Edo. Mex., Mexico, and others)

Chapter 8. The Number of Flow Experiences in Daily Life Associated with Changes in Oxygenated Hemoglobin Concentration in the Prefrontal Cortex
(Kazuki Hirao, Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Health Science and Social Welfare, Kibi International University, Japan)

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