Horizons in Neuroscience Research. Volume 36

Andres Costa and Eugenio Villalba (Editors)

Series: Horizons in Neuroscience Research
BISAC: MED057000

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The corpus callosum is a flat bundle of commissural fibers, beneath the cerebral cortex in the brain, the mild encephalitis/encephalopathy of which is rare in children. In this latest volume of Horizons in Neuroscience Research, the authors report 23 cases in children and summarize the clinical manifestations, imaging features, prognosis, and possible causes and pathogenesis of these patients.

Continuing, this compilation describes the anatomy of the sphenopalatine ganglion and the pathophysiological role of the ganglion in different neurological disorders. Various approaches, methods and techniques are discussed, along with their advantages and limitations.

Cognitive decline and symptoms of attention deficits, executive dysfunction, and memory impairments are all symptoms of dementia in the elderly. One review focuses on particular frequency oscillations that occur within the affected brain regions which may be used to classify some idiopathic dementias as specific diseases, and could contribute additional information to the clinical data in evaluating age changes.

Next, the authors propose that zebrafish may aid in attaining a comprehensive understanding of neural development, neurological disease, and the future treatment of these disorders. They are cost-effective, have a high fecundity, are amenable to genetic manipulation, and are not as susceptible to embryonic lethality in certain circumstances because of gene duplication. Most importantly, their development is highly conserved and they share a similar number of chromosomes relative to both humans and mice, the latter being the most commonly used model system to study neurodevelopmental disorders.

Another study focuses on cerebral microcirculation and angioarchitectonics disorders in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as compared to other neurodegenerative and ischemic diseases. Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) represent a diverse group of gene regulatory factors that can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in response to various stimuli during brain development and differentiation. The authors discuss the link between ncRNAs, and miRNA in particular, and the regulation of ubiquitine-proteasome pathways and neurodegeneration.

The next chapter aimed to evaluate the effect of implementation intention on naturalistic prospective memory performance in individuals with schizotypal personality features. A total of 48 individuals with schizotypal personality features and 50 participants without schizotypal personality features participated in the study.

Diagnosis of occult otogenic cerebrospinal fluid leakage is challenging and the disease may easily be misdiagnosed. In the closing chapter, the authors propose that if a patient exhibits repeatedly otorrhea or rhinorrhea with a history of head injury, traumatic cerebrospinal fluid leakage should be considered. Additionally, Different surgical techniques should be adopted such as the transmastoid/translabyrhithine approach, or packing the vestibular organs to treat the cerebrospinal fluid leakage based on the source.

Preface

Chapter 1. The Structure, Function, and Analysis of the Pathogenesis and Cases of Mild Encephalopathy with Reversible Isolated Lesions in the Corpus Callosum in Children
(Chao-Yang Li1 Xiao-Wei Jing, Chun-Hua Li and Jie Yang, Department of Neurology, ShanXi Province Children Hospital, Taiyuan, China, and others)

Chapter 2. Sphenopalatine Ganglion Related Disorders: Approach & Management
(Mohammad Z. Khrais, Omar Majali and Mohannad A. Al-Qudah, Department of Special Surgery, Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan)

Chapter 3. Changes of Event-Related Potentials and Frequency Band Responses to Sensory Stimuli Correlated to Age Cognitive Decline
(Juliana Dushanova, PhD, Institute of Neurobiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,
Sofia, Bulgaria)

Chapter 4. Zebrafish: A Comprehensive Model to Understand the Mechanisms Underlying Neurodevelopmental Disorders
(Nayeli G. Reyes-Nava, Jose A. Hernandez, Victoria L. Castro, Joel F. Reyes, Barbara S. Castellanos, and Anita M. Quintana, PhD, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso TX, US)

Chapter 5. Brain Microcirculation Disorders in Alzheimer's Disease Compared to Other Neurodegenerative and Ischemic Diseases
(Ivan V. Maksimovich, MD, PhD, Clinic of Cardiovascular Diseases Named After Most Holy John Tobolsky, Moscow, Russia)

Chapter 6. Non-coding RNAs and the Deregulation of Ubiquitin-Proteasome Network in Neurodegeneration
(Stephan Persengiev, BIOCONSP Biomedical Consulting, The Hague, Netherlands, and others)

Chapter 7. How Implementation Intention Facilitates Naturalistic Prospective Memory Performance in Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Features
(Xing-jie Chen, Lu-lu Liu, Ji-fang Cui, PhD, Ya Wang, PhD, Ming-yuan Gan, Chunqiu Li,
David H. K. Shum, PhD, and Raymond C. K. Chan, PhD, Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China, and others)

Chapter 8. Occult Otogenic CSF Leakage-Traumatic, Inner Ear Dysplasia or Tumor?
(Yi Haijin and Yang Shiming, Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital, School of Clinical Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China, and others)

Index

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