High-Temperature Superconductors: Occurrence, Synthesis and Applications

Muralidhar Miryala (Editor)
Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Shibaura Institute of Technology (SIT), Tokyo, Japan

Michael R. Koblischka (Editor)
Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany

Series: Materials Science and Technologies
BISAC: TEC021000

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Volume 10

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Following the discovery of the oxide superconductors in 1986 by Bednorz and Müller, a number of new superconducting compounds was found exhibiting superconductivity above the liquid nitrogen temperature including rare-earth oxides and bismuth oxides, enabling cheaper cooling methods to be applied. The new class of superconducting materials featuring high critical temperatures (Tc above 77 K) and high second critical magnetic fields gave a new impetus to the research and development in superconductivity. Governments of many countries worldwide have encouraged scientists, engineers and industry to develop high temperature superconducting materials for practical use. Environmentally benign scenarios of high speed transport systems, energy saving by utilizing DC cables, medical equipment (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems), a new class of magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and non-contact rotating machinery are expected.

Nowadays, there is already a variety of high-Tc superconducting products available on the market, like single domain, batch processed bulks with diameters up to 140 mm, hundreds of kilometers of the first generation silver-sheathed Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 wires and tapes, and several kilometers of the second generation Y-123 tapes (‘coated conductors’) for winding coils of superconducting super-magnets or for constructing high-Tc super-cables for high energy transfer.

The authors hope that, especially for young researchers, new upcoming engineers and students of superconductivity theory extension, the collected know-how in technology of superconducting thin films, wires, and bulks, and the new opportunities available for practical applications by the unique features of high-Tc materials will be very useful. The volume is designed to cover the recent achievements in occurrence, synthesis and application of high-Tc superconductors. The volume consists of a total of seventeen chapters, each of them defining in-depth the chapter subject and surveying recent developments in the field.

The main objective of this volume is to summarize the recent advances in material science of high-Tc superconductors, including their properties, processing, and applications. New and challenging issues appear in this book, like superconducting large grain bulk RE-123, flux pinning, nanowire network fabrics and their applications, and a quantitative analysis on the normal-state Nernst coefficient. Furthermore, the book also covers recent developments on a variety of materials and the progress made, especially concerning the magnetic characterization of bulk C-doped MgB2, silver added bulk FeSe, and (BiPb)SrCaCuO systems, respectively.

To show a full picture of the currently ongoing research efforts, the book covers large scale applications of bulk materials, including magnetic bearings, superconducting electric motors and their design layouts, hybrid-type superconducting magnetic bearings for rotating machinery, compact magnetic field generators, refrigerators, and recent developments in the application of superconducting super-magnets in the medical field.

The authors would like to take this opportunity to express their sincere gratitude to all of the chapter contributors for their great endeavor in completing this book in time. They also wish to acknowledge Carra Feagaiga from NOVA Science Publisher for offering invaluable advice at every stage of editing this book. We would also like to extend our thanks to President Prof. M. Murakami-sensei, SIT for his constant support and encouragements.

The team of authors and the editors sincerely hope that the presented ideas and information in this book will be helpful for interested readers, scientists, young researchers, bachelor and master students, and will encourage further development in the field.

Preface

Chapter 1. REBCO Bulk Superconductors Doped with Sm or Al
(D. Volochová, V. Antal, S. Piovarči, V. Kavečanský and P. Diko, Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, Slovak Republic)

Chapter 2. Optimization of Flux Pinning and Growth Temperature for the Top-Seeded Infiltration Growth Processing of a Single Grain Bulk (Gd, Dy)BCO
(S. Pavan Kumar Naik, M. Murakami and M. Muralidhar, Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Koto-ku, Tokyo, Japan)

Chapter 3. The Applications of Superconducting Nanowire Network Fabrics
(Michael R. Koblischka, XianLin Zeng and Uwe Hartmann, Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany)

Chapter 4. The Influence of an Initial Trapped Field on the Magnetic Shielding Performance of Bulk High-Temperature Superconducting Tubes
(L. Wéra, J. F. Fagnard, K. Hogan, B. Vanderheyden and P. Vanderbemden, SUPRATECS, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (B28), University of Liège, Belgium)

Chapter 5. Experimental Investigation and Quantitative Analysis of the Normal-State Nernst Coefficient in Doped High-Temperature Superconductors of the YBa2Cu3Oy System
(Vitaliy E. Gasumyants and Olga A. Martynova, Department of Physics of Semiconductors and Nanoelectronics, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg, Russia)

Chapter 6. Magnetic Alignment Techniques for HTSC
(Shigeru Horii and Jun-ichi Shimoyama, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, and others)

Chapter 7. Magnetization of Polycrystalline High-Tc Superconductors
(Denis Gokhfeld, Kirensky Institute of Physics, Federal Research Center KSC SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk, Russia)

Chapter 8. Superconducting and Multiband Effects in FeSe with Ag Addition
(E. Nazarova, N. Balchev, K. Buchkov, K. Nenkov, D. Kovacheva, D. Gajda and G. Fuchs, Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria, and others)

Chapter 9. Magnetic Characterization of Bulk C-added MgB2
(Alex Wiederhold, Michael R. Koblischka, Miryala Muralidhar, Masato Murakami and Uwe Hartmann, Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany, and others)

Chapter 10. Recent Progress in Powder Densification of (BI,PB)-SR-CA-CU-O Materials: Experimental Findings, Finite Element Simulations, and Practical Implications
(Lázaro Pérez-Acosta, Ernesto Govea-Alcaide, PhD, Renato de Figueiredo Jardim, PhD, Izabel Fernanda Machado, PhD, Fernando Rosales-Saíz, Sueli Hatsumi Masunaga, PhD, Jaime Eleicer Pérez-Fernández and Milton S. Torikachvili, Departamento de Física, Universidad de Camagüey, Camagüey, Cuba, and others)

Chapter 11. Fluctuation Induced Excess Conductivity of Bi2Sr2CaYxCu2Oy Superconductors
(A. Sedky, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt)

Chapter 12. Superconducting Motors and Generators
(Jean Lévêque, Kévin Berger and Bruno Douine, Group of Research in Electrical Engineering of Nancy (GREEN), University of Lorraine, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France)

Chapter 13. A Review Article: Compact Magnetic Field Generators Containing HTS Bulk Magnets Cooled by Refrigerators and Their Feasible Applications
(Tetsuo Oka, Jun Ogawa, Satoshi Fukui, Takao Sato, Tomohito Nakano, Kazuya Yokoyama, Takashi Nakamura, Hiroyuki Fujishiro, and Koshichi Noto, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan, and others)

Chapter 14. Hybrid-Type Superconducting Magnetic Bearings for Rotating Machinery
(Jimin Xu, Zhi Li, Xiaoyang Yuan and Cuiping Zhang, Institute of Tribology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China, and others)

Chapter 15. Recent Superconducting Applications in the Medical Field
(Santosh Miryala, Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Toronto, Canada, and others)

Chapter 16. A Superconducting Magnetic Bearing Flywheel System Using a Multi-Surface Levitation Concept
(Selim Sivrioglu and Sinan Basaran, Mechanical Engineering Department, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli, Gebze, Turkey)

Chapter 17. Strong Magnetic Field Generation by Superconducting Bulk Magnets Using Various Types of Refrigerators and Considering an Efficient Magnetization
(Kazuya Yokoyama and Tetsuo Oka, Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Ashikaga, Tochigi, Japan, and others)

Index

The book provides information of the state of art concerning the latest developments in the field of high-Tc Superconductors. The book consists of 19 chapters summarizing the recent advances in materials science of high-Tc superconductors, including their physical properties, novel processing routes, and applications. The special emphasis was placed on recent upcoming superconducting applications, especially their importance for transport, health care, automobile etc. In addition to the primary processing for the large grain bulk RE-123 and the flux pinning properties, several different approaches on a large variety of materials like nanowire network fabrics, bulk C-doped MgB2, silver-added, bulk FeSe, and (BiPb)SrCaCuO systems showed progress towards novel applications. The book also covered the new developments concerning the large scale applications of bulk materials, including magnetic bearings, superconducting electric motors and their design layouts, hybrid-type superconducting magnetic bearings for rotating machinery, compact magnetic field generators, refrigerators, and recent developments in the application of superconducting super-magnets in the medical field etc. In this way, the book provides vignettes from a broad range of the most recent developments. So, worldwide updates to the field of superconductivity are focused in single book form, which provides very important information for the superconductivity community - Masato Murakami, President of Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan

Keywords: bulk RE-123, nanowire network fabrics, microscopic defects on critical current density, MgB2, FeSe, magnetic bearing, motors, rotating machinery, compact magnetic field generators, refrigerators

The present book has a wide-span audience including undergraduate students, graduate students and post-graduate students who are studying material science, mechanical engineering, bio-medical engineering, and superconductivity. Furthermore, the book may be an important information source for young researchers and upcoming engineers and those who are working on the development of novel superconducting products for real- life applications.

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