High Power/Energy Lasers in Our Life

Victor V. Apollonov
Head of Department, High Power Lasers, GPI RAS, Moscow, Russia

Series: Lasers and Electro-Optics Research and Technology
BISAC: SCI053000

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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The book High Power/Energy Lasers in Our Life is devoted to the blessed memory of the author’s teacher and colleague, A.M. Prokhorov— Nobel Prize winner and the founder of the General Physics Institute RAS.

The general idea of this book is to discuss high-power, high-frequency, pulse-periodic laser systems, suggested and developed together with A.M. Prokhorov. In the near future, they will find a lot of new and very effective applications in the area of energy transfer systems, ecology, machinery, space engineering, engineering of hard ice in the Arctic, acceleration of charged particles produced by high energy lasers and many others. A laser-plasma generator of charged ions produces a large number of heavy ions in the regime of short periodic pulses, which is of interest for ion accelerators operating in the pulse-periodic regime as well as a topic of high interest. This book has considered in detail a new approach to the problem of a laser jet engine creation, which is based on the resonance merging of shock waves generated by an optical pulsating discharge, produced by such a laser. To obtain an optical pulsating discharge, which is the source of EMI (a wide spectrum of light and sound), we suggested the usage of high-power pulse-periodic laser radiation, which can be generated by a big aperture of carbon dioxide, chemical and mono-module disk type solid-state laser systems with LD pumping. Future developments of disk laser technology as most effective and scalable to the level of hundreds of kW are under consideration in this book as well. A laser-plasma based generator of highly charged ions produces a large number of particles in the regime of short periodic pulses, which is of interest for ion accelerators operating in the pulse-periodic regime as well as a topic of high interest. The source of this type is also promising for effective use in the field of heavy-ion fusion, brittle materials figure cutting, oil films elimination from water surfaces and so on.

This book will be of great interest for many different communities: students, scientists, teachers, and intellectually advanced people. The future of high power, high repetition rate lasers is very bright! (Imprint: Nova)

Introduction

Chapter 1. A Talented Person Is Talented in Everything

Chapter 2. High Power/Energy High Repetition Rate Wide-Aperture Repetitively Pulsed Lasers

Chapter 3. Electrical Discharge Pulse-Periodic Lasers

Chapter 4. High Power/Energy Wide Aperture HF/DF Lasers

Chapter 5. New Approach to Disk Lasers

Chapter 6. High-Power/Energy Mono-Module Disk Laser Technology

Chapter 7. Plans and Reality

Chapter 8. New Applications of High-Repetition-Rate Pulse-Periodic Lasers in the Arctic

Chapter 9. High Power/Energy High Repetition Rate Lasers for Space Cleaning

Chapter 10. Laser Technology and Weapons

Chapter 11. Power of Atmosphere

Chapter 12. To Space by Laser Light

Chapter 13. Long Channel for Energy Transfer in Space

Chapter 14. High Power Optics for High Power/Energy Lasers

Chapter 15. New Material SiC-New Technologies

Chapter 16. High Power/Energy Laser for Water Surface Cleaning

Chapter 17. Lightning Protection System Based on High Power/Energy Lasers

Chapter 18. Multiply Charged ions and Their Effective Applications

Conclusion

About the Author

Index

Chapter 2

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Chapter 4

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[25] V. V. Apollonov et al: Pis’ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., Vol. 5, (1979), pp. 1518. [Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 5, 643 (1979)]
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[27] A. A. Kuchinskii (Kuchinsky), B.V. Lyublin (Ljublin), V.F. Shanskii (Shansky), and V. A. Sheverev: Proc. Sixteenth Intern. Conf. on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, Dusseldorf,, (1983), (ed. by W. Botticker, H. Wenk, and E. Schulz-Gulde), Contributed Papers, Vol. 2, publ. by the Conference Committee, (undated), pp. 200.
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[31] S. I. Andreev, N. M. Belousova, P.N. Dashuk, D.Yu. Zaroslov, E.A. Zobov, N.V. Karlov, G.P. Kuz’min, S.M. Nikiforov, and A.M. Prokhorov: Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow), Vol. 3, (1976), pp. 1721. [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 931 (1976)]
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[39] I. M. Bortnik: Fizicheskie Svoistva i Elektricheskaya Prochnost’ Elegaza, Energoatomizdat, Moscow, 1998. [The Physical Properties and the Electrical Strength of Sulfur Hexa°uoride]
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[44] A. A. Radtsig, M. Smirnov: Spravochnik po Atomnoii Molekulyarnoi Fizike (Handbook of Atomic and Molecular Physics), Atomizdat, Moscow, 1980.
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Chapter 5

[1] Basov N.G., Bogdankevich O.V., Grasiuk A.Z., IEEE J. of, QE-2 (9) (1966).
[2] Apollonov V.V., Barchukov A.I., Prokhorov A.M., JEEE J. of QE-6, 10, (1974), Report of FIAN (1971).
[3] Apollonov V.V., Prokhorov A.M., Guenther A.H., Laser Physics V. 11, N.8 (2001).
[4] Giesen A., Hugel H., Voss A., Wittig K., Brauch U., Opower H., Appl.Physics B58, 365 (1994).
[5] SPIE Events Europe, TRUMPF`s R@D, (2012).
[6] Apollonov V.V., Corkum P.B., Teylor R.S., Appl.Phys.Lett., 35,147 (1979).
[7] Apollonov V.V., Kislov V.I., Kijko V.V., Suzdal`tsev A.G., QE,33 (9) (2003)
[8] SPIE Events Europe, Northrop`s R@D, (2012).
[9] Apollonov V.V., Symposium HPLS@A-2012, Istanbul 10 September (2012).
[10] Apollonov V.V., Kislov V.I., Prokhorov A.M., QE 23(5) (1996).
[11] Grasiuk A.Z., QE 42(12) (2012).
[12] Apollonov V.V, Natural science, 4, 713 (2012).
[13] Apollonov V.V., Natural science, 4, 719 (2012).

Chapter 7

[1] Basov N.G., Bogdankevich O.V., Grasiuk A.Z., IEEE J. of, QE-2 (9), (1966).
[2] Apollonov V.V., Natural science, 4, 713, (2012)
[3] Apollonov V.V., Natural science, 4, 719, (2012)

Chapter 8

[1] A.F. Clark, J.C. Moulder, R.P. Reed (1973). Applied Optics, 12 (6), 1103.
[2] V.V. Apollonov, V.V. Kiyko, V.I. Kislov, A.G. Suzdal’tsev (2003). Quantum Electronics, 33 (9), 753.
[3] V.V. Apollonov (2010). 'Impulsar': New Application for High Power High Repetition Rate Pulse-Periodic Lasers, Laser Pulse Phenomena and Applications, Dr. F. J. Duarte (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-405-4, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/12832. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/laser-pulse-phenomena-and-applications/impulsar-new-application-for-high-power-high-repetition-rate P-P lasers.
[4] V.V. Apollonov (2014). High Power P-P lasers (New York: NOVA Science Publishers Inc.).

Chapter 9

[1] Apollonov V. V., Vagin Yu. S., “Conducting channel creation in a non-conductive media”, Patent № 2009118874, 2009.
[2] Apollonov V. V., Alcock A. J., Baldis H. A.,Opt.Letters,5,333,1980.
[3] Apollonov V.V., Kijko V.V, Kislov V.I., High-frequency pulse-periodic regime of powerful radiation in the wide-aperture lasers, Quantum Electron, 2003. T. 33. Number 9. p. 753-757.
[4] Phipps C., Michaelis M.M. LISK-BROOM: Clearing near-Earth space debris in 4 years using a 20 kW, 530-nm repetitively pulsed laser. Сonf. "Physics of Nuclear Induced Plasmas and Problems of Nuclear Pumped Lasers". September 26-30, 1994. - Arzamas, Russia.
[5] Сampbell I.W. Project ORION: orbital debris removal using ground-based sensors and lasers//NASA Technical Memorandum 108522. 1996.
[6] Phipps C.R., Luke J.R., Funk D.J., Moore D.S., Glownia J., Lippert T. Measurements of Laser Impulse Coupling at 130fs//Proc. SPIE. 2004 V. 5448. P. 1201-1208.
[7] Apollonov V.V. Reports of the Academy of Sciences (DAN), V. 351, Number 3. p. 339-340, 1996.
[8] Apollonov V.V, Kijko V.V, Kislov V.I, Tischenko V.N Pulse-periodic lasers for Lightcraft/Impulsar application, Proc SPIE, V.5777. P.1011-1018,2005.
[9] Apollonov V.V, Grachev, G.N, Gulidov A.I. Interaction of an optical pulsed discharge with a gas: conditions stable generation and merging of shock waves, Quantum electronics.T. 34, Number 10, p. 941, 2004.

Chapter 10

[1] SPIE Events Europe (2012), Nothrop`s R@D, INTERNET.
[2] P.V. Zarubin, QE 32(12), (2002).
[3] Journal of Aerospace and Defense Industry News, Dec.1997.
[4] V.V. Apollonov at. all, QE 33(9), (2003).
[5] V.V. Apollonov, Laser Physics 23, (2013).
[6] V.V. Putin, Message to the Federal Assembly of RF, Dec.12, (2013).
[7] V.V. Apollonov, Natural Science 5(5), (2013).

Chapter 12

[1] V.V. Apollonov, Yu.S. Vagin et al, Patent Russian Federation № 2175159.
[2] V.V. Apollonov, High power lasers for “Lightcraft” applications, Proceedings of ISBEP-6. Santa Fe, (NM), USA, 2009.
[3] V.V. Apollonov, Yu.S.Vagin et al, High-frequency pulse-periodic mode for high-power laser, Proc. of ISBEP-2, Sendai, Japan,2003.
[4] 4. P. Rincon, “Record power for military lasers”, Science reporter, BBC News, 2010.
[5] V.V.Apollonov, “Vpered k Tciolkovskomu”, Moscow, “RT Soft2010.

Chapter 13

[1] V. V. Apollonov, V. R. Sorochenko, Yu. A. Shakir,

Experimental investigation of resonance single wire line of energy transfer” Report of GPI RAS, 2009.
[2] “Teramobile: Site in INTERNET, French (CNRS)-German (DFG) scientific research program funded by ANR: “First mobile terawatt laser in the world for atmospheric studies.”
[3] V.V. Apollonov, “To the space by laser light”, Vestnik of RANS 1, (2008).
[4] V.V. Apollonov, Yu.S. Vagin et al, “Conducting channel creation in a non-conductive media”, Patent № 2009118874, 2009.
[5] V.V. Apollonov, N.V. Pletnev, “Special features of conducting channel formation in atmosphere”, In press.
[6] V.V. Apollonov, N.V. Pletnev, “Formation of extended conducting channels in atmosphere”, QE 42(2), 2012.

Chapter 14

[1] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, A. M. Prokhorov, High power CO2-laser, Report of FIAN,1970.
[2] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, A. M. Prokhorov, Thermal deformation of solid state surface by laser beam, Letters to JETP, т. 15, 1972.
[3] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, A. M. Prokhorov, Optical mirrors loses on scattering measurements, QE, т. 4, № 16, 1973.
[4] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, A. M. Prokhorov, CO2 laser mirrors investigations, Report of FIAN, 1973.
[5] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, A. M. Prokhorov, Thermal deformation of laser mirrors, Second European conf. “Lasers and applications”, Drezden, July, 1973.
[6] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, A. M. Prokhorov, Optical characteristics of laser mirrors, Preprint № 157, FIAN, 1973.
[7] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, A. M. Prokhorov, Thermal deformation of laser mirrors, Radiotechnics and electronics, V. XIX, № 1, 1974.
[8] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, A. M. Prokhorov Thermal action of laser beam on the surface of laser mirror, Preprint № 105, FIAN, 1974.
[9] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, A. M. Prokhorov, Optical destruction of heated laser mirrors in CO2-laser systems, JEEE of QE, №6, 10, 1974, p. 505.
[10] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, A. M. Prokhorov, Thermal action of high power laser on the surface of solids, QE, т. 2, № 2, 1975.
[11] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, A. M. Prokhorov, Anastigmat I, Report of FIAN, 1974.
[12] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, A. M. Prokhorov, Absorption coefficients measurements at =10,6 мкм, Preprint № 52, FIAN, 1975.
[13] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, V. K. Konykhov, A. M. Prokhorov, Figures of merit for mirrors, Letters to JTP, v. 1, p. 11, 1975.
[14] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, A. M. Prokhorov, R Anastigmat II, Report of FIAN, 1975.
[15] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, A. M. Prokhorov, High intensity porous metal mirror, Report of FIAN, 1977.
[16] V. V. Apollonov, A. M. Prokhorov, Vapourtron effect for laser mirrors, Letters to JTP, v. 4, p. 8, 1978.
[17] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, A. M. Prokhorov, Porous structures for high power optics, Letters to JTP, v. 4, p. 19, 1978.
[18] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, V. K. Konykhov, A. M. Prokhorov, Intermetallic coatings for laser mirrors, QE, т. 5, № 2, 1978.
[19] V. V. Apollonov, A. I. Barchukov, V. K. Konykhov, A. M. Prokhorov Beam divider for high power laser beam, Preprint № 136, 1978.
[20] V. V. Apollonov, F. V. Bunkin, S. A. Chetkin, V. Yu. Khomich, Thermodeformation as a method of laser beam energy distribution measurements, Letters to JTP, v. 4, p. 17, 1978.
[21] V. V. Apollonov, P. I. Bystrov, A. G. Goncharov, A. M. Prokhorov Liquid metals as a heat carriers for laser optics. QE, № 3, 1981.
[22] V. V. Apollonov A. M. Prokhorov et al, New heat carriers for high power optics, Letters to JTP, 1981.
[23] V. V. Apollonov, A. M. Prokhorov, A. H. Guenther, Power Optics, Problems, Developments and Opportunities, Laser Physics V. 11, N.8, 2001.
[24] V. V. Apollonov, A. M. Prokhorov, A. H. Guenther, Mirrors maintain shape under intense laser light, Laser Focus World January, p. 101, 2003.
[25] V. V. Apollonov, High power optics and it`s new appearances, Oboronzakaz, March 2012, p.47.
[26] V. V. Apollonov, High power optics, Symposium HPLS@A-2012, Istanbul 10-14 September..

Chapter 15

[1] Apollonov V.V., Barchukov A.I., Karlov N.V., Prokhorov A.M., Shefter E.M. Sov. J. Quantum Electron., 5, 216 (1975).
[2] Apollonov V.V. High-Power Optics (New York: Springer, 2014).
[3] Bochkov N.N., Gordeev V.F., Kolesov V.S., et al. Poverkhnost’, Fizika, Khimiya, Mekhanika, (11) (1983).
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Chapter 16

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[2] V.V. Apollonov, “Ecologically safe High power Lasers”, Proceedings of Lasers-2001 Conference, p.3, 2001.
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[6] V.V. Apollonov, Yu. S. Vagin, V.V. Kijko, V.I. Kislov “High rep. rate P-P lasers”, Patent RF №2175159.

Chapter 17

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[6] V.V. Apollonov, Yu. S. Vagin, V.V. Kijko, V.I. Kislov “High rep. rate P-P lasers”, Patent RF №2175159.
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Chapter 18

[1] V.V. Apollonov, Yu.A. Bykovskii, N.N. Degtyarenko, V.F. Elesin, Yu.P. Kozyrev, S.M. Sil’nov. Production of multiply charged ions by interaction between a powerful laser pulse and a solid. Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz., 11, 377 (1970) [JETP Lett., 11, 252 (1970)].
[2] V.V. Apollonov, Yu.A. Bykovskii, Yu.P. Kozyrev, S.M. Sil’nov, T.N. Filinskii. Possibility of using mass spectrometry for elemental analysis of blood, Report No. 15/17-75, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, 1970.
[3] V.V. Apollonov, Yu.A. Bykovskii, Yu.P. Kozyrev, S.M. Sil’nov, T.N. Filinskii. Possibility of using mass spectrometry in forensic science, Report No. 15/17-73, No. 15/17-74, No. 15/17-76, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, 1970.
[4] V.V. Apollonov, K.Kh. Kazakov, N.V. Pletnyev, V.R. Sorochenko. Current measurements in the plasma produced by train of 10.6 µm sub-nanosecond laser pulses. Proc. SPIE, 3886, 198 (2000).

Audience: Scientists, students, technically educated people, teachers of laser physics and quantum electronics.

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