Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the 3rd Millennium


Massimiliano Berretta, MD, PhD (Editor)
Department of Medical Oncology, CRO Aviano National Cancer Institute IRCCS, Via Franco Gallini, Aviano, Italy

Bruno Cacopardo, MD (Editor)
Division of Infectious Disease, “Garibaldi-Nesima” Hospital, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

Series: Cancer Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatments
BISAC: MED062000

HCC is the most common primary cancer of the liver and according to the WHO report, the fourth commonest cause of death. The estimated incidence of new cases worldwide is about 500,000-1,000,000 per year causing 600,000 deaths globally per year. Although there are large areas of the world where the incidence of HCC is still unknown, several countries in East Asia and some Sub-Saharan African regions are affected by a very high prevalence of HCC (over 20 cases/100,000 population). Areas with a moderately high risk (11-20 cases/100,000 population) include Italy, Spain and Latin America, while France, Germany and the United Kingdom have instead an intermediate risk (5-10 cases/100,000 population). A relatively low prevalence (less than 5 cases/100,000 population) is found in the United States, Canada and Scandinavia. The incidence of HCC has been rising in developed western countries in the last two decades, along with the emergence of the hepatitis C virus infection and due to the rise of immigration rates from HBV-endemic countries.

In addition, even though the incidence of HCC reaches its highest peak among persons over 65 years, an increased incidence among younger individuals has been noted in the last two decades both in USA and Europe. A multidisciplinary approach should be taken when assessing patients with HCC; stage of HCC and liver disease should always be taken into account and the best treatment should be offered. Liver resection and ablative treatments should never be denied to patients, and curative procedures should be performed in hepato-biliary-pancreatic centers. Each HCC patient has to be evaluated singularly, stratifying each time the risk for the procedure so as to determine which treatment is the best treatment. It is also important to analyze all the possibilities that can be offered. This similar approach showed a good efficacy and safety in all “frail” patient categories, such as elderly patients or patients with HCC and HIV infection. Early diagnosis of HCC and retreatment for HCC recurrence have a key role in the survival of patients. Therefore, regular screening programs for HCC should be extended to all patients according to proposed guidelines, together with a greater proclivity for treatment and retreatment options in cases of an HCC diagnosis or recurrence. This may be an important and needed breakthrough for this rising problem.
(Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents



Chapter 1
The Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
(Marilia Rita Pinzone and Bruno Cacopardo, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Catania, Catania, Italy)

Chapter 2
Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
(Marilia Rita Pinzone, Giuseppe Nunnari and Bruno Cacopardo, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Catania, Catania, Italy)

Chapter 3
Hepatocellular Carcinoma Genetic Landscape
(Michele Simbolo, Paola Capelli, Ivana Cataldo and Aldo Scarpa, Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy)

Chapter 4
Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
(M. D’Onofrio, E. Demozzi, R. De Robertis, S. Crosara and R. Pozzi Mucelli, Department of Radiology, G.B. Rossi Hospital –
University of Verona, Italy)

Chapter 5
Screening and Surveillance: Hepatocellular Carcinoma
(Russello Maurizio, Director Division of Hepatology, Centro di Riferimento Regionale per le Malattie del Fegato, ARNAS Garibaldi Hospital, Catania, Italy)

Chapter 6
Primary Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
(Rossella Fontana Del Vecchio, Bruno Cacopardo, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Italy)

Chapter 7
Natural History of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
(Alessandra Mataloni Paggi, Anna Marigliano, Marcello Tavio, Division of Infectious Disease “Ospedali Riuniti delle Marche”, Pescara, Italy)

Chapter 8
Clinico-Pathological and Molecular Findings in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
(Vincenzo Canzonieri, Lara Alessandrini, Laura Caggiari, Tiziana Perin, Massimiliano Berretta, Renato Cannizzaro and Valli De Re, Pathology Unit, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico (CRO), Aviano National Cancer Institute, IRCCS, Aviano (PN) Italy, and others)

Chapter 9
Treatment Approach of HCC
(Andrea Ruzzenente, Alessandro Valdegamberi, Simone Conci and Alfredo Guglielmi, Department of Surgery, Division of General and Hepatobiliary Surgery, Unit of Hepato-Pancreatico-Biliary surgery, University of Verona Medical School, Verona, Italy)

Chapter 10
Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Palliative and Supportive Treatment
(Ottaviano M. Tomassi1 and Daniele Bernardi, Senior Assistant, Medical Oncology Unit, Ospedale Civile, San Donà di Piave (VE), Italy, and others)

Chapter 11
New Entities in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: HIV-Positive and Elderly Patients
(Massimiliano Berretta, Valli De Re, Paolo De Paoli, Vincenzo Canzonieri, Raffaele Di Francia, Fabrizio Di Benedetto and Umberto Tirelli, Medical Oncology A Unit, National Cancer Institute, IRCCS, Aviano (PN), Italy, and others)

Chapter 12
Multidisciplinary Approach for the Management and the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): New Perspectives
(Ferdinando Martellotta, Department of Medical Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, National Cancer Institute of Aviano, Aviano PN, Italy)


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