Hepatic Steatosis: Clinical Risk Factors, Molecular Mechanisms and Treatment Outcomes

Sérgio Henrique Sousa Santos, PhD (Editor)
Laboratory of Health Science, Postgraduate Program in Health Science, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (Unimontes) and Institute of Biological Sciences (ICB), Pharmacology Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Series: Endocrinology Research and Clinical Developments
BISAC: MED114000

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In the last few years, human metabolic disorders have become some of the most prevalent and prejudicial diseases worldwide. Hepatic steatosis, among many health problems, has several risk factors related to the disease prognosis such as obesity, nutritional problems, diabetes, hypertension, hyperuricemia and even sleep apnea. Alcohol abuse also can lead to a severe liver-steatosis state. The progression of hepatic steatosis can lead to complications such as cryptogenic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Drug therapy has instead been focused on the mitigation of risk factors, however, new potential therapeutic perspectives are being discussed.

This book presents the origins, diagnosis and epidemiology of hepatic steatosis with new perceptions. The authors also aim to show the molecular basis and signaling involved in liver disorders, discussing the inflammatory process, lipid metabolism and angiogenesis mechanisms. The role of nutrition in the treatment and development of steatosis was also presented and new advances were highlighted. Recent studies revealed the need for the use of bariatric surgery, functional foods and the modulation of endogenous systems, such as the sirtuins and renin-angiotensin systems, to treat liver disease. In this context, we aimed to introduce, review and discuss one of the most widespread metabolic disorders in the world: hepatic steatosis and its repercussions. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical )

Preface

Unit 1: Genesis, Diagnosis and Treatments

Chapter 1 - Hepatic Steatosis: Origins, Epidemiology and Pharmacological Treatments (pp. 3-20)
Simone Moreira de Macêdo, MSc, Jamille Fernandes Lula, MSc, Lucinéia de Pinho, PhD and Sérgio Henrique Sousa Santos, PhD (Laboratory of Health Science, Postgraduate Program in Health Science, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (Unimontes), Montes Claros, MG, and Institute of Biological Sciences (ICB), Pharmacology Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) – Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil)

Chapter 2 - Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Clinical, Laboratory and Imaging Diagnostic Methods (pp. 23-42)
Antônio Sérgio Barcala Jorge, MD, Gislaine Cândida Batista Jorge, MD and Thaísa Soares Crespo, MD (Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil)

Chapter 3 - Bariatric Surgery as Potential Treatment for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (pp. 43-60)
Shuja Hafeez and Mohamed H. Ahmed (William Brown Medical Centre, County Durham, and Department of Medicine, Milton Keynes Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Eaglestone, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, UK)

Unit 2: Nutrition and Molecular Mechanisms in Liver

Chapter 4 - Lipid Metabolism in Fatty Liver Disease (pp. 63-76)
Luciana Rodrigues Fernandes Meyer, PhD (Institute of Biological Sciences (ICB). Biochemistry Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, (UFMG) – Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil)

Chapter 5 - Liver Steatosis: Inflammation and Oxidative Stress (pp. 77-96)
Lucíola da Silva Barcelos, PhD, Leandro Barbosa do Prado, MSc, Leandro Ceotto Freitas Lima, MSc and Sérgio Henrique Sousa Santos, PhD (Angiogenesis, Institute of Biological Sciences (ICB), Pharmacology Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) – Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil)

Chapter 6 - Immunological Features of Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Steatosis (pp. 97-110)
Marileia Chaves Andrade, PhD and Sergio Avelino Mota Nobre, PhD (Centro de Ciência Biológicas e da Saúde, Departamento de Fisiopatologia, and Departamento de Biologia Geral, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde - Montes Claros-MG, Brasil)

Chapter 7 - The Role of Angiogenesis in Liver: The Parallel between Health and Disease (pp. 111-140)
Carlos Alberto de Carvalho Fraga, PhD, Talita Antunes Guimarães, MSc, Lucyana Conceição Farias, PhD and André Luiz Sena Guimarães, PhD (Laboratory of Health Science, Postgraduate Program in Health Science, and Department of Dentistry, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (Unimontes), Montes Claros, MG, Brazil)

Chapter 8 - Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - Looking Deeper into Diet Composition (pp. 141-170)
Adaliene Ferreira, PhD, Marina Oliveira, MSc and Tatiani Maioli (Departamento de Nutrição, Escola de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil)

Chapter 9 - Diets for Preventing Hepatic Steatosis (pp. 171-208)
Anthony Fardet, PhD (INRA, UMR 1019, UNH, CRNH Auvergne, F-63000 CLERMONT-FERRAND & Clermont Université, Université d'Auvergne, Unité de Nutrition Humaine, BP 10448, F-63000 CLERMONT-FERRAND, France)

Unit 3: New Insights and Treatment Perspectives

Chapter 10 - Liver Steatosis and the Renin Angiotensin System: New Advances and Perspectives (pp. 211-230)
João Marcus Oliveira Andrade, MSc, Alanna Fernandes Paraíso, MSc, Marcus Vinícius Macedo De Oliveira, PhD and Sérgio Henrique Sousa Santos, PhD (Laboratory of Health Science, Postgraduate Program in Health Science, and Institute of Biological Sciences (ICB), Pharmacology Department, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (Unimontes), Minas Gerais, Brazil)

Chapter 11 - Resveratrol, Sirtuins and Hepatic Steatosis (pp. 231-254)
Jamille Fernandes Lula, Keila Lopes Mendes, John David Felteberger and Sérgio Henrique Sousa Santos, PhD (Laboratory of Health Science, Postgraduate Program in Health Science, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (Unimontes), Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil and others)

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