Handbook of Social Interactions in the 21st Century


Anne T. Heatherton (Editor)
Vivian A. Walcott (Editor)

Social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions according to those of their interaction partner(s). In other words, they are events in which people attach meaning to a situation, interpret what others are meaning, and respond accordingly. Social interactions can be differentiated into: Accidental (also known as social contact) – not planned and likely not repeated. For example, asking a stranger for directions or shopkeeper for product availability. Repeated – not planned, bound to happen from time to time. For example, accidentally meeting a neighbor when walking on your street; Regular – not planned, but very common, likely to raise questions when missed. Meeting a doorman or a security guard every workday in your workplace, dining every day in the same restaurant, etc. Regulated – planned and regulated by customs or law, will definitely raise questions when missed. Interaction in a workplace (coming to work, staff meetings, playing a game, etc.), family, etc. In sociological hierarchy, social interaction is more advanced than behavior, action, social behavior, social action and social contact, and is in turn followed by more advanced concept of social relation. In other words, social interactions, which consist of social actions, form the basis for social relations. This new handbook presents the latest international research in the field.

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Research and Review Studies

Immunity, Health and Sociality: Immune-related Changes in Social Interactions;pp. 1-20
(Arnaud Aubert, DESCO, Parc de Grandmont, Tours, France)

Culture, Social Interactions, and Natural Resources: Some Reflections on Culture as Social Capital and Julian Simon’s Ultimate Resource in Lithuania and Sweden;pp. 21-49
(Thomas Marmefelt, University of Södertörn, Department of Social Sciences, Huddinge, Sweden)

Social Behaviour Networks;pp. 51-81
(Ping Jiang, Dep. of Computing, The Univ. of Bradford, Bradford, United Kingdom, Mingwei Yuan and Jin Zhu, Dep. of Information and Control, Tongji Univ., Shanghai, China)

Advantages and Pitfalls of Social Interactions in the Digital Age: Practical Recommendations for Improving Virtual Group Functioning;pp. 83-96
(Nicolas Michinov, Univ. de Poitiers, Poiters, France and Estelle Michinov, Univ. Francois Rebalais de Tours, Dep. de Psychologie, Tours Cedex, France)

Temperament, Shyness, and Anxiety Disorders: Looking for Links Across the Lifespan;pp. 97-110
(Diane Carbone, Vladimir Miskovic, (McMaster Inst. for Neuroscience, Discovery, and Study (MiNDS), McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, and Louis A. Schmidt, McMaster Inst. for Neuroscience, Discovery, and Study (MiNDS), McMaster Univ., Dep. of Psychology, Neuroscience, and Behaviour, McMaster Univ. , Hamilton, Ontario, Canada)

The Suggestive Impact of Cognitive Illusions On Interactive Information Exchange Processes on Terrorism;pp. 111-123
(Gunter Molz, Jan Christopher Cwik, and Mario Iskenius, Bergische Univ. of Wuppertal, Germany)

Achieving Greater Theoretical Sophistication in Research on Socially Supportive Interactions and Health;pp. 125-135
(Brian M. Hughes, School of Psychology, National Univ. of Ireland and Ann-Marie Creaven, National Univ. of Ireland, Galway, Ireland)

Shoaling Behavior in Fish;pp. 137-158
(Carrie Blakeslee and Scott P. McRobert, Dep. of Biology, Saint Joseph’s Univ., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States)

Social Context and Within Pair Behavior may Modulate Hormonal Stress Response in Great Tits (Parus Major);pp. 159-178
(Mareike Stowe, Univ. of Veterinary medicine, Dep. for Biomedical Sciences, Vienna, Austria, Netherlands Instit. of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Dep. of Animal Population Biology, Heteren, The Netherlands, Piet Drent, Netherlands Instit. of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Dep. of Animal Population Biology, Heteren, The Netherlands, and Erich Mostl, Univ. of Veterinary medicine, Dep. for Biomedical Sciences, Vienna, Austria)

Integarting Personality and Social Learning in the Study of Social Interactions among Nonhuman Animals: A Promising Approach;pp. 179-191
(Filipa Heitor, Ines Orfao, and Luis Vicente, Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Univ. de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal)

Developing the Social Skills of Students with Disabilities Through Peer Tutoring: Implications for Inclusion;pp. 193-215
(Efrosini Kalyva, City Liberal Studies, Thessaloniki, Greece and Ioannis Agaliotis, Univ. of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece)

Comparing Social Interactions of English Language Learners and Native English Speakers;pp. 217-230
(Yaoying Xu, Virginia Commonwealth Univ. USA)

An Assessment of an Instrument with which to Conduct Internal Audits;pp. 231-263
(Mohd Ariff Bin Kasim, Siti Rosmaini Bt Mohd Hanafi, Univ. Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Asmah Abdul Aziz, Univ. Teknologi, Dep. of Accountancy, and Dawson R. Hancock, Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA)

Interaction Patterns of Socitrophic and Autonomous Individuals;pp. 265-289
(Toru Sato, Karee Feight, Justin Goshorn, April Materek, et al. Dep. of Psychology, Shippensburg, Univ., Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, US, et al.)

Children’s Understanding of Social Acts and Social Interactions;pp. 291-309
(Bradford H. Pillow and RaeAnne Pearso, Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, Illinois, USA)

The Influence of Social Dominance Orientation on State Concepts and Attitudes Towards Immigrant Inclusion: A Study on Italian Society;pp. 311-322
(Silvia Gattino, Anna Miglietta, and Stefano Tartaglia, Dep. of Psychology, Univ. of Turin, Italy)

Social Interaction Effects on Interleague Play Attendance: The Case of Japan Professional Baseball League;pp. 323-338
(Eiji Yamamura, Dept. of Economics, Seinan Gakum University, Fukuoka,Japan)

Is She Hot or Not? The Impact of Gender and Alcohol on Social Attractiveness and Promiscuity;pp. 339-348
Richard J. Harnish, The Pennsylvania State Univ., New Kensington, PA, USA and Antonia Abbey, Wayne State Univ., Detroit,MI,USA)

Short Communication

Social Capital and Ethics: Their Influence on Economic Performance;pp. 349-361
(Maria-Soledad Castano Martinez, Univ. of Castilla-La-Mancha, Albacete, Spain)

Expert Commentary

Social Interaction Deficits in Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders and Pharmacologic Intervention;pp. 363-370
(Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Tadasu Matsuoka, Kodai Tanaka, Dep. Neuropsychiatry, Univ. of Toyama Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toyama, Japan, and Vera Bubenikova-Valesova, Prague Psychiatric Center, Prague, Czech Republic)


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