Handbook of Research for Biomechanics and Anthropometry in Sport Science

Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Ph.D.
Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

Soheila Yavarmasroor
Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

Kaveh Hariri Asli, Ph.D.
National Academy of Science of Azerbaijan “AMEA”, Rasht, Iran

Series: Sports and Athletics Preparation, Performance, and Psychology
BISAC: SPO033000

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This book provides new methods to novel applications of existing methods to gain understanding of the material and/or structural behavior of new and advanced systems. The authors provide innovative chapters on the growth of educational, scientific, and research activities among athletes and provides a medium for mutual communication between international sports academia. This book publishes significant research reporting new methodologies and important applications in the fields of anthropometric measuring and software. Software and anthropometric-based research findings to date contribute to the scholarly debates over mortality trends, the nature of slavery, and the outcomes of industrialization and economic development. On the other hand, these ideas were included in the proper analysis to provide a dynamic response to the shortcomings of body motion. This book also describes advanced technology and high speed detectors/equipment to determine the operational procedures to avoid hazards on human health, economics and human biology. Consequently, the results within this book will help to reduce the risk of sport injuries. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Introduction

List of Abbreviations

List of Symbols

Chapter 1. Sport and Engineering: From Theory to Practice
Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Soheila Yavarmasroor and Kaveh Hariri Asli (Physical Education Department, Humanities Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, and others)

Chapter 2. Biomechanics and Anthropometric Modeling
Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Soheila Yavarmasroor and Kaveh Hariri Asli (Physical Education Department, Humanities Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, and others)

Chapter 3. Computational Modeling for Human Health
Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Soheila Yavarmasroor and Kaveh Hariri Asli (Physical Education Department, Humanities Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, and others)

Chapter 4. Sportswomen Activities: Some Computational Aspects and Practical Hints
Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Soheila Yavarmasroor and Kaveh Hariri Asli (Physical Education Department, Humanities Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, and others)

Chapter 5. A Computational Approach to Study Sportswomen Movement: From Theory to Practice
Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Soheila Yavarmasroor and Kaveh Hariri Asli (Physical Education Department, Humanities Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, and others)

Chapter 6. Regression Analysis of Biomechanical Techniques
Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Soheila Yavarmasroor and Kaveh Hariri Asli (Physical Education Department, Humanities Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, and others)

Chapter 7. Some Aspect of Mathematical function for Sport
Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Soheila Yavarmasroor and Kaveh Hariri Asli (Physical Education Department, Humanities Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, and others)

Chapter 8. Sportswomen and Talent Characteristics Study
Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Soheila Yavarmasroor and Kaveh Hariri Asli (Physical Education Department, Humanities Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, and others)

Chapter 9. Regression Method in Engineering and Sport
Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Soheila Yavarmasroor and Kaveh Hariri Asli (Physical Education Department, Humanities Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, and others)

Chapter 10. Computational Modeling for Sportswomen Talent: From Theory to Practice
Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Soheila Yavarmasroor and Kaveh Hariri Asli (Physical Education Department, Humanities Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, and others)

Chapter 11. Physical Modeling of Human Body Motion
Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Soheila Yavarmasroor and Kaveh Hariri Asli (Physical Education Department, Humanities Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, and others)

Chapter 12. Application of Biomechanical Techniques for Reduction of Sports Injuries
Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Soheila Yavarmasroor and Kaveh Hariri Asli (Physical Education Department, Humanities Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, and others)

Chapter 13. Practical Hints of Physical Activity Analysis
Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Soheila Yavarmasroor and Kaveh Hariri Asli (Physical Education Department, Humanities Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, and others)

Chapter 14. Risk Reduction Modeling for Body Fat Hazard
Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Soheila Yavarmasroor and Kaveh Hariri Asli (Physical Education Department, Humanities Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, and others)

Chapter 15. Human Health and Body Weight
Zahra Hojjati Zidashti, Soheila Yavarmasroor and Kaveh Hariri Asli (Physical Education Department, Humanities Faculty, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, and others)

About the Authors

Index

Chapter 1

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Chapter 2

[1] Hurst Thomas, D. (2001). Skull Wars Kennewick Man, Archaeology and the Battle for Native American Identity, Washington University: School of Law - Anheuser-Busch Hall, pp. 38 – 41.
[2] Nabieh, A. and Mohamed, I. (2010). Anthropometric Measurements as a Significant for Choosing Juniors in Both Volleyball and Handball Sports (Factorial Analysis Study), World Journal of Sport Sciences 3 (4): 277-289.
[3] Rogana, S., Hilfikerd, R., Clarysb, P., Clijsenc, R. and Taeymansac, J. (2011). Position-specific and Team-ranking-related Morphological Characteristics in German Amateur Soccer Players - a Descriptive Study, International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 1, 168-182.
[4] Luigi P. W., and Bercades, T.(2009).somatotypes of national elite combative sport athletes, Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 1, p. 21-30.
[5] Dacres-Mannings, S., Rochester, S. and Frail, H. (2010).Anthropometric profiles of Australian Rugby Institute, club and state level Rugby Union players.
[6] Gaurav, V., Singh, M. and Singh, S. (2010).Anthropometric characteristics, somatotyping and body composition of volleyball and basketball players, Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management Vol. 1(3), pp. 28-32, Available online http://www.acadjourn.org/jpesm.
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Chapter 3

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[33] Rogana, S., Hilfikerd, R., Clarysb, P., Clijsenc, R. and Taeymansac, J. (2011).Position-specific and Team-ranking-related Morphological Characteristics in German Amateur Soccer Players - a Descriptive Study, International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 1, 168-182.
[34] Luigi P.W., and Bercades, T.(2009).somatotypes of national elite combative sport athletes, Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 1, p. 21-30.
[35] Dacres-Mannings, S., Rochester, S.and Frail, H.(2010).Anthropometric profiles of Australian Rugby Institute, club and state level Rugby Union players.
[36] Gaurav, V., Singh, M. and Singh, S. (2010).Anthropometric characteristics, somatotyping and body composition of volleyball and basketball players, Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management Vol. 1(3), pp. 28-32, Available online http://www .acadjourn.org/jpesm.
[37] Beat K. and Kohler, G. (2007).Influence of anthropometry on race performance in ultra-endurance triathletes in the longest triathlon in North America, International SportMed. Journal, Vo.8 No.2, pp.87-96, http://www.ismj.com.
[38] Joseph, J.,Greene, M.S., Timothy, A.,McGuine, A.T.C., Leverson, G., and Thomas M. (1998).Anthropometric and Performance Measures for High School Basketball Players, Journal of Athletic Training, 33(3):229-232.
[39] Amatya, D. L. (1999). Comparative Study of Somatotype of Nepalese Sportsmen,National Association for Sports Health and Fitness.
[40] Sang Hong, K. (2008).Kinanthropometric Study of Korean and Nepalese Marathon Runners, keimyung university Diwakar Lal Amatya,MSC-Athletics and Sports Science-India, Sports Kinanthropometrist-Australia, Sports Expert-National Sports Council, January.
[41] Gaunt, B. W. (2001). Anthropometric and Demographic Factors Affecting Distance Hopped-aid Limb Symmetry Index for the Crossover Hop-for distance test in High School athletes, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy,31(3):145-151.
[42] Gross, M., Dailey, E. S., Melissa, D., Dalton, A., lee, K., Wendy, I. and Ashley, C. (2000).Relationship Between Lifting Capacity and Anthropometric Measures, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 30(5) :237-247, 258-262.
[43] Roberto, C., José, A., Pérez, J., Cortell, M.Juan, J. and Rivas, J. (2008). correlations among anthropometric parameters, jump power, and position in professional basketball players.
[44] Pui, W. K. and Hendrik H. (2008).Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners, ©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine,

7, 499-504, http://www.jssm.org.
[45] Jawis, M. N., Singh, R., Singh, H. J. and Yassin, M. N. (2005).Anthropometric and physiological profiles of sepak takraw players, Br. J. Sports Med., 39:825–829. doi: 10.1136/bjsm. 2004.016915.
[46] Lephart, S. M.,Abt, J. P., Ferris, C. M., Sell, T. C., Nagai, T., Myers, J. B. and Irrgang, J. (2005).Neuromuscular and biomechanical characteristic changes in high school athletes: a plyometric versus basic resistance program, Br. J. Sports Med., 2005;39:932–938. doi: 17.1136/bjsm.2005.019083.
[47] Darr, K.C., Bassett, D.R., Morgan, B.J. and Thomas, D.P. (1988). Effects of age and training status on heart rate recovery after peak exercise. American Journal of Physiology, 254

, H340-H343.
[48] Engerman, S. (1976), ‘The Height of U.S. Slaves’, Local Population Studies, Vol. 16, no.1, 45-50.
[49] Sunder, M. (2004) The Making of Giants in a Welfare State: The Norwegian Experience in the Twentieth Century’, Economics and Biology, 75-86.
[50] Woitek, U. (2003) Height Cycles in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’, Economics and Human Biology, 243-258.
[51] Fogel, R. (1994). ‘Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the making of Economic Policy’, American Economic Review, 369-394.
[52] Goonetilleke, R. S., Ho, Cheuk Fan E. and So, R. H. Y. (1997). Foot Anthropometry in Hong Kong. (pp. 81-88) Proceedings of the ASEAN 97 Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
[53] Baten, J. (2000). "Economic Development and the Distribution of Nutritional Resources in Bavaria, 1797-1839, in Journal of Income Distribution, 9, 89-106.
[54] Hariri Asli K. (2012). Water Hammer Research; Advances in Nonlinear Dynamics Modeling, (pp. 88 – 121). Canada, USA:Published by Apple Academic Press, Inc., Exclusive worldwide distribution by CRC Press, a Taylor and Francis Group, Print ISBN: 9781926895314,eBook: 978-1-46-656887-7.
[55] Hariri Asli, K., Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K. (2010). "Some Aspects of Physical and Numerical Modeling of Water Hammer in Pipelines", Nonlinear DynamicsAn International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Engineering Systems, ISSN: 1573-269X (electronic version) Journal no. 11071 Springer, Netherlands, 2009, ISSN: 0924-090X (print version), Heidelberg, Germany, Springer, Volume 60, Number 4 / June, 677-701.
[56] Heather, E. (2002). Collins-Schramm and others, "Markers that Discriminate Between European and African Ancestry Show Limited Variation Within Africa", Human Genetics, 111, 566-9.
[57] Komlos, J. and Baur, M. (2004) “From the Tallest to One of the Fattest: The Enigmatic Fate of the Size of the American Population in the Twentieth Century,” Economics and Human Biology, 2, no. 1, 57-74.
[58] Komlos, J. and Kriwy, P. (2003) “The Biological Standard of Living in the Two Germanies,” German Economic Review, 4, 493-507.
[59] Levy, W.C., Cerqueira, M.D., Harp, G.D., Johannessen, K.A., Abrass, I.B., Schwartz, R.S. and Stratton, J.R. (1998) Effect of endurance exercise training on heart rate variability at rest in healthy young and older men. The American Journal of cardiology,82

, 1236-1241.
[60] Margo, R. (1982), The Heights of American Slaves. Social Science History, Vol. 6, 516-538.
[61] Rahmani-Nia, F.andHojjati, Z.(2004) Effect of selected training on body composition and aerobic power of Females College. Journal of Harkat, Iran, V1, 18-21.
[62] Rahmani-Nia, F., Rahnama, N.,Hojjati, Z. and Soltani, B. (2008). Acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on serum leptin and some risk factors of coronary heart disease in obese females. Sport sciences for health,V 2, No.3, 118-124.
[63] Rahmani-Nia, F.,Hojjati, Z., Rahnama, N. and Soltani, B. (2009). Leptin, heart disease and exercise. World Journal of Sport Sciences, Iran,V 2, No. 1, 13-20.
[64] Rushton, J. P. (2004). Race, Brain Size, and Intelligence: A Rejoinder to Cain and Vanderwolf, Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 785-794.
[65] Hariri Asli, K., Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K.(2010).A computational approach to study fluid movement,Nanomaterials Yearbook - 2009, From Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies to Nanoindustry, (pp.181-196). USA: Nova Science Publications. ISBN:978-1-60876-451-8. 16.
[66] Young, J. W. (2008). Anthropometric and Mass Distribution Characteristics of the Adult Female FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute FAA 9-83.
[67] Bartlett,R. (2007). Introduction to Sports Biomechanics, 2nd Edition. Taylor &Francise- Library.
[68] Hariri Asli, K. and Haghi, A.K. (2010).A Numerical Study on Fluid Flow and Pressure drop in Microtubes, Journal of the Balkan Tribological Association, Tribotechnics and tribomechanics, Sofia, Bulgaria, Vol. 16, No 3, 382-392.
[69] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z. (2005). The effect of exercise training on body composition and aerobic power in sedentary college age females, International Journal of Fitness, India, V1, 24-31.
[70] Fenkci S., Sarsan A., Rota S., and Ardic F. (2006). Effects of resistance or aerobic exercises on metabolic parameters in obese women who are not on a diet. Advanced Therapeutic, 23: 404- 413.

Chapter 4

[1] Hurst Thomas, D. (2001). Skull Wars Kennewick Man, Archaeology and the Battle for Native American Identity, Washington University: School of Law - Anheuser-Busch Hall, pp. 38 – 41.
[2] Nabieh, A. and Mohamed, I. (2010). Anthropometric Measurements as a Significant for Choosing Juniors in Both Volleyball and Handball Sports (Factorial Analysis Study), World Journal of Sport Sciences 3 (4): 277-289.
[3] Rogana, S., Hilfikerd, R., Clarysb, P., Clijsenc, R. and Taeymansac, J. (2011). Position-specific and Team-ranking-related Morphological Characteristics in German Amateur Soccer Players - a Descriptive Study, International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 1, 168-182.
[4] Luigi P.W., and Bercades, T. (2009). Somatotypes of national elite combative sport athletes, Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 1, p. 21-30.
[5] Dacres-Mannings, S., Rochester, S. and Frail, H. (2010). Anthropometric profiles of Australian Rugby Institute, club and state level Rugby Union players.
[6] Gaurav, V., Singh, M. and Singh, S. (2010). Anthropometric characteristics, somatotyping and body composition of volleyball and basketball players, Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management Vol. 1(3), pp. 28-32, Available online http://www. acadjourn.org/jpesm.
[7] Beat K. and Kohler, G. (2007). Influence of anthropometry on race performance in ultra-endurance triathletes in the longest triathlon in North America, International Sport Med Journal, Vo.8 No.2, pp.87-96, http://www.ismj.com.
[8] Joseph, J., Greene, M.S., Timothy, A., McGuine, A.T.C., Leverson, G., and Thomas M. (1998). Anthropometric and Performance Measures for High School Basketball Players, Journal of Athletic Training, 33(3):229-232.
[9] Amatya, D. L. (1999). Comparative Study of Somatotype of Nepalese Sportsmen, National Association for Sports Health and Fitness.
[10] Sang Hong, K. (2008). Kinanthropometric Study of Korean and Nepalese Marathon Runners, keimyung university Diwakar Lal Amatya, MSC-Athletics and Sports Science-India, Sports Kinanthropometrist-Australia, Sports Expert-National Sports Council, January.
[11] Gaunt, B. W. (2001). Anthropometric and Demographic Factors Affecting Distance Hopped-aid Limb Symmetry Index for the Crossover Hop-for distance test in High School athletes, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 31(3):145-151.
[12] Gross, M., Dailey, E. S., Melissa, D., Dalton, A., lee, K., Wendy, I. and Ashley, C. (2000). Relationship Between Lifting Capacity and Anthropometric Measures, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 30(5):237-247, 258-262.
[13] Roberto, C, Jose, a., Perez, J., Cortell, m. Juan, J. and Rivas, J. (2008). Correlations among anthropometric parameters, jump power, and position in professional basketball players.
[14] Pui, W. K. and Hendrik H. (2008). Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners, ©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 7, 499-504, http://www.jssm.org.
[15] Jawis, M. N., Singh, R., Singh, H. J. and Yassin, M. N. (2005). Anthropometric and physiological profiles of sepak takraw players, B.r. J. Sports Med;39:825–829. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2004.016915.
[16] Lephart, S. M., Abt, J. P., Ferris, C. M., Sell, T. C., Nagai, T., Myers, J. B. and Irrgang, J. (2005). Neuromuscular and biomechanical characteristic changes in high school athletes: a plyometric versus basic resistance program, Br J Sports Med 2005;39:932–938. doi: 17.1136/bjsm.2005.019083.
[17] Darr, K.C., Bassett, D.R., Morgan, B.J. and Thomas, D.P. (1988). Effects of age and training status on heart rate recovery after peak exercise. American Journal of Physiology 254, H340-H343.
[18] Engerman, S. (1976). ‘The Height of U.S. Slaves’, Local Population Studies, Vol. 16, no.1, 45-50.
[19] Sunder, M. (2004). The Making of Giants in a Welfare State: The Norwegian Experience in the Twentieth Century’, Economics and Biology, 75-86.
[20] Woitek, U. (2003) Height Cycles in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’, Economics and Human Biology, 243-258.
[21] Fogel, R. (1994). ‘Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the making of Economic Policy’, American Economic Review, 369-394.
[22] Goonetilleke, R. S., Ho, Cheuk Fan E. and So, R. H. Y. (1997). Foot Anthropometry in Hong Kong. (pp. 81-88) Proceedings of the ASEAN 97 Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
[23] Baten, J. (2000). Economic Development and the Distribution of Nutritional Resources in Bavaria, 1797-1839, in Journal of Income Distribution 9, 89-106.
[24] Hariri Asli K. (2012). Water Hammer Research; Advances in Nonlinear Dynamics Modeling, (pp. 88 – 121). Canada, USA: Published by Apple Academic Press, Inc., Exclusive worldwide distribution by CRC Press, a Taylor and Francis Group, Print ISBN: 9781926895314, eBook: 978-1-46-656887-7.
[25] Hariri Asli, K., Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K. (2010). “Some Aspects of Physical and Numerical Modeling of Water Hammer in Pipelines”, Nonlinear Dynamics An International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Engineering Systems, ISSN: 1573-269X (electronic version) Journal no. 11071 Springer, Netherlands, 2009, ISSN: 0924-090X (print version), Heidelberg, Germany, Springer, Volume 60, Number 4/June, 677-701.
[26] Heather, E. (2002). Collins-Schramm and others, Markers that Discriminate Between European and African Ancestry Show Limited Variation Within Africa, Human Genetics 111, 566-9.
[27] Komlos, J. and Baur, M. (2004) “From the Tallest to One of the Fattest: The Enigmatic Fate of the Size of the American Population in the Twentieth Century,” Economics and Human Biology 2, no. 1, 57-74.
[28] Komlos, J. and Kriwy, P. (2003) “The Biological Standard of Living in the Two Germanies,” German Economic Review 4, 493-507.
[29] Levy, W.C., Cerqueira, M.D., Harp, G.D., Johannessen, K.A., Abrass, I.B., Schwartz, R.S. and Stratton, J.R. (1998) Effect of endurance exercise training on heart rate variability at rest in healthy young and older men. The American Journal of cardiology, 82, 1236-1241.
[30] Margo, R. (1982), The Heights of American Slaves. Social Science History, Vol. 6, 516-538.
[31] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z. (2005). The effect of exercise training on body composition and aerobic power in sedentary college age females, International Journal of Fitness, India, V1, 24-31.
[32] Rahmani-Nia, F., Rahnama, N., Hojjati, Z. and Soltani, B. (2008). Acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on serum leptin and some risk factors of coronary heart disease in obese females. Sport sciences for health, V 2, No.3, 118-124.
[33] Rahmani-Nia, F., Hojjati, Z., Rahnama, N. and Soltani, B. (2009). Leptin, heart disease and exercise. World Journal of Sport Sciences, Iran,V 2, No. 1, 13-20.
[34] Rushton, J. P. (2004). Race, Brain Size, and Intelligence: A Rejoinder to Cain and Vanderwolf, Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 785-794.
[35] Hariri Asli, K., Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K. (2010). A computational approach to study fluid movement, Nanomaterials Yearbook - 2009, From Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies to Nanoindustry, (pp.181-196). USA: Nova Science Publications. ISBN: 978-1-60876-451-8. 16.
[36] Young, J. W. (2008). Anthropometric and Mass Distribution Characteristics of the Adult Female FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute FAA 9-83.
[37] Bartlett, R. (2007). Introduction to Sports Biomechanics, 2nd Edition. Taylor & Francise- Library.
[38] Hariri Asli, K. and Haghi, A.K. (2010). A Numerical Study on Fluid Flow and Pressure drop in Microtubes, Journal of the Balkan Tribological Association, Tribotechnics and tribomechanics, Sofia, Bulgaria, Vol. 16, No 3, 382-392.
[39] Schulze, P. C. Kratzsch, J. Linke, A. Schoene, N. Adams, V. and Gielen, S. (2003). Elevated serum levels of leptin and leptin and leptin receptor in patients with advanced chronic heart failure. European Journal of Heart Failure 5: 33-40.
[40] Unal, M. Unal, D. D. O. Baltaci, A. K. and Mgulkoc, R. (2005). Investigation of serum leptin levels and Vo2max value in trained young male athletes and healthy males. Acta Physiology Hungary 92: 173-179.
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[42] Reseland JE, Andessen SA, Solvoll K, Hjermann I, Urdal P, Holme I, and Drevon CA. (2001). Effect of long-term change in diet and exercise on plasma leptin concentration. Clinical Nutrition 73: 240-245.
[43] Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks JS. (2003). Prevalence of obesity, diabetes and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA 289: 76-79.
[44] Mendosa-Nunez VM, Garcia-Sanchez A, Sanchez-Rodriguez M, Galvan-Duart RE, and Fonseca-Yerena EF. (2002).Overweight, waist circumference, age, gender, and insulin resistance as risk factors for Hyperleptinemia. Obesity Research 10:253-259.
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Chapter 5

[1] Lembo G., Vecchione C., Fratta L., Marino G., Trimarco V., d’Amati G., and Trimarco B. (2000). Leptin induces direct vasodilation through distinct endothelial mechanisms. Diabetes, 49: 293–297.
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Chapter 6

[1] Schulze, P. C. Kratzsch, J. Linke, A. Schoene, N. Adams, V. and Gielen, S. (2003). Elevated serum levels of leptin and leptin and leptin receptor in patients with advanced chronic heart failure. European Journal of Heart Failure 5: 33-40.
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[3] Konstantinides S, Schafer K, Koschnick S, and Loskutoff DJ (2001) Leptin-dependent Platelet aggregation and arterial thrombosis suggests a mechanism for atherothrombitic disease in obesity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation; 108: 1533-1540.
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7, 499-504, http://www.jssm.org.
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[25] Hariri Asli, K., Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K. (2010). “Some Aspects of Physical and Numerical Modeling of Water Hammer in Pipelines,” Nonlinear Dynamics An International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Engineering Systems, ISSN: 1573-269X (electronic version) Journal no. 11071 Springer, Netherlands, 2009, ISSN: 0924-090X (print version), Heidelberg, Germany, Springer, Volume 60, Number 4 / June, 677-701.
[26] Heather, E. (2002). Collins-Schramm and others, “Markers that Discriminate Between European and African Ancestry Show Limited Variation Within Africa,” Human Genetics111, 566-9;
[27] Komlos, J. and Baur, M. (2004) “From the Tallest to One of the Fattest: The Enigmatic Fate of the Size of the American Population in the Twentieth Century,” Economics and Human Biology 2, no. 1, 57-74.
[28] Komlos, J. and Kriwy, P. (2003) “The Biological Standard of Living in the Two Germanies,” German Economic Review 4, 493-507.
[29] Levy, W.C., Cerqueira, M.D., Harp, G.D., Johannessen, K.A., Abrass, I.B., Schwartz, R.S. and Stratton, J.R. (1998) Effect of endurance exercise training on heart rate variability at rest in healthy young and older men. The American Journal of cardiology,82

, 1236-1241.
[30] Margo, R. (1982), The Heights of American Slaves. Social Science History, Vol. 6, 516-538.
[31] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z. (2005). The effect of exercise training on body composition and aerobic power in sedentary college age females, International Journal of Fitness, India, V1, 24-31.
[32] Rahmani-Nia, F., Rahnama, N.,Hojjati, Z. andSoltani, B. (2008). Acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on serum leptin and some risk factors of coronary heart disease in obese females. Sport sciences for health, V 2, No.3, 118-124.
[33] Rahmani-Nia, F.,Hojjati, Z., Rahnama, N. and Soltani, B. (2009). Leptin, heart disease and exercise. World Journal of Sport Sciences, Iran,V 2, No. 1, 13-20.
[34] Rushton, J. P. (2004). Race, Brain Size, and Intelligence: A Rejoinder to Cain and Vanderwolf, Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 785-794.
[35] Hariri Asli, K., Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K.(2010).A computational approach to study fluid movement, Nanomaterials Yearbook - 2009, From Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies to Nanoindustry, (pp.181-196). USA: Nova Science Publications. ISBN:978-1-60876-451-8.16.
[36] Young, J. W. (2008).Anthropometric and Mass Distribution Characteristics of the Adult Female FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute FAA 9-83.
[37] Bartlett, R. (2007). Introduction to Sports Biomechanics, 2nd Edition. Taylor & Francise- Library.
[38] Hariri Asli, K. and Haghi, A.K. (2010).A Numerical Study on Fluid Flow and Pressure drop in Microtubes, Journal of the Balkan Tribological Association, Tribotechnics and tribomechanics, Sofia, Bulgaria, Vol. 16, No 3, 382-392.
[39] Thong FSL, Hudson R, Ross R, Janssen I, and Grahan TE (2000) Plasma leptin in moderately obese males: independent effects of weight loss and aerobic exercise. American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism 279:E307-E313.
[40] Unal, M. Unal, D. D. O. Baltaci, A. K. and Mgulkoc, R. (2005). Investigation of serum leptin levels and Vo2max value in trained young male athletes and healthy males. Acta Physiology Hungary 92: 173-179.
[41] Askari H, Tykodi G, Liu J, and Dagogo-Jack S.(2010). Fasting plasma leptin level is a surrogate measure of insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 95(8): 3836–3843.
[42] Reseland JE, Andessen SA, Solvoll K, Hjermann I, Urdal P, Holme I, and Drevon CA (2001) Effect of long-term change in diet and exercise on plasma leptin concentration. Clinical Nutrition 73: 240-245.
[43] Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, and Marks JS (2003) Prevalence of obesity, diabetes and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA 289: 76-79.
[44] Mendosa-Nunez VM, Garcia-Sanchez A, Sanchez-Rodriguez M, Galvan-Duart RE, and Fonseca-Yerena EF (2002)Overweight, waist circumference, age, gender, and insulin resistance as risk factors for Hyperleptinemia. Obesity Research 10:253-259.
[45] Frank LL, Sorensen BE, Yasui Y, Tworoger SS, Schwartz RS, Ulrich CM, Irwin ML, Rudolph RE, Rajan KB, Stanczyk F, Bowen D, Weigle DS, Potter JD, and McTiernan A. (2005). Effects of exercise on metabolic risk variables in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial. Obesity Research; 13: 615-625.
[46] Racette SB, Coppack SW, Landt M, and Klein S (1997) Leptin production during moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Journal of Clinical, Endocrinology and Metabolism 82: 2275-2277.
[47] Altman R, (2003), Risk factors in coronary atherosclerosis athero-inflammation: the meeting point. Thrombosis journal; 1: 4-7.
[48] Stefanie L, and Martina E (2011). Physical activity and endogenous sex hormones in postmenopausal women. Cancer Causes Control, 22: 81-89.
[49] Akbarzadeh R (1996).Relationship between the ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference and risk factors and increased lipids and blood pressure in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes referred to the Endocrinology Institute in Tehran in 1995 and 1996. A Master’s thesis, Iran University of Medical Sciences; Faculty of Nursing.
[50] Ashwell M, and Lejeane S (1990). Ratio of waist circumference to height maybe better indicator need for weight management. BMI: 312-377.
[51] McMahon M, Skaggs BJ, Sahakian L, Grossman J, FitzGerald J, Ragavendra N, Charles-Schoeman C, Chernishof M, Gorn A, Witztum JL, Wong WK, Weisman M, Wallace DJ, La Cava A, and Hahn BH.(2011). High plasma leptin levels confer increased risk of atherosclerosis in women with systemic lupus erythematosus, and are associated with inflammatory oxidised lipids. Ann Rheum Dis; 70(9): 1619–1624.
[52] Delavar A (2000). Research methods in psychology and educational sciences; 1st edition; Tehran; Payame Noor University Press.
[53] McHugh, P. R. and T. H. Moran, Calories and gastric emptying: a regulatory capacity with implications for feeding. Am J Physiol. 1979. 236(5): p R 254 – 60.
[54] Shirreff, S.M., P. Watson, and R.J. Maughan, Milk and effective post – exercise rehydratio drink.Br J Nutr, 2007. 9811): P.173-80.
[55] Merson S. J., Shirreff S. M., Leiper J. B., and Maughan R. J: Changes in blood plasma and red cell volume after ingestion of hypotonic and hypertonic solutions. Proc. Nutr. Soc (In the Press), 2002.
[56] Melov, S. et al., Resistance exercise reverses aging in human skeletal muscle. PLOS One. 2007. 2(5): p E 465.
[57] Miller, S. L., et al. Metabolic response to provision of mixed protein – carbohydrate supplementation during endurance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2002. 12(4): p 384 – 97.
[58] Miller S. L., et al., The effects of nutritional supplementation throughout an endurance run on leucine kinetics during recovery. Int J Sport Nutr Metab, 2007. 17(5): p 456 – 67.
[59] Cooke JP, and Oka RK (2002) Does leptin cause vascular disease? Circulation 106: 1904-1905.
[60] Canavan B, Salem RO, Schurgin PK, Lipinska I, Laposata M, and Grinspoon S (2005) Effect of physiological leptin administration on markers of inflammation, platelet activation, and platelet aggregation during caloric deprivation. The journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90(10): 5779-5785.
[61] Cooke, J. P. and Oka, R. K. (2002). Does leptin cause vascular disease? Circulation 106: 1904-1905.
[62] Ahima, A. S. and Flier, J. S. (2000). Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Trends Endocrinology and Metabolism 11: 327-331.
[63] Altman, R. (2003). Risk factors in coronary atherosclerosis athero-inflammation: the meeting point. Thrombosis journal 1: 4-7.
[64] Konstantinides S, Schafer K, Koschnick S, and Loskutoff DJ (2001) Leptin-dependent Platelet aggregation and arterial thrombosis suggests a mechanism for atherothrombitic disease in obesity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 108: 1533-1540.
[65] Kaye SA, Fdosom AR, and Jacobs DR (1995). Psychosocial correlates of body fat distribution in Black and white young adult. International journal of obesity, 17:271-277.
[66] Montain S.J., and Coyle E.F.: Influence of graded dehydration on hyperthermia and cardiovascular drift during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 73:1340-1350,1992a.
[67] Meier, U. and Gressner, A. M. (2004). Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism: review of pathobiology and clinical chemical aspects of leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin, and resistin. Clinical Chemistry 50: 1511-1525.
[68] Mokdad, A. H. Ford, E. S. Bowman, B. A. Dietz, W. H. Vinicor, F. Bales, V. S. and Marks, J. S. (2003). Prevalence of obesity, diabetes and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. Journal of American Medical Association 289: 76-79.
[69] Ostlund, R. E. Jr. Yang, S. and Gingerich, R. (1996). Relation between plasma leptin concentration and body fat, gender, diet, age, and metabolic covariates. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81: 3909-3913.
[70] Baratta, M. (2002). Leptin from a signal of adiposity to a hormone mediator in peripheral tissues. Medical Science Monitor 8: RA282-RA292.
[71] Gomez-Merino, D, Chennaoui, M, Drogou, C, Bonneau, D, and Guezennec, CY, (2002), Decrease in serum leptin after prolonged physical activity in men, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; 34: 1594 – 1599.
[72] Boden, G. Chen, X. Mozzoli, M. and Ryan, I. (1996). Effect of fasting on serum leptin in normal human subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81: 3419-3423.
[73] Brabeau, P. Gutin, B. Litaker, M. S. Ramsey, L. T. Cannady, W. E. Allison, J. Lemmon, C. R. and Owens, S. (2003). Influence of physical training on plasma leptin in obese youths. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 28: 382-396.
[74] Houmard JA, Cox JH, Maclean PS, and Barakat HA (2000) Effect of short-term exercise training on leptin and insulin action. Metabolism 49: 858-861.
[75] Kukuljan, S., et al., Effects of resistance exercise and fortified milk on skeletal muscle mass, muscle size, and fanctional performance in middle –aged and older men:an 18- mo randomized controlled trial. J. Appl. Physical, 2009. 707 (6) L P.18 64-73.
[76] Mildred T, and Consuelo L (2009). Correlates of body image satisfaction among economically depressed urban Filipino women. Philippine Journal of Science, O: 67-74.
[77] Sihna, M. K. and Caro, J. F. (1998). Clinical aspects of leptin. Vitamins and Hormones 54: 1-30.
[78] Spicer, L. J. (2001). Leptin: a possible metabolic signal affecting reproduction. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 21: 215-250.
[79] Kerksick CM, Wismann-Bunn J, Fogt D, Thomas AR, Taylor L, Campbell BI, Wilborn CD, Harvey T, Roberts MD, La Bounty P, Galbreath M, Marcello B, Rasmussen CJ, and Kreider corresponding RB.(2010). Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women, Nutr J; 9: 59.
[80] Hammer LD and Wilson BM (1991). Impact of pubertal development on body fat distribution among white, Hispanic and… Journal of pediatrics1, 88:975-980.
[81] Gippini, A. Mato, A. Peino, R. Lage, M. Dieguez, C. and Casanueva, F. F. (1999). Effect of resistance exercise (body building) training on serum leptin levels in young men. Implications for relationship between body mass index and serum leptin. Journal of Endocrinology Investigation 22: 824-828.
[82] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z.(2004) Effect of selected training on body composition and aerobic power of Females College. Journal of Harkat, Iran, V1, 18-21.

Chapter 7

[1] Hurst Thomas, D. (2001). Skull Wars Kennewick Man, Archaeology and the Battle for Native American Identity, Washington University: School of Law - Anheuser-Busch Hall, pp. 38 – 41.
[2] Nabieh, A. and Mohamed, I. (2010).Anthropometric Measurements as a Significant for Choosing Juniors in Both Volleyball and Handball Sports (Factorial Analysis Study), World Journal of Sport Sciences 3 (4): 277-289.
[3] Rogana, S., Hilfikerd, R., Clarysb, P., Clijsenc, R. and Taeymansac, J. (2011).Position-specific and Team-ranking-related Morphological Characteristics in German Amateur Soccer Players - a Descriptive Study, International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 1, 168-182.
[4] Luigi P.W., and Bercades, T.(2009).Somatotypes of national elite combative sport athletes, Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 1, p. 21-30.
[5] Dacres-Mannings, S., Rochester, S. and Frail, H. (2010).Anthropometric profiles of Australian Rugby Institute, club and state level Rugby Union players.
[6] Gaurav, V., Singh, M. and Singh, S. (2010).Anthropometric characteristics, somatotyping and body composition of volleyball and basketball players, Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management Vol. 1(3), pp. 28-32, Available online http://www.acadjourn.org/jpesm.
[7] Beat K. and Kohler, G. (2007).Influence of anthropometry on race performance in ultra-endurance triathletes in the longest triathlon in North America, International Sport Med Journal, Vo.8 No.2, pp.87-96, http://www.ismj.com.
[8] Joseph, J., Greene, M.S., Timothy, A., McGuine, A.T.C., Leverson, G., and Thomas M. (1998).Anthropometric and Performance Measures for High School Basketball Players, Journal of Athletic Training, 33(3):229-232.
[9] Amatya, D. L. (1999). Comparative Study of Somatotype of Nepalese Sportsmen, National Association for Sports Health and Fitness.
[10] Sang Hong, K. (2008).Kinanthropometric Study of Korean and Nepalese Marathon Runners, keimyung university Diwakar Lal Amatya,MSC-Athletics and Sports Science-India, Sports Kinanthropometrist-Australia, Sports Expert-National Sports Council, January.
[11] Gaunt, B. W. (2001).Anthropometric and Demographic Factors Affecting Distance Hopped-aid Limb Symmetry Index for the Crossover Hop-for distance test in High School athletes, Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy,31(3):145-151.
[12] Gross, M., Dailey, E. S., Melissa, D., Dalton, A., lee, K., Wendy, I. and Ashley, C. (2000).Relationship Between Lifting Capacity and Anthropometric Measures, Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 30(5):237-247, 258-262.
[13] Roberto, C, Jose, a., Perez, J., Cortell, M. Juan, J. and Rivas, J. (2008). Correlations among anthropometric parameters, jump power, and position in professional basketball players.
[14] Pui, W. K. and Hendrik H. (2008).Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners, ©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine

7, 499-504, http://www.jssm.org.
[15] Jawis, M. N., Singh, R., Singh, H. J. and Yassin, M. N. (2005).Anthropometric and physiological profiles of sepaktakraw players, B.r. J. Sports Med;39:825–829. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2004. 016915.
[16] Lephart, S. M., Abt, J. P., Ferris, C. M., Sell, T. C., Nagai, T., Myers, J. B. and Irrgang, J. (2005).Neuromuscular and biomechanical characteristic changes in high school athletes: a plyometric versus basic resistance program, Br J Sports Med 2005;39:932–938. doi: 17.1136/bjsm.2005.019083.
[17] Darr, K.C., Bassett, D.R., Morgan, B.J. and Thomas, D.P. (1988). Effects of age and training status on heart rate recovery after peak exercise. American Journal of Physiology 254

, H340-H343.
[18] Engerman, S. (1976), ‘The Height of U.S. Slaves’, Local Population Studies, Vol. 16, no.1, 45-50.
[19] Sunder, M. (2004) The Making of Giants in a Welfare State: The Norwegian Experience in the Twentieth Century’, Economics and Biology, 75-86.
[20] Woitek, U. (2003) Height Cycles in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’, Economics and Human Biology, 243-258.
[21] Fogel, R. (1994). ‘Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the making of Economic Policy’, American Economic Review, 369-394.
[22] Goonetilleke, R. S., Ho, Cheuk Fan E. and So, R. H. Y. (1997). Foot Anthropometry in Hong Kong. (pp. 81-88) Proceedings of the ASEAN 97 Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
[23] Baten, J. (2000). “Economic Development and the Distribution of Nutritional Resources in Bavaria, 1797-1839, in Journal of Income Distribution 9, 89-106.
[24] Hariri Asli K. (2012). Water Hammer Research; Advances in Nonlinear Dynamics Modeling, (pp. 88 – 121). Canada, USA: Published by Apple Academic Press, Inc., Exclusive worldwide distribution by CRC Press, a Taylor and Francis Group, Print ISBN:9781926895314,eBook: 978-1-46-656887-7.
[25] Hariri Asli, K., Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K. (2010). “Some Aspects of Physical and Numerical Modeling of Water Hammer in Pipelines,” Nonlinear Dynamics An International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Engineering Systems, ISSN: 1573-269X (electronic version) Journal no. 11071 Springer, Netherlands, 2009, ISSN: 0924-090X (print version), Heidelberg, Germany, Springer, Volume 60, Number 4 / June, 677-701.
[26] Heather, E. (2002). Collins-Schramm and others, “Markers that Discriminate Between European and African Ancestry Show Limited Variation Within Africa,” Human Genetics111, 566-9.
[27] Komlos, J. and Baur, M. (2004) “From the Tallest to One of the Fattest: The Enigmatic Fate of the Size of the American Population in the Twentieth Century,” Economics and Human Biology 2, no. 1, 57-74.
[28] Komlos, J. and Kriwy, P. (2003) “The Biological Standard of Living in the Two Germanies,”German Economic Review 4, 493-507.
[29] Levy, W.C., Cerqueira, M.D., Harp, G.D., Johannessen, K.A., Abrass, I.B., Schwartz, R.S. and Stratton, J.R. (1998) Effect of endurance exercise training on heart rate variability at rest in healthy young and older men. The American Journal of cardiology,82

, 1236-1241.
[30] Margo, R. (1982), The Heights of American Slaves. Social Science History, Vol. 6, 516-538.
[31] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z.(2004) Effect of selected training on body composition and aerobic power of Females College. Journal of Harkat, Iran, V1, 18-21.
[32] Bosch A.N., Dennis S.C., and Noakes T.D. (1994).influence of carbohydrate ingestion of faelsubstate turnover and oxidation during prolonged exercise J. Appl. Physiol. 76:2364-2372.33.
[33] Rahmani-Nia, F.,Hojjati, Z., Rahnama, N. and Soltani, B. (2009).” Leptin, heart disease and exercise. World Journal of Sport Sciences, Iran,V 2, No. 1, 13-20.
[34] Rushton, J. P. (2004). Race, Brain Size, and Intelligence: A Rejoinder to Cain and Vanderwolf, Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 785-794.
[35] Hariri Asli, K., Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K.(2010).A computational approach to study fluid movement, Nanomaterials Yearbook - 2009, From Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies to Nanoindustry, (pp.181-196). USA: Nova Science Publications. ISBN:978-1-60876-451-8. 16.
[36] Young, J. W. (2008).Anthropometric and Mass Distribution Characteristics of the Adult Female FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute FAA 9-83.
[37] Bartlett,R. (2007). Introduction to Sports Biomechanics, 2nd Edition. Taylor & Francise- Library.
[38] Hariri Asli, K. and Haghi, A.K. (2010).A Numerical Study on Fluid Flow and Pressure drop in Microtubes, Journal of the Balkan Tribological Association, Tribotechnics and tribomechanics, Sofia, Bulgaria, Vol. 16, No 3, 382-392.
[39] Hamedi-Nia M, and Rezaei S (2007).Some risk factors associated with physical activity and body fat percentage cardio-vascular university faculty of Medical sciences and Health Services Blog, The Eleventh:34-40. (In Persian with English abstract).
[40] Unal, M. Unal, D. D. O. Baltaci, A. K. and Mgulkoc, R. (2005). Investigation of serum leptin levels and Vo2max value in trained young male athletes and healthy males. Acta Physiology Hungary 92: 173-179.
[41] Askari H, Tykodi G, Liu J, and Dagogo-Jack S.(2010). Fasting plasma leptin level is a surrogate measure of insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 95(8): 3836–3843.
[42] Reseland JE, Andessen SA, Solvoll K, Hjermann I, Urdal P, Holme I, and Drevon CA (2001) Effect of long-term change in diet and exercise on plasma leptin concentration. Clinical Nutrition 73: 240-245.
[43] Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, and Marks JS (2003) Prevalence of obesity, diabetes and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA 289: 76-79.
[44] Mendosa-Nunez VM, Garcia-Sanchez A, Sanchez-Rodriguez M, Galvan-Duart RE, and Fonseca-Yerena EF (2002)Overweight, waist circumference, age, gender, and insulin resistance as risk factors for Hyperleptinemia. Obesity Research 10:253-259.
[45] Frank LL, Sorensen BE, Yasui Y, Tworoger SS, Schwartz RS, Ulrich CM, Irwin ML, Rudolph RE, Rajan KB, Stanczyk F, Bowen D, Weigle DS, Potter JD, and McTiernan A. (2005). Effects of exercise on metabolic risk variables in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial. Obesity Research; 13: 615-625.
[46] Racette SB, Coppack SW, Landt M, and Klein S (1997) Leptin production during moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Journal of Clinical, Endocrinology and Metabolism 82: 2275-2277.
[47] Altman R, (2003), Risk factors in coronary atherosclerosis athero-inflammation: the meeting point. Thrombosis journal; 1: 4-7.
[48] Stefanie L, and Martina E (2011). Physical activity and endogenous sex hormones in postmenopausal women. Cancer Causes Control, 22: 81-89.
[49] Akbarzadeh R (1996).Relationship between the ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference and risk factors and increased lipids and blood pressure in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes referred to the Endocrinology Institute in Tehran in 1995 and 1996. A Master's thesis, Iran University of Medical Sciences; Faculty of Nursing.
[50] Ashwell M, Lejeane S (1990). Ratio of waist circumference to height maybe better indicator need for weight management. BMI: 312-377.
[51] McMahon M, Skaggs BJ, Sahakian L, Grossman J, FitzGerald J, Ragavendra N, Charles-Schoeman C, Chernishof M, Gorn A, Witztum JL, Wong WK, Weisman M, Wallace DJ, La Cava A, and Hahn BH.(2011). High plasma leptin levels confer increased risk of atherosclerosis in women with systemic lupus erythematosus, and are associated with inflammatory oxidised lipids. Ann Rheum Dis; 70(9): 1619–1624.
[52] Delavar A (2000). Research methods in psychology and educational sciences; 1st edition; Tehran; Payame Noor University Press.
[53] McHugh, P. R. and T. H. Moran. (1979). Calories and gastric emptying: a regulatory capacity with implications for feeding. Am J Physiol, 236(5): p R 254 – 60.
[54] Shirreff, S.M., P. Watson, and R.J. Maughan. (2007). Milk and effective post – exercise rehydratio drink.Br J Nutr, 9811): P.173-80.
[55] Merson S. J., Shirreff S. M., Leiper J. B., and Maughan R. J. (2002).Changes in blood plasma and red cell volume after ingestion of hypotonic and hypertonic solutions. Proc. Nutr. Soc (In the Press).
[56] Melov, S. et al., Resistance exercise reverses aging in human skeletal muscle. PLOS One. 2007. 2(5): p E 465.
[57] Miller, S. L., et al. (2002).Metabolic response to provision of mixed protein – carbohydrate supplementation during endurance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 12(4): p 384 – 97.
[58] Miller S. L., et al. (2007).The effects of nutritional supplementation throughout an endurance run on leucine kinetics during recovery. Int J Sport Nutr Metab, 17(5): p 456 – 67.
[59] Cooke JP, and Oka RK (2002) Does leptin cause vascular disease? Circulation 106: 1904-1905.
[60] Canavan B, Salem RO, Schurgin PK, Lipinska I, Laposata M, and Grinspoon S (2005) Effect of physiological leptin administration on markers of inflammation, platelet activation, and platelet aggregation during caloric deprivation. The journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90(10): 5779-5785.
[61] Cooke, J. P. and Oka, R. K. (2002). Does leptin cause vascular disease? Circulation 106: 1904-1905.
[62] Ahima, A. S. and Flier, J. S. (2000). Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Trends Endocrinology and Metabolism 11: 327-331.
[63] Altman, R. (2003). Risk factors in coronary atherosclerosis athero-inflammation: the meeting point. Thrombosis journal 1: 4-7.
[64] Konstantinides S, Schafer K, Koschnick S, and Loskutoff DJ (2001) Leptin-dependent Platelet aggregation and arterial thrombosis suggests a mechanism for atherothrombitic disease in obesity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 108: 1533-1540.
[65] Kaye SA, Fdosom AR, and Jacobs DR (1995). Psychosocial correlates of body fat distribution in Black and white young adult. International journal of obesity, 17:271-277.
[66] Montain S.J., and Coyle E.F. (1992).Influence of graded dehydration on hyperthermia and cardiovascular drift during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol.73:1340-1350.
[67] Meier, U. and Gressner, A. M. (2004). Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism: review of pathobiology and clinical chemical aspects of leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin, and resistin. Clinical Chemistry 50: 1511-1525.
[68] Mokdad, A. H. Ford, E. S. Bowman, B. A. Dietz, W. H. Vinicor, F. Bales, V. S. and Marks, J. S. (2003). Prevalence of obesity, diabetes and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. Journal of American Medical Association 289: 76-79.
[69] Ostlund, R. E. Jr. Yang, S. and Gingerich, R. (1996). Relation between plasma leptin concentration and body fat, gender, diet, age, and metabolic covariates. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81: 3909-3913.
[70] Baratta, M. (2002). Leptin from a signal of adiposity to a hormone mediator in peripheral tissues. Medical Science Monitor 8: RA282-RA292.
[71] Gomez-Merino, D, Chennaoui, M, Drogou, C, Bonneau, D, Guezennec, CY, (2002), Decrease in serum leptin after prolonged physical activity in men, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; 34: 1594 – 1599.
[72] Boden, G. Chen, X. Mozzoli, M. and Ryan, I. (1996). Effect of fasting on serum leptin in normal human subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81: 3419-3423.
[73] Brabeau, P. Gutin, B. Litaker, M. S. Ramsey, L. T. Cannady, W. E. Allison, J. Lemmon, C. R. and Owens, S. (2003). Influence of physical training on plasma leptin in obese youths. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 28: 382-396.
[74] Houmard JA, Cox JH, Maclean PS, and Barakat HA (2000) Effect of short-term exercise training on leptin and insulin action. Metabolism 49: 858-861.
[75] Kukuljan, S., et al. (2009).Effects of resistance exercise and fortified milk on skeletal muscle mass, muscle size, and fanctional performance in middle –aged and older men: An 18- mo randomized controlled trial. J. Appl. Physical, 707 (6) L P.18 64-73.
[76] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z. (2005). The effect of exercise training on body composition and aerobic power in sedentary college age females, International Journal of Fitness, India, V1, 24-31.
[77] Sihna, M. K. and Caro, J. F. (1998). Clinical aspects of leptin. Vitamins and Hormones 54: 1-30.
[78] Spicer, L. J. (2001). Leptin: a possible metabolic signal affecting reproduction. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 21: 215-250.
[79] Kerksick CM, Wismann-Bunn J, Fogt D, Thomas AR, Taylor L, Campbell BI, Wilborn CD, Harvey T, Roberts MD, La Bounty P, Galbreath M, Marcello B, Rasmussen CJ, and Kreider corresponding RB.(2010). Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women, Nutr J; 9: 59.
[80] Hammer LD and Wilson BM (1991). Impact of pubertal development on body fat distribution among white, Hispanic and… Journal of pediatrics1, 88:975-980.
[81] Gippini, A. Mato, A. Peino, R. Lage, M. Dieguez, C. and Casanueva, F. F. (1999). Effect of resistance exercise (body building) training on serum leptin levels in young men. Implications for relationship between body mass index and serum leptin. Journal of Endocrinology Investigation 22: 824-828.
[82] Thong FSL, Hudson R, Ross R, Janssen I, and Grahan TE (2000) Plasma leptin in moderately obese males: independent effects of weight loss and aerobic exercise. American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism 279:E307-E313.
[83] Schulze, P. C. Kratzsch, J. Linke, A. Schoene, N. Adams, V. and Gielen, S. (2003). Elevated serum levels of leptin and leptin and leptin receptor in patients with advanced chronic heart failure. European Journal of Heart Failure 5: 33-40.
[84] Sesso, H. D. Buring, J. E. Rifai, N. Blake, G. J. Gaziano, J. M. and Ridker, P. M. (2003). C-reactive protein and the risk of developing hypertension. Journal of American Medical Association 200: 2945-2951.
[85] Konstantinides S, Schafer K, Koschnick S, and Loskutoff DJ (2001) Leptin-dependent Platelet aggregation and arterial thrombosis suggests a mechanism for atherothrombitic disease in obesity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation; 108: 1533-1540.
[86] Kyriazis GA, Caplan JD, Lowndes J, Carpenter RL, Dennis KE, Sivo SA, and Angelopoulos TJ. (2007). Moderate exercise- induced energy expenditure does not alter leptin levels in sedentary obese men, Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine; 17: 49-51.
[87] Mildred T, and Consuelo L (2009). Correlates of body image satisfaction among economically depressed urban Filipino women. Philippine Journal of Science, O: 67-74.
[88] Tamer, L. Ercan, B. Unlu, A. Sucu, N. Pekdemir, H. Eskandari, G. and Atik, U. (2002). The relationship between leptin and lipids in atherosclerosis. Indian Heart Journal 54: 692-696.
[89] McGillHC, McMahan A, Hederick EE, Zieske AW, Malcom GT, Tracy RE, and Strong JP (2002) Obesity accelerates the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in young men. Circulation 105:2712-2717.
[90] Tam J, Fukumura D, and Jain1 RK. (2010) A mathematical model of murine metabolic regulation by leptin: energy balance and defence of a stable body weight. Cell Metab. 7; 9(1): 52–63.
[91] Corsonello, A. Malara, A. and Ientile, R. (2002). Leptin enhances adenosine diphosphate- induced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Obesity Research. 10: 306- 317.
[92] Maughan, R. J., J. B. Leiper, and G. E. (2004).Vist, Gastric empting and fluid availability after ingestion of glucose and soy protein hydrolysate solutions in man. Expphysiol, 89(1): p. 101 – 8.
[93] Shamsuzzaman, A. S. M. Winnicki, M. Wolk, R. Svatikova, A. A. Phillips, B. G. Davison, D. E. Berger, P. B. and Somers, V. K. (2004). Independent association between plasma leptin and C- reactive protein in healthy humans. Circulation 109: 2181-2185.
[94] McConell G, Snow RJ, Proietto J, and Hargreaves M. Muscle. (1999).metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans: influence of carbohydrate availability. J Applphysio, 87: 1083 – 6.
[95] Klein, S. Horowitz, J. F. Landt, M. Goodrick, S. J. Mohamed-Ali, V. and Coppack, S. W. (2000). Leptin production during early starvation in lean and obese women. American Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 278: E280-E284.
[96] Knudson, J. D. Incer, U. D. Dick, G. M. Shibata, H. Akahane, R. Saito, M. and Tune, J. D. (2005). Leptin resistance extends to the coronary vasculature in prediabetic dogs and provides protective adaptation against endothelial dysfunction. American Journal of Physiology Heart and Circulation Physiology 289: H1038-H1046.
[97] Maughan R.J., and Murray R. (2001).Sports Drinks; Basic science and practical Aspacts CRS Press LI c, Boca R- anton, FL, USA.
[98] Rahmani-Nia, F., Rahnama, N.,Hojjati, Z. andSoltani, B. (2008). Acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on serum leptin and some risk factors of coronary heart disease in obese females. Sport sciences for health, V 2, No.3, 118-124.

Chapter 8

[1] Hurst Thomas, D. (2001). Skull Wars Kennewick Man, Archaeology and the Battle for Native American Identity, Washington University: School of Law - Anheuser-Busch Hall, pp. 38 – 41.
[2] Nabieh, A. and Mohamed, I. (2010). Anthropometric Measurements as a Significant for Choosing Juniors in Both Volleyball and Handball Sports (Factorial Analysis Study), World Journal of Sport Sciences 3 (4): 277-289.
[3] Rogana, S., Hilfikerd, R., Clarysb, P., Clijsenc, R. and Taeymansac, J. (2011). Position-specific and Team-ranking-related Morphological Characteristics in German Amateur Soccer Players - a Descriptive Study, International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 1, 168-182.
[4] Luigi P. W., and Bercades, T.(2009).somatotypes of national elite combative sport athletes, Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 1, p. 21-30.
[5] Dacres-Mannings, S., Rochester, S. and Frail, H. (2010).Anthropometric profiles of Australian Rugby Institute, club and state level Rugby Union players.
[6] Gaurav, V., Singh, M. and Singh, S. (2010).Anthropometric characteristics, somatotyping and body composition of volleyball and basketball players, Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management Vol. 1(3), pp. 28-32, Available online http://www.acadjourn.org/jpesm.
[7] Beat K. and Kohler, G. (2007).Influence of anthropometry on race performance in ultra-endurance triathletes in the longest triathlon in North America, International Sport Med Journal, Vo. 8 No. 2, pp. 87-96, http://www.ismj.com.
[8] Joseph, J., Greene, M. S., Timothy, A., McGuine, A. T. C., Leverson, G., and Thomas M. (1998).Anthropometric and Performance Measures for High School Basketball Players, Journal of Athletic Training, 33(3):229-232.
[9] Amatya, D. L. (1999). Comparative Study of Somatotype of Nepalese Sportsmen, National Association for Sports Health and Fitness.
[10] Sang Hong, K. (2008). Kinanthropometric Study of Korean and Nepalese Marathon Runners, keimyung university Diwakar Lal Amatya, MSC-Athletics and Sports Science-India, Sports Kinanthropometrist-Australia, Sports Expert-National Sports Council, January.
[11] Gaunt, B. W. (2001). Anthropometric and Demographic Factors Affecting Distance Hopped-aid Limb Symmetry Index for the Crossover Hop-for distance test in High School athletes, Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 31(3):145-151.
[12] Gross, M., Dailey, E. S.

, Melissa, D., Dalton, A., lee, K., Wendy, I. and Ashley, C. (2000).Relationship Between Lifting Capacity and Anthropometric Measures, Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 30(5):237-247, 258-262.
[13] Roberto, C, Jose, a., Perez, J., Cortell, m. Juan, J. and Rivas, J. (2008) correlations among anthropometric parameters, jump power, and position in professional basketball players.
[14] Pui, W. K. and Hendrik H. (2008). Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine7,499-504, http://www.jssm.org.
[15] Jawis, M. N., Singh, R., Singh, H. J. and Yassin, M. N. (2005). Anthropometric and physiological profiles of sepaktakraw players, Br. J. Sports Med; 39:825–829. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2004.016915.
[16] Lephart, S. M., Abt, J. P., Ferris, C. M., Sell, T. C., Nagai, T., Myers, J. B. and Irrgang, J. (2005). Neuromuscular and biomechanical characteristic changes in high school athletes: a plyometric versus basic resistance program, Br J Sports Med 2005;39:932–938. doi: 17.1136/ bjsm.2005.019083.
[17] Darr, K. C., Bassett, D. R., Morgan, B. J. and Thomas, D. P. (1988). Effects of age and training status on heart rate recovery after peak exercise. American Journal of Physiology 254, H340-H343.
[18] Engerman, S. (1976), ‘The Height of U. S. Slaves,’ Local Population Studies, Vol. 16, no. 1, 45-50.
[19] Sunder, M. (2004) The Making of Giants in a Welfare State: The Norwegian Experience in the Twentieth Century,’ Economics and Biology, 75-86.
[20] Woitek, U. (2003) Height Cycles in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries,’ Economics and Human Biology, 243-258.
[21] Fogel, R. (1994). ‘Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the making of Economic Policy,’ American Economic Review, 369-394.
[22] Goonetilleke, R. S., Ho, Cheuk Fan E. and So, R. H. Y. (1997). Foot Anthropometry in Hong Kong. (pp. 81-88) Proceedings of the ASEAN 97 Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
[23] Baten, J. (2000). “Economic Development and the Distribution of Nutritional Resources in Bavaria, 1797-1839, in Journal of Income Distribution 9, 89-106.
[24] Hariri Asli K. (2012). Water Hammer Research; Advances in Nonlinear Dynamics Modeling, (pp. 88 – 121). Canada, USA: Published by Apple Academic Press, Inc., Exclusive worldwide distribution by CRC Press, a Taylor and Francis Group, Print ISBN: 9781926895314,eBook: 978-1-46-656887-7.
[25] Hariri Asli, K., Nagiyev, F. B. and Haghi, A. K. (2010). “Some Aspects of Physical and Numerical Modeling of Water Hammer in Pipelines,” Nonlinear Dynamics An International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Engineering Systems, ISSN: 1573-269X (electronic version) Journal no. 11071 Springer, Netherlands, 2009, ISSN: 0924-090X (print version), Heidelberg, Germany, Springer, Volume 60, Number 4/June, 677-701.
[26] Heather, E. (2002). Collins-Schramm and others, “Markers that Discriminate Between European and African Ancestry Show Limited Variation Within Africa,” Human Genetics 111, 566-9;
[27] Komlos, J. and Baur, M. (2004) “From the Tallest to One of the Fattest: The Enigmatic Fate of the Size of the American Population in the Twentieth Century,” Economics and Human Biology 2, no. 1, 57-74.
[28] Komlos, J. and Kriwy, P. (2003) “The Biological Standard of Living in the Two Germanies,” German Economic Review 4, 493-507.
[29] Levy, W. C., Cerqueira, M. D., Harp, G. D., Johannessen, K. A., Abrass, I. B., Schwartz, R. S. and Stratton, J. R. (1998) Effect of endurance exercise training on heart rate variability at rest in healthy young and older men. The American Journal of cardiology,82

, 1236-1241.
[30] Margo, R. (1982), The Heights of American Slaves. Social Science History, Vol. 6, 516-538.
[31] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z. (2005). The effect of exercise training on body composition and aerobic power in sedentary college age females, International Journal of Fitness, India, V1, 24-31.
[32] Rahmani-Nia, F., Rahnama, N.,Hojjati, Z. and Soltani, B. (2008). Acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on serum leptin and some risk factors of coronary heart disease in obese females. Sport sciences for health, V 2, No. 3, 118-124.
[33] Rahmani-Nia, F.,Hojjati, Z., Rahnama, N. and Soltani, B. (2009).” Leptin, heart disease and exercise. World Journal of Sport Sciences, Iran, V 2, No. 1, 13-20.
[34] Rushton, J. P. (2004). Race, Brain Size, and Intelligence: A Rejoinder to Cain and Vanderwolf, Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 785-794.
[35] Hariri Asli, K., Nagiyev, F. B. and Haghi, A. K.(2010).A computational approach to study fluid movement, Nanomaterials Yearbook - 2009, From Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies to Nanoindustry, (pp. 181-196). USA: Nova Science Publications. ISBN:978-1-60876-451-8. 16
[36] Young, J. W. (2008). Anthropometric and Mass Distribution Characteristics of the Adult Female FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute FAA 9-83.
[37] Bartlett, R. (2007). Introduction to Sports Biomechanics, 2nd Edition. Taylor & Francise- Library.
[38] Hariri Asli, K. and Haghi, A. K. (2010).A Numerical Study on Fluid Flow and Pressure drop in Microtubes, Journal of the Balkan Tribological Association, Tribotechnics and tribomechanics, Sofia, Bulgaria, Vol. 16, No 3, 382-392.
[39] Knudson, J. D. Incer, U. D. Dick, G. M. Shibata, H. Akahane, R. Saito, M. and Tune, J. D. (2005). Leptin resistance extends to the coronary vasculature in prediabetic dogs and provides protective adaptation against endothelial dysfunction. American Journal of Physiology Heartand Circulation Physiology 289: H1038-H1046.
[40] Unal, M. Unal, D. D. O. Baltaci, A. K. and Mgulkoc, R. (2005). Investigation of serum leptin levels and Vo2max value in trained young male athletes and healthy males. Acta Physiology Hungary 92: 173-179.
[41] McMahon M, Skaggs BJ, Sahakian L, Grossman J, FitzGerald J, Ragavendra N, Charles-Schoeman C, Chernishof M, Gorn A, Witztum JL, Wong WK, Weisman M, Wallace DJ, La Cava A, and Hahn BH. (2011). High plasma leptin levels confer increased risk of atherosclerosis in women with systemic lupus erythematosus, and are associated with inflammatory oxidised lipids. Ann Rheum Dis; 70(9): 1619–1624.
[42] Delavar A (2000). Research methods in psychology and educational sciences; 1st edition; Tehran; Payame Noor University Press.
[43] McHugh, P. R. and T. H. Moran. (1979). Calories and gastric emptying: a regulatory capacity with implications for feeding. Am J Physiol., 236(5): p R 254 – 60.
[44] Shirreff, S. M., P. Watson, and R. J. Maughan. (2007). Milk and effective post – exercise rehydratio drink. Br J Nutr, 9811: P. 173-80.
[45] Merson S. J., Shirreff S. M., Leiper J. B., Maughan R. J. (2002). Changes in blood plasma and red cell volume after ingestion of hypotonic and hypertonic solutions. Proc. Nutr. Soc (In the Press).
[46] Melov, S. et al. (2007). Resistance exercise reverses aging in human skeletal muscle. PLOS One, 2(5): p E 465.
[47] Miller, S. L., et al. Metabolic response to provision of mixed protein – carbohydrate supplementation during endurance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2002. 12(4): p 384 – 97.
[48] Miller S. L., et al. (2007). The effects of nutritional supplementation throughout an endurance run on leucine kinetics during recovery. Int J Sport NutrMetab, 17(5): p 456 – 67.
[49] Cooke JP, and Oka RK (2002) Does leptin cause vascular disease? Circulation 106: 1904-1905.
[50] Canavan B, Salem RO, Schurgin PK, Lipinska I, Laposata M, and Grinspoon S (2005) Effect of physiological leptin administration on markers of inflammation, platelet activation, and platelet aggregation during caloric deprivation. The journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90(10): 5779-5785.
[51] Cooke, J. P. and Oka, R. K. (2002). Does leptin cause vascular disease? Circulation 106: 1904-1905.
[52] Ahima, A. S. and Flier, J. S. (2000). Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Trends Endocrinology and Metabolism 11: 327-331.
[53] Altman, R. (2003). Risk factors in coronary atherosclerosis athero-inflammation: the meeting point. Thrombosis journal 1: 4-7.
[54] Konstantinides S, Schafer K, Koschnick S, and Loskutoff DJ (2001) Leptin-dependent Platelet aggregation and arterial thrombosis suggests a mechanism for atherothrombitic disease in obesity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 108: 1533-1540.
[55] Kaye SA, Fdosom AR, and Jacobs DR (1995). Psychosocial correlates of body fat distribution in Black and white young adult. International journal of obesity, 17:271-277.
[56] Montain S. J., and Coyle E. F.: Influence of graded dehydration on hyperthermia and cardiovascular drift during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 73:1340-1350, 1992a.
[57] Meier, U. and Gressner, A. M. (2004). Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism: review of pathobiology and clinical chemical aspects of leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin, and resistin. Clinical Chemistry 50: 1511-1525.
[58] Mokdad, A. H. Ford, E. S. Bowman, B. A. Dietz, W. H. Vinicor, F. Bales, V. S. and Marks, J. S. (2003). Prevalence of obesity, diabetes and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. Journal of American Medical Aassociation289: 76-79.
[59] Ostlund, R. E. Jr. Yang, S. and Gingerich, R. (1996). Relation between plasma leptin concentration and body fat, gender, diet, age, and metabolic covariates. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81: 3909-3913.
[60] Baratta, M. (2002). Leptin from a signal of adiposity to a hormone mediator in peripheral tissues. Medical Science Monitor 8: RA282-RA292.
[61] Gomez-Merino, D, Chennaoui, M, Drogou, C, Bonneau, D, and Guezennec, CY, (2002), Decrease in serum leptin after prolonged physical activity in men, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; 34: 1594 – 1599.
[62] Boden, G. Chen, X. Mozzoli, M. and Ryan, I. (1996). Effect of fasting on serum leptin in normal human subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81: 3419-3423.
[63] Brabeau, P. Gutin, B. Litaker, M. S. Ramsey, L. T. Cannady, W. E. Allison, J. Lemmon, C. R. and Owens, S. (2003). Influence of physical training on plasma leptin in obese youths. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 28: 382-396.
[64] Houmard JA, Cox JH, Maclean PS, Barakat HA (2000) Effect of short-term exercise training on leptin and insulin action. Metabolism 49: 858-861.
[65] kukuljan, S., et al., Effects of resistance exercise and fortified milk on skeletal muscle mass, muscle size, and fanctional performance in middle –aged and older men:an 18- mo randomized controlled trial. J. Appl. Physical, 2009. 707 (6) L P. 18 64-73.
[66] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z.(2004) Effect of selected training on body composition and aerobic power of females college. Journal of Harkat, Iran, V1, 18-21.
[67] Sihna, M. K. and Caro, J. F. (1998). Clinical aspects of leptin. Vitamins and Hormones 54: 1-30.
[68] Spicer, L. J. (2001). Leptin: a possible metabolic signal affecting reproduction. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 21: 215-250.
[69] Kerksick CM, Wismann-Bunn J, Fogt D, Thomas AR, Taylor L, and Campbell BI, Wilborn CD, Harvey T, Roberts MD, La Bounty P, Galbreath M, Marcello B, Rasmussen CJ, and Kreider corresponding RB. (2010). Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women, Nutr J; 9: 59.
[70] Hammer LD and Wilson BM (1991). Impact of pubertal development on body fat distribution among white, Hispanic and… Journal of pediatrics 1, 88:975-980.
[71] Gippini, A. Mato, A. Peino, R. Lage, M. Dieguez, C. and Casanueva, F. F. (1999). Effect of resistance exercise (body building) training on serum leptin levels in young men. Implications for relationship between body mass index and serum leptin. Journal of Endocrinology Investigation 22: 824-828.
[72] Thong FSL, Hudson R, Ross R, Janssen I, and Grahan TE (2000) Plasma leptin in moderately obese males: independent effects of weight loss and aerobic exercise. American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism 279:E307-E313.
[73] Schulze, P. C. Kratzsch, J. Linke, A. Schoene, N. Adams, V. and Gielen, S. (2003). Elevated serum levels of leptin and leptin and leptin receptor in patients with advanced chronic heart failure. European Journal of Heart Failure 5: 33-40.
[74] Sesso, H. D. Buring, J. E. Rifai, N. Blake, G. J. Gaziano, J. M. and Ridker, P. M. (2003). C-reactive protein and the risk of developing hypertension. Journal of American Medical Association 200: 2945-2951.
[75] Konstantinides S, Schafer K, Koschnick S, and Loskutoff DJ (2001) Leptin-dependent Platelet aggregation and arterial thrombosis suggests a mechanism for atherothrombitic disease in obesity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation; 108: 1533-1540.
[76] Kyriazis GA, Caplan JD, Lowndes J, Carpenter RL, Dennis KE, Sivo SA, and Angelopoulos TJ. (2007). Moderate exercise- induced energy expenditure does not alter leptin levels in sedentary obese men, Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine; 17: 49-51.
[77] Mildred T, and Consuelo L (2009). Correlates of body image satisfaction among economically depressed urban Filipino women. Philippine Journal of Science, O: 67-74.
[78] Tamer, L. Ercan, B. Unlu, A. Sucu, N. Pekdemir, H. Eskandari, and G. Atik, U. (2002). The relationship between leptin and lipids in atherosclerosis. Indian Heart Journal 54: 692-696.
[79] McGill HC, McMahan A, Hederick EE, Zieske AW, Malcom GT, Tracy RE, and Strong JP (2002) Obesity accelerates the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in young men. Circulation 105:2712-2717.
[80] Tam J, Fukumura D, and Jain1 RK. (2010) A mathematical model of murine metabolic regulation by leptin: energy balance and defence of a stable body weight. Cell Metab. 7; 9(1): 52–63.
[81] Corsonello, A. Malara, A. andIentile, R. (2002). Leptin enhances adenosine diphosphate- induced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Obesity Research. 10: 306- 317.
[82] Maughan, R. J., J. B. Leiper, and G. E. Vist. (2004). Gastric empting and fluid availability after ingestion of glucose and soy protein hydrolysate solutions in man. Expphysiol, 89(1): p. 101 – 8.
[83] Shamsuzzaman, A. S. M. Winnicki, M. Wolk, R. Svatikova, A. A. Phillips, B. G. Davison, D. E. Berger, P. B. and Somers, V. K. (2004). Independent association between plasma leptin and C- reactive protein in healthy humans. Circulation 109: 2181-2185.
[84] McConell G, Snow RJ, Proietto J, and Hargreaves M. (1999). Muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans: influence of carbohydrate availability. J Applphysio, 87: 1083 – 6.
[85] Klein, S. Horowitz, J. F. Landt, M. Goodrick, S. J. Mohamed-Ali, V. and Coppack, S. W. (2000). Leptin production during early starvation in lean and obese women. American Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 278: E280-E284.
[86] Rahmani-Nia, F. andHojjati, Z.(2004). Effect of selected training on body composition and aerobic power of Females College. Journal of Harkat, Iran, V1, 18-21.

Chapter 9

[1] Hurst Thomas, D. (2001). Skull Wars Kennewick Man, Archaeology and the Battle for Native American Identity, Washington University: School of Law - Anheuser-Busch Hall, pp. 38-41.
[2] Nabieh, A. and Mohamed, I. (2010).Anthropometric Measurements as a Significant for Choosing Juniors in Both Volleyball and Handball Sports (Factorial Analysis Study), World Journal of Sport Sciences 3 (4): 277-289.
[3] Rogana, S., Hilfikerd, R., Clarysb, P., Clijsenc, R. and Taeymansac, J. (2011).Position-specific and Team-ranking-related Morphological Characteristics in German Amateur Soccer Players - a Descriptive Study, International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 1, 168-182.
[4] Luigi P.W., and Bercades, T.(2009).Somatotypes of national elite combative sport athletes, Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 1, p. 21-30.
[5] Dacres-Mannings, S., Rochester, S. and Frail, H. (2010).Anthropometric profiles of Australian Rugby Institute, club and state level Rugby Union players.
[6] Gaurav, V., Singh, M. and Singh, S. (2010).Anthropometric characteristics, somatotyping and body composition of volleyball and basketball players, Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management Vol. 1(3), pp. 28-32, Available online http://www.acadjourn.org/jpesm.
[7] Beat K. and Kohler, G. (2007).Influence of anthropometry on race performance in ultra-endurance triathletes in the longest triathlon in North America, International Sport Med. Journal, Vo.8 No.2, pp.87-96, http://www.ismj.com.
[8] Joseph, J., Greene, M.S., Timothy, A., McGuine, A.T.C., Leverson, G., and Thomas M. (1998).Anthropometric and Performance Measures for High School Basketball Players, Journal of Athletic Training, 33(3):229-232.
[9] Amatya, D. L. (1999). Comparative Study of Somatotype of Nepalese Sportsmen, National Association for Sports Health and Fitness.
[10] Sang Hong, K. (2008). Kinanthropometric Study of Korean and Nepalese Marathon Runners, keimyung university Diwakar Lal Amatya, MSC-Athletics and Sports Science-India, Sports Kinanthropometrist-Australia, Sports Expert-National Sports Council, January.
[11] Gaunt, B. W. (2001).Anthropometric and Demographic Factors Affecting Distance Hopped-aid Limb Symmetry Index for the Crossover Hop-for distance test in High School athletes, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy,31(3):145-151.
[12] Gross, M., Dailey, E. S., Melissa, D., Dalton, A., lee, K., Wendy, I. and Ashley, C. (2000).Relationship Between Lifting Capacity and Anthropometric Measures, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 30(5):237-247, 258-262.
[13] Roberto, C, Jose, A., Perez, J., Cortell, M. Juan, J. and Rivas, J. (2008). correlations among anthropometric parameters, jump power, and position in professional basketball players.
[14] Pui, W. K. and Hendrik H. (2008). Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners, ©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine7, 499-504, http://www.jssm.org.
[15] Jawis, M. N., Singh, R., Singh, H. J. and Yassin, M. N. (2005). Anthropometric and physiological profiles of sepaktakraw players, Br. J. Sports Med.;39:825-829. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2004.016915.
[16] Lephart, S. M., Abt, J. P., Ferris, C. M., Sell, T. C., Nagai, T., Myers, J. B. and Irrgang, J. (2005). Neuromuscular and biomechanical characteristic changes in high school athletes: a plyometric versus basic resistance program, Br. J. Sports Med. 2005;39:932-938. doi: 17.1136/bjsm.2005.019083.
[17] Darr, K.C., Bassett, D.R., Morgan, B.J. and Thomas, D.P. (1988). Effects of age and training status on heart rate recovery after peak exercise. American Journal of Physiology 254, H340-H343.
[18] Engerman, S. (1976), ‘The Height of US Slaves,’ Local Population Studies, Vol. 16, no.1, 45-50.
[19] Sunder, M. (2004) ‘The Making of Giants in a Welfare State: The Norwegian Experience in the Twentieth Century,’ Economics and Biology, 75-86.
[20] Woitek, U. (2003) ‘Height Cycles in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries,’ Economics and Human Biology, 243-258.
[21] Fogel, R. (1994). ‘Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the making of Economic Policy,’ American Economic Review, 369-394.
[22] Goonetilleke, R. S., Ho, Cheuk Fan E. and So, R. H. Y. (1997). Foot Anthropometry in Hong Kong (pp. 81-88). Proceedings of the ASEAN 97 Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
[23] Baten, J. (2000). “Economic Development and the Distribution of Nutritional Resources in Bavaria, 1797-1839,”In:Journal of Income Distribution 9, 89-106.
[24] Hariri Asli K. (2012). Water Hammer Research; Advances in Nonlinear Dynamics Modeling, (pp. 88-121). Canada, US: Published by Apple Academic Press, Inc., Exclusive worldwide distribution by CRC Press, a Taylor and Francis Group, Print ISBN:9781926895314,eBook: 978-1-46-656887-7.
[25] Hariri Asli, K.,Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K. (2010). “Some Aspects of Physical and Numerical Modeling of Water Hammer in Pipelines,” Nonlinear Dynamics An International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Engineering Systems, ISSN: 1573-269X (electronic version) Journal no. 11071 Springer, Netherlands, 2009, ISSN: 0924-090X (print version), Heidelberg, Germany, Springer, Volume 60, Number 4/June, 677-701.
[26] Heather, E. (2002). Collins-Schramm and others, “Markers that Discriminate Between European and African Ancestry Show Limited Variation Within Africa,” Human Genetics 111, 566-9.
[27] Komlos, J. and Baur, M. (2004) “From the Tallest to One of the Fattest: The Enigmatic Fate of the Size of the American Population in the Twentieth Century,” Economics and Human Biology 2, no. 1, 57-74.
[28] Komlos, J. and Kriwy, P. (2003) “The Biological Standard of Living in the Two Germanies,” German Economic Review 4, 493-507.
[29] Levy, W.C., Cerqueira, M.D., Harp, G.D., Johannessen, K.A., Abrass, I.B., Schwartz, R.S. and Stratton, J.R. (1998) Effect of endurance exercise training on heart rate variability at rest in healthy young and older men. The American Journal of cardiology,82, 1236-1241.
[30] Margo, R. (1982), The Heights of American Slaves. Social Science History, Vol. 6, 516-538.
[31] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z. (2005). The effect of exercise training on body composition and aerobic power in sedentary college age females, International Journal of Fitness, India, V1, 24-31.
[32] Rahmani-Nia, F., Rahnama, N.,Hojjati, Z.andSoltani, B. (2008). Acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on serum leptin and some risk factors of coronary heart disease in obese females. Sport sciences for health, V 2, No. 3, 118-124.
[33] Rahmani-Nia, F.,Hojjati, Z., Rahnama, N.and Soltani, B. (2009). “Leptin, heart disease and exercise.”World Journal of Sport Sciences, Iran,V 2, No. 1, 13-20.
[34] Rushton, J. P. (2004). Race, Brain Size, and Intelligence: A Rejoinder to Cain and Vanderwolf, Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 785-794.
[35] Hariri Asli, K.,Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K.(2010).A computational approach to study fluid movement, Nanomaterials Yearbook - 2009, From Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies to Nanoindustry,(pp.181-196). US: Nova Science Publications. ISBN: 978-1-60876-451-8. 16.
[36] Young, J. W. (2008). Anthropometric and Mass Distribution Characteristics of the Adult Female FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute FAA 9-83.
[37] Bartlett, R. (2007). Introduction to Sports Biomechanics, 2nd Edition. Taylor and Francise-Library.
[38] Hariri Asli, K. and Haghi, A.K. (2010).A Numerical Study on Fluid Flow and Pressure drop in Microtubes, Journal of the Balkan Tribological Association, Tribotechnics and tribomechanics, Sofia, Bulgaria, Vol. 16, No 3, 382-392.
[39] Schulze, P. C. Kratzsch, J. Linke, A. Schoene, N. Adams, V. and Gielen, S. (2003). Elevated serum levels of leptin and leptin and leptin receptor in patients with advanced chronic heart failure. European Journal of Heart Failure 5: 33-40.
[40] Unal, M. Unal, D. D. O. Baltaci, A. K. and Mgulkoc, R. (2005). Investigation of serum leptin levels and Vo2max value in trained young male athletes and healthy males. Acta Physiology Hungary 92: 173-179.
[41] Askari H, Tykodi G, Liu J, and Dagogo-Jack S.(2010). Fasting plasma leptin level is a surrogate measure of insulin sensitivity. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.; 95(8): 3836-3843.
[42] Reseland JE, Andessen SA, Solvoll K, Hjermann I, Urdal P, Holme I, and Drevon CA.(2001). Effect of long-term change in diet and exercise on plasma leptin concentration. Clinical Nutrition 73: 240-245.
[43] Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks JS.(2003). Prevalence of obesity, diabetes and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA 289: 76-79.
[44] Mendosa-Nunez VM, Garcia-Sanchez A, Sanchez-Rodriguez M, Galvan-Duart RE, and Fonseca-Yerena EF.(2002). Overweight, waist circumference, age, gender, and insulin resistance as risk factors for Hyperleptinemia. Obesity Research 10:253-259.
[45] Frank LL, Sorensen BE, Yasui Y, Tworoger SS, Schwartz RS, Ulrich CM, Irwin ML, Rudolph RE, Rajan KB, Stanczyk F, Bowen D, Weigle DS, and Potter JD, McTiernan A. (2005). Effects of exercise on metabolic risk variables in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial. Obesity Research; 13: 615-625.
[46] Racette SB, Coppack SW, Landt M, and Klein S (1997) Leptin production during moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Journal of Clinical, Endocrinology and Metabolism 82: 2275-2277.
[47] Altman R, (2003), Risk factors in coronary atherosclerosis athero-inflammation: the meeting point. Thrombosis Journal; 1: 4-7.
[48] Stefanie L, and Martina E (2011). Physical activity and endogenous sex hormones in postmenopausal women. Cancer Causes Control, 22: 81-89.
[49] Akbarzadeh R (1996). Relationship between the ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference and risk factors and increased lipids and blood pressure in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes referred to the Endocrinology Institute in Tehran in 1995 and 1996. A Master’s thesis, Iran University of Medical Sciences; Faculty of Nursing.
[50] Ashwell M, and Lejeane S (1990). Ratio of waist circumference to height maybe better indicator need for weight management. BMI: 312-377.
[51] McMahon M, Skaggs BJ, Sahakian L, Grossman J, FitzGerald J, Ragavendra N, Charles-Schoeman C, Chernishof M, Gorn A, Witztum JL, Wong WK, Weisman M, Wallace DJ, La Cava A, and Hahn BH.(2011). High plasma leptin levels confer increased risk of atherosclerosis in women with systemic lupus erythematosus, and are associated with inflammatory oxidised lipids. Ann. Rheum. Dis.; 70(9): 1619-1624.
[52] Delavar A (2000). Research methods in psychology and educational sciences; 1st edition; Tehran; Payame Noor University Press.
[53] McHugh, P. R. and T. H. Moran (1979). Calories and gastric emptying: a regulatory capacity with implications for feeding. Am. J. Physiol., 236(5): p R 254-60.
[54] Shirreff, S.M., P. Watson, and R.J. Maughan (2007). Milk and effective post – exercise rehydratio drink. Br. J. Nutr., 9811: P.173-80.
[55] Merson S. J., Shirreff S. M., Leiper J. B., Maughan R. J.(2002). Changes in blood plasma and red cell volume after ingestion of hypotonic and hypertonic solutions. Proc. Nutr. Soc. (In the Press).
[56] Melov, S. et al.(2007). Resistance exercise reverses aging in human skeletal muscle. PLOS One., 2(5): p E 465.
[57] Miller, S. L. et al.(2002). Metabolic response to provision of mixed protein – carbohydrate supplementation during endurance exercise. Int. J. Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab.,12(4): p 384-97.
[58] Miller S. L. et al.(2007). The effects of nutritional supplementation throughout an endurance run on leucine kinetics during recovery. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Metab., 17(5): p 456-67.
[59] Cooke JP, and Oka RK (2002) Does leptin cause vascular disease? Circulation 106: 1904-1905.
[60] Canavan B, Salem RO, Schurgin PK, Lipinska I, Laposata M, and Grinspoon S (2005) Effect of physiological leptin administration on markers of inflammation, platelet activation, and platelet aggregation during caloric deprivation. The journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90(10): 5779-5785.
[61] Cooke, J. P. Oka, R. K. (2002). Does leptin cause vascular disease? Circulation 106: 1904-1905.
[62] Ahima, A. S. and Flier, J. S. (2000). Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Trends Endocrinology and Metabolism 11: 327-331.
[63] Altman, R. (2003). Risk factors in coronary atherosclerosis athero-inflammation: the meeting point. Thrombosis Journal 1: 4-7.
[64] Konstantinides S, Schafer K, Koschnick S, and Loskutoff DJ (2001) Leptin-dependent Platelet aggregation and arterial thrombosis suggests a mechanism for atherothrombitic disease in obesity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 108: 1533-1540.
[65] Kaye SA, Fdosom AR, and Jacobs DR (1995). Psychosocial correlates of body fat distribution in Black and white young adult. International journal of obesity, 17:271-277.
[66] Montain S.J., and Coyle E.F.(1992). Influence of graded dehydration on hyperthermia and cardiovascular drift during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol.73:1340-1350.
[67] Meier, U. and Gressner, A. M. (2004). Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism: review of pathobiology and clinical chemical aspects of leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin, and resistin. Clinical Chemistry 50: 1511-1525.
[68] Mokdad, A. H. Ford, E. S. Bowman, B. A. Dietz, W. H. Vinicor, F. Bales, V. S. and Marks, J. S. (2003). Prevalence of obesity, diabetes and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. Journal of American Medical Association 289: 76-79.
[69] Ostlund, R. E. Jr. Yang, S. and Gingerich, R. (1996). Relation between plasma leptin concentration and body fat, gender, diet, age, and metabolic covariates. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81: 3909-3913.
[70] Baratta, M. (2002). Leptin from a signal of adiposity to a hormone mediator in peripheral tissues. Medical Science Monitor 8: RA282-RA292.
[71] Gomez-Merino, D, Chennaoui, M, Drogou, C, Bonneau, D, and Guezennec, CY, (2002), Decrease in serum leptin after prolonged physical activity in men, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; 34: 1594-1599.
[72] Boden, G. Chen, X. Mozzoli, M. and Ryan, I. (1996). Effect of fasting on serum leptin in normal human subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81: 3419-3423.
[73] Brabeau, P. Gutin, B. Litaker, M. S. Ramsey, L. T. Cannady, W. E. Allison, J. Lemmon, C. R. and Owens, S. (2003). Influence of physical training on plasma leptin in obese youths. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 28: 382-396.
[74] Houmard JA, Cox JH, Maclean PS, and Barakat HA.(2000). Effect of short-term exercise training on leptin and insulin action. Metabolism 49: 858-861.
[75] Kukuljan, S. et al.(2009). Effects of resistance exercise and fortified milk on skeletal muscle mass, muscle size, and fanctional performance in middle-aged and older men:an 18-mo randomized controlled trial. J. Appl. Physical., 707 (6) L P.18 64-73.
[76] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z.(2004) Effect of selected training on body composition and aerobic power of Females College. Journal of Harkat, Iran, V1, 18-21.
[77] Sihna, M. K. and Caro, J. F. (1998). Clinical aspects of leptin. Vitamins and Hormones 54: 1-30.
[78] Spicer, L. J. (2001). Leptin: a possible metabolic signal affecting reproduction. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 21: 215-250.
[79] Kerksick CM, Wismann-Bunn J, Fogt D, Thomas AR, Taylor L, Campbell BI, Wilborn CD, Harvey T, Roberts MD, La Bounty P, Galbreath M, Marcello B, Rasmussen CJ, and Kreider corresponding RB.(2010). Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women, Nutr. J.; 9: 59.
[80] Hammer LD and Wilson BM (1991). Impact of pubertal development on body fat distribution among white, Hispanic and… Journal of pediatrics1, 88:975-980.
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[82] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z.(2004). Effect of selected training on body composition and aerobic power of Females College. Journal of Harkat, Iran, V 1, 18-21.

Chapter 10

[1] Hurst Thomas, D. (2001). Skull Wars Kennewick Man, Archaeology and the Battle for Native American Identity, Washington University: School of Law - Anheuser-Busch Hall, pp. 38-41.
[2] Nabieh, A. and Mohamed, I. (2010).Anthropometric Measurements as a Significant for Choosing Juniors in Both Volleyball and Handball Sports (Factorial Analysis Study), World Journal of Sport Sciences 3 (4): 277-289.
[3] Rogana, S., Hilfikerd, R., Clarysb, P., Clijsenc, R. and Taeymansac, J. (2011).Position-specific and Team-ranking-related Morphological Characteristics in German Amateur Soccer Players - a Descriptive Study, International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 1, 168-182.
[4] Luigi P.W., and Bercades, T.(2009).Somatotypes of national elite combative sport athletes, Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 1, p. 21-30.
[5] Dacres-Mannings, S., Rochester, S. and Frail, H. (2010).Anthropometric profiles of Australian Rugby Institute, club and state level Rugby Union players.
[6] Gaurav, V., Singh, M. and Singh, S. (2010).Anthropometric characteristics, somatotyping and body composition of volleyball and basketball players, Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management Vol. 1(3), pp. 28-32, Available online http://www.acadjourn.org/jpesm.
[7] Beat K. and Kohler, G. (2007).Influence of anthropometry on race performance in ultra-endurance triathletes in the longest triathlon in North America, International Sport Med. Journal, Vo.8 No.2, pp.87-96, http://www.ismj.com.
[8] Joseph, J., Greene, M.S., Timothy, A., McGuine, A.T.C., Leverson, G., and Thomas M. (1998).Anthropometric and Performance Measures for High School Basketball Players, Journal of Athletic Training, 33(3):229-232.
[9] Amatya, D. L. (1999). Comparative Study of Somatotype of Nepalese Sportsmen, National Association for Sports Health and Fitness.
[10] Sang Hong, K. (2008). Kinanthropometric Study of Korean and Nepalese Marathon Runners, keimyung university Diwakar Lal Amatya, MSC-Athletics and Sports Science-India, Sports Kinanthropometrist-Australia, Sports Expert-National Sports Council, January.
[11] Gaunt, B. W. (2001).Anthropometric and Demographic Factors Affecting Distance Hopped-aid Limb Symmetry Index for the Crossover Hop-for distance test in High School athletes, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy,31(3):145-151
[12] Gross, M., Dailey, E. S., Melissa, D., Dalton, A., Lee, K., Wendy, I. and Ashley, C. (2000).Relationship Between Lifting Capacity and Anthropometric Measures, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 30(5):237-247, 258-262.
[13] Roberto, C, Jose, A., Perez, J., Cortell, M. Juan, J. and Rivas, J. (2008). correlations among anthropometric parameters, jump power, and position in professional basketball players.
[14] Pui, W. K. and Hendrik H. (2008). Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners, ©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine7, 499-504, http://www.jssm.org.
[15] Jawis, M. N., Singh, R., Singh, H. J. and Yassin, M. N. (2005). Anthropometric and physiological profiles of sepaktakraw players, Br. J. Sports Med.;39:825-829. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2004.016915.
[16] Lephart, S. M., Abt, J. P., Ferris, C. M., Sell, T. C., Nagai, T., Myers, J. B. and Irrgang, J. (2005). Neuromuscular and biomechanical characteristic changes in high school athletes: a plyometric versus basic resistance program, Br. J. Sports Med. 2005;39:932-938. doi: 17.1136/bjsm.2005.019083.
[17] Darr, K.C., Bassett, D.R., Morgan, B.J. and Thomas, D.P. (1988). Effects of age and training status on heart rate recovery after peak exercise. American Journal of Physiology 254, H340-H343.
[18] Engerman, S. (1976), ‘The Height of US Slaves,’ Local Population Studies, Vol. 16, no.1, 45-50.
[19] Sunder, M. (2004) ‘The Making of Giants in a Welfare State: The Norwegian Experience in the Twentieth Century,’ Economics and Biology, 75-86.
[20] Woitek, U. (2003) ‘Height Cycles in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries,’ Economics and Human Biology, 243-258.
[21] Fogel, R. (1994). ‘Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the making of Economic Policy,’ American Economic Review, 369-394.
[22] Goonetilleke, R. S., Ho, Cheuk Fan E. and So, R. H. Y. (1997). Foot Anthropometry in Hong Kong (pp. 81-88) Proceedings of the ASEAN 97 Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
[23] Baten, J. (2000). “Economic Development and the Distribution of Nutritional Resources in Bavaria, 1797-1839,”In:Journal of Income Distribution 9, 89-106.
[24] Hariri Asli K. (2012). Water Hammer Research; Advances in Nonlinear Dynamics Modeling, (pp. 88-121). Canada, US: Published by Apple Academic Press, Inc., Exclusive worldwide distribution by CRC Press, a Taylor and Francis Group, Print ISBN:9781926895314,eBook: 978-1-46-656887-7.
[25] Hariri Asli, K., Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K. (2010). “Some Aspects of Physical and Numerical Modeling of Water Hammer in Pipelines,” Nonlinear Dynamics An International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Engineering Systems, ISSN: 1573-269X (electronic version) Journal no. 11071 Springer, Netherlands, 2009, ISSN: 0924-090X (print version), Heidelberg, Germany, Springer, Volume 60, Number 4/June, 677-701.
[26] Heather, E. (2002). Collins-Schramm and others, “Markers that Discriminate Between European and African Ancestry Show Limited Variation Within Africa,” Human Genetics 111, 566-9.
[27] Komlos, J. and Baur, M. (2004) “From the Tallest to One of the Fattest: The Enigmatic Fate of the Size of the American Population in the Twentieth Century,” Economics and Human Biology 2, no. 1, 57-74.
[28] Komlos, J. and Kriwy, P. (2003) “The Biological Standard of Living in the Two Germanies,” German Economic Review 4, 493-507.
[29] Levy, W.C., Cerqueira, M.D., Harp, G.D., Johannessen, K.A., Abrass, I.B., Schwartz, R.S. and Stratton, J.R. (1998) Effect of endurance exercise training on heart rate variability at rest in healthy young and older men. The American Journal of cardiology,82, 1236-1241.
[30] Margo, R. (1982), The Heights of American Slaves. Social Science History, Vol. 6, 516-538.
[31] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z. (2005). The effect of exercise training on body composition and aerobic power in sedentary college age females, International Journal of Fitness, India, V1, 24-31.
[32] Hariri Asli, K. and Haghi, A.K. (2010).A Numerical Study on Fluid Flow and Pressure drop in Microtubes, Journal of the Balkan Tribological Association, Tribotechnics and tribomechanics, Sofia, Bulgaria, Vol. 16, No 3, 382-392.
[33] Rahmani-Nia, F., Rahnama, N.,Hojjati, Z.andSoltani, B. (2008). Acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on serum leptin and some risk factors of coronary heart disease in obese females. Sport sciences for health, V 2, No. 3, 118-124.
[34] Rahmani-Nia, F.,Hojjati, Z., Rahnama, N. and Soltani, B. (2009). “Leptin, heart disease and exercise.”World Journal of Sport Sciences, Iran,V 2, No. 1, 13-20.
[35] Rushton, J. P. (2004). Race, Brain Size, and Intelligence: A Rejoinder to Cain and Vanderwolf, Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 785-794.
[36] Hariri Asli, K.,Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K.(2010).A computational approach to study fluid movement, Nanomaterials Yearbook - 2009, From Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies to Nanoindustry (pp.181-196). US: Nova Science Publications. ISBN: 978-1-60876-451-8. 16.
[37] Young, J. W. (2008). Anthropometric and Mass Distribution Characteristics of the Adult Female FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute FAA 9-83.
[38] Bartlett, R. (2007). Introduction to Sports Biomechanics, 2nd Edition. Taylor and Francise- Library.
[39] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z.(2004) Effect of selected training on body composition and aerobic power of Females College. Journal of Harkat, Iran, V1, 18-21.

Chapter 11

[1] Hurst Thomas, D. (2001). Skull Wars Kennewick Man, Archaeology and the Battle for Native American Identity, Washington University: School of Law - Anheuser-Busch Hall, pp. 38 – 41.
[2] Nabieh, A. and Mohamed, I. (2010).Anthropometric Measurements as a Significant for Choosing Juniors in Both Volleyball and Handball Sports (Factorial Analysis Study), World Journal of Sport Sciences 3 (4): 277-289.
[3] Rogana, S., Hilfikerd, R., Clarysb, P., Clijsenc, R. and Taeymansac, J. (2011).Position-specific and Team-ranking-related Morphological Characteristics in German Amateur Soccer Players - a Descriptive Study, International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 1, 168-182.
[4] Luigi P.W., and Bercades, T. (2009).Somatotypes of national elite combative sport athletes, Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 1, p. 21-30.
[5] Dacres-Mannings, S., Rochester, S. and Frail, H.(2010).Anthropometric profiles of Australian Rugby Institute, club and state level Rugby Union players.
[6] Gaurav, V., Singh, M. and Singh, S. (2010).Anthropometric characteristics, somatotyping and body composition of volleyball and basketball players, Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management Vol. 1(3), pp. 28-32, Available online http://www.acadjourn.org/jpesm.
[7] Beat K. and Kohler, G. (2007).Influence of anthropometry on race performance in ultra-endurance triathletes in the longest triathlon in North America, International Sport Med Journal, Vo.8 No.2, pp.87-96, http://www.ismj.com.
[8] Joseph, J., Greene, M.S., Timothy, A., McGuine, A.T.C., Leverson, G., and Thomas M. (1998).Anthropometric and Performance Measures for High School Basketball Players, Journal of Athletic Training, 33(3):229-232.
[9] Amatya, D. L. (1999). Comparative Study of Somatotype of Nepalese Sportsmen, National Association for Sports Health and Fitness.
[10] Sang Hong, K. (2008).Kinanthropometric Study of Korean and Nepalese Marathon Runners, keimyung university Diwakar Lal Amatya, MSC-Athletics and Sports Science-India, Sports Kinanthropometrist-Australia, Sports Expert-National Sports Council, January.
[11] Gaunt, B. W. (2001).Anthropometric and Demographic Factors Affecting Distance Hopped-aid Limb Symmetry Index for the Crossover Hop-for distance test in High School athletes, Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy,31(3):145-151.
[12] Gross, M., Dailey, E. S., Melissa, D., Dalton, A., lee, K., Wendy, I. and Ashley, C. (2000).Relationship between Lifting Capacity and Anthropometric Measures, Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 30(5):237-247, 258-262.
[13] Roberto, C, Jose, A., Perez, J., Cortell, M. Juan, J. and Rivas, J. (2008). Correlations among anthropometric parameters, jump power, and position in professional basketball players.
[14] Pui, W. K. and Hendrik H. (2008).Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine

7, 499-504, http://www.jssm.org.
[15] Hariri Asli, K., Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K. (2010). “Some Aspects of Physical and Numerical Modeling of Water Hammer in Pipelines,” Nonlinear Dynamics An International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Engineering Systems, ISSN: 1573-269X (electronic version) Journal no. 11071 Springer, Netherlands, 2009, ISSN: 0924-090X (print version), Heidelberg, Germany, Springer, Volume 60, Number 4 / June, 677-701.
[16] Heather, E. (2002). Collins-Schramm and others, “Markers that Discriminate between European and African Ancestry Show Limited Variation Within Africa,” Human Genetics111, 566-9.
[17] Komlos, J. and Baur, M. (2004) “From the Tallest to One of the Fattest: The Enigmatic Fate of the Size of the American Population in the Twentieth Century,” Economics and Human Biology 2, no. 1, 57-74.
[18] Komlos, J. and Kriwy, P. (2003) “The Biological Standard of Living in the Two Germanies,” German Economic Review 4, 493-507.
[19] Levy, W.C., Cerqueira, M.D., Harp, G.D., Johannessen, K.A., Abrass, I.B., Schwartz, R.S. and Stratton, J.R. (1998) Effect of endurance exercise training on heart rate variability at rest in healthy young and older men. The American Journal of cardiology,82

, 1236-1241.
[20] Margo, R. (1982), The Heights of American Slaves. Social Science History, Vol. 6, 516-538.
[21] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z. (2005). The effect of exercise training on body composition and aerobic power in sedentary college age females, International Journal of Fitness, India, V1, 24-31.
[22] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z.(2004) Effect of selected training on body composition and aerobic power of Females College. Journal of Harkat, Iran, V1, 18-21.
[23] Rahmani-Nia, F., Rahnama, N.,Hojjati, Z. AndSoltani, B. (2008). Acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on serum leptin and some risk factors of coronary heart disease in obese females. Sport sciences for health, V 2, No.3, 118-124.
[24] Rahmani-Nia, F.,Hojjati, Z., Rahnama, N.and Soltani, B. (2009)." Leptin, heart disease and exercise. World Journal of Sport Sciences, Iran,V 2, No. 1, 13-20.
[25] Rushton, J. P. (2004). Race, Brain Size, and Intelligence: A Rejoinder to Cain and Vanderwolf, Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 785-794.
[26] Hariri Asli, K., Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K.(2010).A computational approach to study fluid movement, Nanomaterials Yearbook - 2009, From Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies to Nanoindustry, (pp.181-196). USA: Nova Science Publications. ISBN:978-1-60876-451-8. 16.
[27] Young, J. W. (2008).Anthropometric and Mass Distribution Characteristics of the Adult Female FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute FAA 9-83.
[28] Bartlett, R. (2007). Introduction to Sports Biomechanics, 2nd Edition. Taylor & Francise-Library.
[29] Hariri Asli, K. and Haghi, A.K. (2010).A Numerical Study on Fluid Flow and Pressure drop in Microtubes, Journal of the Balkan Tribological Association, Tribotechnics and tribomechanics, Sofia, Bulgaria, Vol. 16, No 3, 382-392.
[30] Spicer, L. J. (2001). Leptin: a possible metabolic signal affecting reproduction. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 21: 215-250.
[31] Unal, M. Unal, D. D. O. Baltaci, A. K. and Mgulkoc, R. (2005). Investigation of serum leptin levels and Vo2max value in trained young male athletes and healthy males. Acta Physiology Hungary 92: 173-179.
[32] Askari H, Tykodi G, Liu J, Dagogo-Jack S.(2010). Fasting plasma leptin level is a surrogate measure of insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 95(8): 3836–3843.
[33] Reseland JE, Andessen SA, Solvoll K, Hjermann I, Urdal P, Holme I, and Drevon CA (2001) Effect of long-term change in diet and exercise on plasma leptin concentration. Clinical Nutrition 73: 240-245.
[34] Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, and Marks JS (2003) Prevalence of obesity, diabetes and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA 289: 76-79.
[35] Mendosa-Nunez VM, Garcia-Sanchez A, Sanchez-Rodriguez M, Galvan-Duart RE, and Fonseca-Yerena EF (2002)Overweight, waist circumference, age, gender, and insulin resistance as risk factors for Hyperleptinemia. Obesity Research 10:253-259.
[36] Frank LL, Sorensen BE, Yasui Y, Tworoger SS, Schwartz RS, Ulrich CM, Irwin ML, Rudolph RE, Rajan KB, Stanczyk F, Bowen D, Weigle DS, Potter JD, and McTiernan A. (2005). Effects of exercise on metabolic risk variables in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial. Obesity Research; 13: 615-625.
[37] Racette SB, Coppack SW, Landt M, and Klein S (1997) Leptin production during moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Journal of Clinical, Endocrinology and Metabolism 82: 2275-2277.
[38] Altman R, (2003), Risk factors in coronary atherosclerosis athero-inflammation: the meeting point. Thrombosis journal; 1: 4-7.
[39] Stefanie L, and Martina E (2011). Physical activity and endogenous sex hormones in postmenopausal women. Cancer Causes Control, 22: 81-89.
[40] Akbarzadeh R (1996).Relationship between the ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference and risk factors and increased lipids and blood pressure in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes referred to the Endocrinology Institute in Tehran in 1995 and 1996. A Master's thesis, Iran University of Medical Sciences; Faculty of Nursing.
[41] Ashwell M, and Lejeane S (1990). Ratio of waist circumference to height maybe better indicator need for weight management. BMI: 312-377.
[42] McMahon M, Skaggs BJ, Sahakian L, Grossman J, FitzGerald J, and Ragavendra N, Charles-Schoeman C, Chernishof M, Gorn A, Witztum JL, Wong WK, Weisman M, Wallace DJ, La Cava A, and Hahn BH.(2011). High plasma leptin levels confer increased risk of atherosclerosis in women with systemic lupus erythematosus, and are associated with inflammatory oxidised lipids. Ann Rheum Dis; 70(9): 1619–1624.
[43] Delavar A (2000). Research methods in psychology and educational sciences; 1st edition; Tehran; Payame Noor University Press.
[44] McHugh, P. R. and T. H. Moran, Calories and gastric emptying: a regulatory capacity with implications for feeding. Am J Physiol. 1979. 236(5): p R 254 – 60.
[45] Shirreff, S.M., P. Watson, and R.J. Maughan, Milk and effective post – exercise rehydratio drink. Br J Nutr, 2007. 9811): P.173-80.
[46] Merson S. J., Shirreff S. M., Leiper J. B., and Maughan R. J: Changes in blood plasma and red cell volume after ingestion of hypotonic and hypertonic solutions. Proc. Nutr. Soc (In the Press), 2002.
[47] Melov, S. et al., Resistance exercise reverses aging in human skeletal muscle. PLOS One. 2007. 2(5): p E 465.
[48] Miller, S. L., et al. Metabolic response to provision of mixed protein – carbohydrate supplementation during endurance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2002. 12(4): p 384 – 97.
[49] Miller S. L., et al., The effects of nutritional supplementation throughout an endurance run on leucine kinetics during recovery. Int J Sport Nutr Metab, 2007. 17(5): p 456 – 67.
[50] Cooke JP, and Oka RK (2002) Does leptin cause vascular disease? Circulation 106: 1904-1905.
[51] Canavan B, Salem RO, Schurgin PK, Lipinska I, Laposata M, and Grinspoon S (2005) Effect of physiological leptin administration on markers of inflammation, platelet activation, and platelet aggregation during caloric deprivation. The journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90(10): 5779-5785.
[52] Cooke, J. P. and Oka, R. K. (2002). Does leptin cause vascular disease? Circulation 106: 1904-1905.
[53] Ahima, A. S. and Flier, J. S. (2000). Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Trends Endocrinology and Metabolism 11: 327-331.
[54] Altman, R. (2003). Risk factors in coronary atherosclerosis athero-inflammation: the meeting point. Thrombosis journal 1: 4-7.
[55] Konstantinides S, Schafer K, Koschnick S, and Loskutoff DJ (2001) Leptin-dependent Platelet aggregation and arterial thrombosis suggests a mechanism for atherothrombitic disease in obesity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 108: 1533-1540.
[56] Kaye SA, Fdosom AR, and Jacobs DR (1995). Psychosocial correlates of body fat distribution in Black and white young adult. International journal of obesity, 17:271-277.
[57] Montain S.J., and Coyle E.F.: Influence of graded dehydration on hyperthermia and cardiovascular drift during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol.73:1340-1350,1992a.
[58] Meier, U. and Gressner, A. M. (2004). Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism: review of pathobiology and clinical chemical aspects of leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin, and resistin. Clinical Chemistry 50: 1511-1525.
[59] Mokdad, A. H. Ford, E. S. Bowman, B. A. Dietz, W. H. Vinicor, F. Bales, V. S. and Marks, J. S. (2003). Prevalence of obesity, diabetes and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. Journal of American Medical Association 289: 76-79.
[60] Ostlund, R. E. Jr. Yang, S. and Gingerich, R. (1996). Relation between plasma leptin concentration and body fat, gender, diet, age, and metabolic covariates. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81: 3909-3913.
[61] Baratta, M. (2002). Leptin from a signal of adiposity to a hormone mediator in peripheral tissues. Medical Science Monitor 8: RA282-RA292.
[62] Gomez-Merino, D, Chennaoui, M, Drogou, C, Bonneau, D, and Guezennec, CY, (2002), Decrease in serum leptin after prolonged physical activity in men, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; 34: 1594 – 1599.
[63] Boden, G. Chen, X. Mozzoli, M. and Ryan, I. (1996). Effect of fasting on serum leptin in normal human subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81: 3419-3423.
[64] Brabeau, P. Gutin, B. Litaker, M. S. Ramsey, L. T. Cannady, W. E. Allison, J. Lemmon, C. R. and Owens, S. (2003). Influence of physical training on plasma leptin in obese youths. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 28: 382-396.
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Chapter 12

[1] Hurst Thomas, D. (2001). Skull Wars Kennewick Man, Archaeology and the Battle for Native American Identity, Washington University: School of Law - Anheuser-Busch Hall, pp. 38-41.
[2] BAHR, Section I. (2005).Tab. 1 Page 5. (2).
[3] Van Mechelen W.(1993). Am. J. Sports Med., Sep-Oct;21(5):711-9.
[4] Alderete, J., Tupper, P., and Frisch, S. A. (1993). Arabic root cooccurrence restrictions revisited: A connectionist approach to phonological constraint induction, Proceedings of the 48th annual meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society.
[5] Soligard T., Myklebust G., and Steffen K.(2008). “Comprehensive warm-up programme to prevent injuries in young female footballers: cluster randomised controlled trial.” BMJ337: a2469.doi:10.1136 /bmj.a2469.PMC2600961.PMID19066253.
[6] Nabieh, A. and Mohamed, I. (2010). Anthropometric Measurements as a Significant for Choosing Juniors in Both Volleyball and Handball Sports (Factorial Analysis Study), World Journal of Sport Sciences 3 (4): 277-289.
[7] Rogana, S., Hilfikerd, R., Clarysb, P., Clijsenc, R. and Taeymansac, J. (2011).Position-specific and Team-ranking-related Morphological Characteristics in German Amateur Soccer Players - a Descriptive Study, International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 1, 168-182.
[8] Luigi P.W., and Bercades, T.(2009).Somatotypes of national elite combative sport athletes, Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 1, p. 21-30.
[9] Dacres-Mannings, S., Rochester, S. and Frail, H. (2010).Anthropometric profiles of Australian Rugby Institute, club and state level Rugby Union players.
[10] Gaurav, V., Singh, M. and Singh, S. (2010).Anthropometric characteristics, somatotyping and body composition of volleyball and basketball players, Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management Vol. 1(3), pp. 28-32, Available online http://www.acad journ.org/jpesm.
[11] Beat K. and Kohler, G. (2007).Influence of anthropometry on race performance in ultra-endurance triathletes in the longest triathlon in North America, International Sport Med. Journal, Vo.8 No.2, pp.87-96, http://www.ismj.com.
[12] Joseph, J., Greene, M.S., Timothy, A., McGuine, A.T.C., Leverson, G., and Thomas M. (1998).Anthropometric and Performance Measures for High School Basketball Players, Journal of Athletic Training, 33(3):229-232.
[13] Amatya, D. L. (1999). Comparative Study of Somatotype of Nepalese Sportsmen, National Association for Sports Health and Fitness.
[14] Sang Hong, K. (2008). Kinanthropometric Study of Korean and Nepalese Marathon Runners, keimyung university Diwakar Lal Amatya, MSC-Athletics and Sports Science-India, Sports Kinanthropometrist-Australia, Sports Expert-National Sports Council, January.
[15] Gaunt, B. W. (2001).Anthropometric and Demographic Factors Affecting Distance Hopped-aid Limb Symmetry Index for the Crossover Hop-for distance test in High School athletes, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy,31(3):145-151.
[16] Gross, M., Dailey, E. S., Melissa, D., Dalton, A., Lee, K., Wendy, I. and Ashley, C. (2000).Relationship Between Lifting Capacity and Anthropometric Measures, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 30(5):237-247, 258-262.
[17] Roberto, C, Jose, A., Perez, J., Cortell, M. Juan, J. and Rivas, J. (2008). Correlations among anthropometric parameters, jump power, and position in professional basketball players.
[18] Pui, W. K. and Hendrik H. (2008). Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners, ©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine7, 499-504, http://www.jssm.org.
[19] Jawis, M. N., Singh, R., Singh, H. J. and Yassin, M. N. (2005). Anthropometric and physiological profiles of sepaktakraw players, Br. J. Sports Med.;39:825-829. doi: 20.1136/bjsm.2004.016915.
[20] Lephart, S. M., Abt, J. P., Ferris, C. M., Sell, T. C., Nagai, T., Myers, J. B. and Irrgang, J. (2005). Neuromuscular and biomechanical characteristic changes in high school athletes: a plyometric versus basic resistance program, Br. J. Sports Med. 2005;39:932-938. doi: 17.1136/bjsm.2005.019083.
[21] Darr, K.C., Bassett, D.R., Morgan, B.J. and Thomas, D.P. (1988). Effects of age and training status on heart rate recovery after peak exercise. American Journal of Physiology 254, H340-H343.
[22] Engerman, S. (1976), ‘The Height of US Slaves,’ Local Population Studies, Vol. 16, no.1, 45-50.
[23] Sunder, M. (2004) ‘The Making of Giants in a Welfare State: The Norwegian Experience in the Twentieth Century,’ Economics and Biology, 75-86.
[24] Woitek, U. (2003) ‘Height Cycles in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries,’ Economics and Human Biology, 243-258.
[25] Fogel, R. (1994). ‘Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the making of Economic Policy,’ American Economic Review, 369-394.
[26] Baten, J. (2000). “Economic Development and the Distribution of Nutritional Resources in Bavaria, 1797-1839,”In:Journal of Income Distribution 9, 89-106.
[27] Hariri Asli K. (2012). Water Hammer Research; Advances in Nonlinear Dynamics Modeling, (pp. 88-121). Canada, US: Published by Apple Academic Press, Inc., Exclusive worldwide distribution by CRC Press, a Taylor and Francis Group, Print ISBN:9781926895314,eBook: 978-1-46-656887-7.
[28] Hariri Asli, K., Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K. (2010). “Some Aspects of Physical and Numerical Modeling of Water Hammer in Pipelines,” Nonlinear Dynamics An International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Engineering Systems, ISSN: 1573-269X (electronic version) Journal no. 11071 Springer, Netherlands, 2009, ISSN: 0924-090X (print version), Heidelberg, Germany, Springer, Volume 60, Number 4/June, 677-701.
[29] Heather, E. (2002). Collins-Schramm and others, “Markers that Discriminate Between European and African Ancestry Show Limited Variation Within Africa,” Human Genetics 111, 566-9.
[30] Komlos, J. and Baur, M. (2004) “From the Tallest to One of the Fattest: The Enigmatic Fate of the Size of the American Population in the Twentieth Century,” Economics and Human Biology 2, no. 1, 57-74.
[31] Komlos, J. and Kriwy, P. (2003) “The Biological Standard of Living in the Two Germanies,” German Economic Review 4, 493-507.
[32] Levy, W.C., Cerqueira, M.D., Harp, G.D., Johannessen, K.A., Abrass, I.B., Schwartz, R.S. and Stratton, J.R. (1998) Effect of endurance exercise training on heart rate variability at rest in healthy young and older men. The American Journal of cardiology,82, 1236-1241.
[33] Margo, R. (1982), The Heights of American Slaves. Social Science History, Vol. 6, 516-538.
[34] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z. (2005). The effect of exercise training on body composition and aerobic power in sedentary college age females, International Journal of Fitness, India, V1, 24-31.
[35] Rahmani-Nia, F. and Hojjati, Z. (2004). Effect of selected training on body composition and aerobic power of Females College. Journal of Harkat, Iran, V1, 18-21.
[36] Rahmani-Nia, F., Rahnama, N.,Hojjati, Z. and Soltani, B. (2008). Acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on serum leptin and some risk factors of coronary heart disease in obese females. Sport sciences for health, V 2, No. 3, 118-124.
[37] Rushton, J. P. (2004). Race, Brain Size, and Intelligence: A Rejoinder to Cain and Vanderwolf, Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 785-794.
[38] Hariri Asli, K.,Nagiyev, F.B. and Haghi, A.K.(2010).A computational approach to study fluid movement, Nanomaterials Yearbook - 2009, From Nanostructures, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies to Nanoindustry,(pp.181-196). US: Nova Science Publications. ISBN: 978-1-60876-451-8. 16.
[39] Young, J. W. (2008). Anthropometric and Mass Distribution Characteristics of the Adult Female FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute FAA 9-83.
[40] Bartlett, R. (2007). Introduction to Sports Biomechanics, 2nd Edition. Taylor and Francise-Library.
[41] Hariri Asli, K. and Haghi, A.K. (2010).A Numerical Study on Fluid Flow and Pressure drop in Microtubes, Journal of the Balkan Tribological Association, Tribotechnics and tribomechanics, Sofia, Bulgaria, Vol. 16, No 3, 382-392.
[42] Goonetilleke, R. S., Ho, Cheuk Fan E. and So, R. H. Y. (1997). Foot Anthropometry in Hong Kong (pp. 81-88) Proceedings of the ASEAN 97 Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
[43] Rahmani-Nia, F.,Hojjati, Z., Rahnama, N. and Soltani, B. (2009). “Leptin, heart disease and exercise.”World Journal of Sport Sciences, Iran, V 2, No. 1, 13-20.

Chapter 13

[1] Gaeeni A., and Lameyi T. (2003). The relationship between percent body fat (%BF)and Body mass index(BMI), and the ratio of waist to hip circumference(WHR)women over fifteen years in Tehran. Harkat Journal, 17:95-105. (In Persian with English abstract).
[2] C. J. Caspersen, K. E. Powell, and G. M. Christenson. (2009).Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research [abstract].Public Health Report. 1985; 100(2): 126-131. Accessed July 2, PMID: 1424733,http://www.pubmed central.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1424733.
[3] World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe Website. A Physically Active Life Through Everyday Transport. Accessed September 28, 2010. Download the pdf document here or log on athttp://www.euro.who.int/en/what-we-do/health-topics/environmental-health/Transport-and-health/publications/pre-2009/a-physically-active-life-through-everyday-transport-2002.
[4] C. J. Caspersen, K. E. Powell, and G. M. Christenson. (1985).Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research.Public Health Reports,100(2): 126-131. Accessed July 2, 2009. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi ?artid=1424733.
[5] A. Cornil, A. De Coster, G. Copinschi, and J. R. M. Franckson (1965). "Effect of muscular exercise on the plasma level of cortisol in man". European Journal of Endocrinology.
[6] Cohen S., and Williamson G. M. (1991). "Stress and infectious disease in humans". Psychological Bulletin 109: 5–24.doi:10.1037/0033-2909.109.1.5. PMID 2006229.
[7] Jason Menoutis, Ed.D., (2008). "Physical Activity and Health" (Abstract). Nasm. Pro. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
[8] Borer, K. T.; Wuorineen E. C., Lukos J. R., Denver J. W., Porges S. W., and Burant F. (August 2009). "Two bouts of exercise before meals but not after meals, lower fasting blood glucose". Medicine in Science and Sports and Exercise 41 (8): 1606–14.doi:10.1249/MSS .0b013e31819dfe14. PMID 19568199.
[9] Silberner, Joanne (June 7, 2010). "100 Years Ago, Exercise Was Blended Into Daily Life". npr.org. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
[10] Wislett, Ulrik; Ellingsen O., and Kemi O. (July 2009). "High=Intensity Interval Training to Maximize Cardiac Benefit of Exercise Taining?". Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews 37(3): 139–146. doi:10.1097/JES.0b013e3181aa65fc.PMID 19550205.
[11] Hanc, J.(1987). Your Health Behind the Runner\'s Euphoria. \'\'Newsday, April 21, retrieved October 5, 2006, from Pro. Quest database.
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[13] A. B. Burfoot, and Amby (June 2004). "Runner's High". Runner's World. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
[14] Bouchard, Claude; Ping An, Treva Rice, James S. Skinner, Jack H. Wilmore, Jacques Gagnon, Louis Perusse, Arthus S. Leon, and D. C. Rao (September 1, 1999). "Familial aggregation of VO(2max) response to exercise training: results from the HERITAGE Family Study". Journal of Applied Physiology, 87(3): 1003–1008. PMID 10484570. Retrieved 2007-07-17.
[15] Kolata, Gina (February 12, 2002). "Why Some People Won't Be Fit Despite Exercise". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-07-17.
[16] Hubal, M. J.; Gordish-Dressman H., Thompson P. D., Price T. B., Hoffman E. P., Angelopoulos T. J., Gordon P. M., Moyna N. M., Pescatello L. S., Visich P. S., Zoeller R. F., Seip R. L., and Clarkson P. M. (June 2005). "Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training". Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37 (6): 964–972. PMID 15947721.
[17] Brutsaert, Tom D.; and Esteban J. Parra (2006). "What makes a champion? Explaining variation in human athletic performance" (PDF). Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 151 (2–3): 109–123. doi:10.1016/j.resp.2005.12.013.PMID 16448865. Archived from the original on 2007-08-10. Retrieved 2007-07-17.
[18] Geddes, Linda (2007-07-28). "Superhuman". New Scientist. pp. 35–41.
[19] Stefanie L., and Martina E. (2011). Physical activity and endogenous sex hormones in postmenopausal women. Cancer Causes Control, 22:
81-89.
[20] Enas E. A. (2000). Coronary artery disease epidemic in Indians: a cause for alarm and far action. J. Indian Med. Assoc., 98:694-702.
[21] Naeini M., Dorostimotla A., and Aghdak P. (2006). Checking of obesity, low weight, elderly and factors associated with BMI,WHR,PBF the use of city indexes. Journal of mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 52 (50):117-123.
[22] Delavar A. (2000). Research methods in psychology and educational sciences; 1st edition; Tehran; Payame Noor University Press.
[23] AkbarzadehR. (1996).Relationship between the ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference and risk factors and increased lipids and blood pressure in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes referred to the Endocrinology Institute in Tehran in 1995 and 1996. A Master's thesis, Iran University of Medical Sciences; Faculty of Nursing.
[24] Kaye S. A., Fdosom A. R., and Jacobs D. R. (1995). Psychosocial correlates of body fat distribution in Black and white young adult. International journal of obesity, 17:271-277.
[25] Folsom A. R., Kaye S. A., Sellers T. A., Hong C. P., Cerhan J. R.,Potter J. D., and Pcineass R. J. C. (1993). Body fat distribution and 5-year risk of death in older women. JAMA, 269:483-487.
[26] Dalton M., Cameron A. S., Zimmet P. Z., Shaw J. E., Jolley D., Dunstan D. W., and Welbon T. A. (2003). Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass indies and their correlation with cardiovascular disease risk factors in Australian adults. J. Intern. Med., 254:255-563.
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[28] Janssen I., Heymsfield S., Allison D., Kotler D., and Ross R. (2002). Body mass and waist circumference independently contribute to the prediction of non-abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat. Am. J. clin. Nutr., 75:683-8.
[29] Ashwell M., and Lejeane S. (1990). Ratio of waist circumference to height maybe better indicator need for weight management. BMI, 312-377.
[30] Folsom A. R. J., Stevens P. J., Schreiner P. A., and McGovern (1998). Body mass index, waist hip ratio and coronary heart disease incidence in African Americans and whites. Am. J. Epidmeiol., 148:1187-94.
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Chapter 14

[1] Hurst Thomas, D. (2001). Skull Wars Kennewick Man, Archaeologyand the Battle for Native American Identity, Washington University: School of Law - Anheuser-Busch Hall, pp. 38-41.
[2] BAHR, Section I. (2005). Tab 1 Page 5. (2).
[3] Van Mechelen W.(1993). Am J Sports Med., Sep-Oct;21(5):711-9.
[4] Alderete,J., Tupper, P., and Frisch, S. A. (1993). Arabic root cooccurrence restrictions revisited: A connectionist approach tophonological constraint induction, Proceedings of the 48th annual meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society.
[5] Soligard T., Myklebust G., and Steffen K. (2008). Comprehensive warm-up programme to prevent injuries in young female footballers: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 37: a2469.doi:10.1136/bmj. a2469.MC2600961.PMID19066253.
[6] Nabieh, A.and Mohamed, I. (2010).Anthropometric Measurements as a Significant for Choosing Juniors in Both Volleyball and Handball Sports (Factorial Analysis Study), World Journal of Sport Sciences 3 (4): 277-289.
[7] Rogana, S., Hilfikerd, R., Clarysb, P., Clijsenc, R. and Taeymansac, J. (2011).Position-specific and Team-ranking-related Morphological Characteristics in German Amateur Soccer Players - a Descriptive Study, International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 1, 168-182.
[8] Luigi P.W., and Bercades, T.(2009).Somatotypes of national elite combative sport athletes, Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 21-30.
[9] Dacres-Mannings, S., Rochester, S. and Frail, H. (2010).Anthropometric profiles of Australian Rugby Institute, club and state level Rugby Union players.
[10] Gaurav, V., Singh, M. and Singh, S. (2010).Anthropometric characteristics, somatotyping and body composition of volleyball and basketball players, Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management Vol. 1(3), pp. 28-32, Available online http://www.acadjourn.org/jpesm.
[11] Beat K. and Kohler, G. (2007).Influence of anthropometry on race performance in ultra-endurance triathletes in the longest triathlon in North America, International Sport Med Journal, Vol.8 No.2, pp.87-96, http://www.ismj.com.
[12] Joseph, J., Greene, M.S., Timothy, A., McGuine, A.T.C., Leverson, G., and Thomas M. (1998).Anthropometric and Performance Measures for High School Basketball Players, Journal of Athletic Training, 33(3):229-232.
[13] Amatya, D. L. (1999). Comparative Study of Somatotype of Nepalese Sportsmen, National Association for Sports Health and Fitness.
[14] Sang Hong, K. (2008). Kinanthropometric Study of Korean and Nepalese Marathon Runners, Keimyung University Diwakar Lal Amatya, MSC-Athletics and Sports Science-India, Sports Kinanthropometrist-Australia, Sports Expert-National Sports Council, January.
[15] Gaunt, B. W. (2001).Anthropometric and Demographic Factors Affecting Distance Hopped-aid Limb Symmetry Index for the Crossover Hop-for distance test in High School athletes, Journal of Orthopaedic &Sports Physical Therapy,31(3):145-151.
[16] Gross, M., Dailey, E. S., Melissa, D., Dalton, A., lee, K., Wendy, I. and Ashley, C. (2000).Relationship between Lifting Capacity and Anthropometric Measures, Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 30(5):237-247, 258-262.
[17] Roberto, C, Jose, a., Perez, J., Cortell, M. Juan, J. and Rivas, J. (2008).Correlations among anthropometric parameters, jump power, and position in professional basketball players.
[18] Pui, W. K. and Hendrik H. (2008).Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine7, 499-504, http://www.jssm.org.
[19] Jawis, M. N., Singh, R., Singh, H. J. and Yassin, M. N. (2005).Anthropometric and physiological profiles of sepak takraw players, Br.J. Sports Med;39:825-829. doi: 20.1136/bjsm.2004.016915.
[20] Lephart, S. M., Abt, J. P., Ferris, C. M., Sell, T. C., Nagai, T., Myers, J. B. and Irrgang, J. (2005).Neuromuscular and biomechanical characteristic changes in high school athletes: a plyometric versus basic resistance program, Br J Sports Med 2005;39:932-938. doi:17.1136/bjsm.2005.019083.
[21] Darr, K.C., Bassett, D.R., Morgan, B.J. and Thomas, D.P. (1988). Effects of age and training status on heart rate recovery after peak exercise. American Journal of Physiology 254, H340-H343.
[22] Engerman, S. (1976), ‘The Height of U.S. Slaves,’ Local Population Studies, Vol. 16, No.1, 45-50.
[23] Sunder, M. (2004), ‘The Making of Giants in a Welfare State: The Norwegian Experience in the Twentieth Century,’ Economics and Biology, 75-86.
[24] Woitek, U. (2003) ‘Height Cycles in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries,’ Economics and Human Biology, 243-258.
[25] Fogel, R. (1994). ‘Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the making of Economic Policy,’ American Economic Review, 369-394.
[26] Baten, J. (2000). Economic Development and the Distribution of Nutritional Resources in Bavaria, 1797-1839, in Journal of Income Distribution 9, 89-106.

Chapter 15

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[36] Fatouros IG, Tournis S, Leontsini D, Jamurtas AZ, Sxina M, Thomakos P, Manousaki M, Douroudos I, Taxildaris K, and Mitrakou A (2005) Leptin and adiponectin responses in overweight inactive elderly following resistance training and detraining are intensity related. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90: 5970-5977.
[37] Kanaley JA, Fenicchia LM, Miller CS, Ploutz Synder LL, Weinstock RS, Carhart R, and Azevedo JL (2001

)Resting leptin responses to acute and chronic resistance training in type 2 diabetic males and females. International Journal of Obesity 25:1474-1480.
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[54] Roberto, C, José, a., Pérez, J., Cortell, M. Juan, J. and Rivas, J. (2008). Correlations among anthropometric parameters, jump power, and position in professional basketball players.
[55] Pui, W. K. and Hendrik H. (2008).Anthropometric, gait and strength characteristics of Kenyan distance runners, ©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine

7, 499-504, http://www.jssm.org.
[56] Jawis, M. N., Singh, R., Singh, H. J. and Yassin, M. N. (2005).Anthropometric and physiological profiles of sepak takraw players, B.r. J. Sports Med;39:825–829. doi: 20.1136/bjsm. 2004.016915.
[57] Lephart, S. M., Abt, J. P., Ferris, C. M., Sell, T. C., Nagai, T., Myers, J. B. and Irrgang, J. (2005).Neuromuscular and biomechanical characteristic changes in high school athletes: a plyometric versus basic resistance program, Br J Sports Med 2005;39:932–938. doi: 58.1136/bjsm.2005.019083.
[58] Darr, K.C., Bassett, D.R., Morgan, B.J. and Thomas, D.P. (1988). Effects of age and training status on heart rate recovery after peak exercise. American Journal of Physiology 254

, H340-H343.
[59] Engerman, S. (1976), ‘The Height of U.S. Slaves’, Local Population Studies, Vol. 16, no.1, 45-50.
[60] Sunder, M. (2004) The Making of Giants in a Welfare State: The Norwegian Experience in the Twentieth Century’, Economics and Biology, 75-86.
[61] Woitek, U. (2003) Height Cycles in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’, Economics and Human Biology, 243-258.

The book also performed the high Technology and high speed detectors equipments to determine the operational procedures to avoid hazards on human health; economics and human biology. Consequently, the results of this book will help to reduce the risk of sport activities.

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