Grid Electrified Vehicles: Performance, Design and Environmental Impacts

Carla Alexandra Monteiro da Silva, PhD (Editor)
Institute of Mechanical Engineering-IDMEC, Insituto Superior Técnico, Portugal

Series: Mechanical Engineering Theory and Applications
BISAC: TEC009070

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Grid electrified vehicles or plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are gaining attention worldwide as a potential low carbon technology. Because it is still an immature technology on the market, there is limited knowledge about the control strategy design; the environmental life cycle rating; the business model behind ‘electricity charging’; charging behaviour’s interaction with local electricity grid voltage drop, under dumb or smart grid scenarios; and the monitoring apparatus needed to acquire real data on daily usage of these technologies. This book aims to provide insight into these PEV issues.

The book is composed of 11 chapters. Chapter One addresses the differences between pure or battery electric (EV) and hybrid (PHEV) vehicles and discusses seamless transition from the current social and energy infrastructure.

Chapter Two provides an extensive overview of selected aspects of automotive control system design with a focus on simulation-based development methods. It offers a methodology for simulation-based control network design for implementation of the Data Time Flow simulator, a simulation environment for design and performance analysis for vehicle electronic control systems.

Chapter Three compares three EV business models: battery leasing, vehicle leasing and charging lease.

Chapter Four explores how consumer charging behaviour can affect gasoline consumption over the life of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The total fuel savings are calculated as a function of dwell time and infrastructure capability across a range of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs).

Chapter Five discusses observable variations in PEV charging behaviours, whether PEV charging is more frequent and variable than has commonly been assumed, and the implications for estimates of social, economic, and environmental impacts.

Chapter Six offers an analysis of the replacement of a large share of the traditional ICE vehicles with EVs in a low voltage network by analysing 10% to 60% (six to 36 vehicles) replacement in a residential area. Dumb versus smart charging influence on voltage drop and wind power and energy storage are discussed.

Chapter Seven describes a model that generates individual EV movement patterns, tracking them throughout the simulation period, and output indicators such as individual and global energy needs, greenhouse gas emissions impacts and impacts on electricity grids. The model is illustrated through a case study application.

Chapter Eight reviews vehicle labelling and environmental rating schemes.

The three last chapters focus on real monitoring of PEV in light-duty and soft-mode applications. Toyota Prius plug-in and Renault Fluence ZE are analysed. Bike-sharing systems worldwide, the number of electrical bikes and an electric bicycle, QWIC Trend2 by Prio Energy, are reviewed. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Chapter 1. The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle PHEV: Differences with the Battery Electric Vehicle EV
(Andrew A. Frank, CTO Efficient Drivetrains Inc., CA, USA)

Chapter 2. Design Considerations for Vehicle Electronic Control Systems: Technical and Commercial Aspects
(Alexander Hanzlik and Erwin Kristen, Austrian Institute of Technology, Austria)

Chapter 3. Electric Vehicles: From Product to Service
(Adi Wolfson, Dorith Tavor and Shlomo Mark, Green Processes Center, Sami Shamoon College of Engineering, Bialik/Basel Sts. Beer Sheva, Israel, and others)

Chapter 4. How Driver Choices Influence Charging Infrastructure Effectiveness in the United States
(Scott Peterson, Carnegie Electricity Industry Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA)

Chapter 5. Variation in Charging of Privately-Held PEVs: Implications for Analysis, Markets, and Policy
(Jamie Davies and Kenneth S. Kurani, Plug-in Hybrid & Electric Vehicle Research Center, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, CA, USA)

Chapter 6. Analysis of Large Scale Adoption of Electrical Vehicles with Wind Integration in Nord-Trøndelag
(Åshild Vatne, Marta Molinas and Jan A. Foosnæs, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway)

Chapter 7. Simulation of Electric Vehicles Motion Using a Stochastic Model: Assessment of Energy Requirements and Environmental Impacts
(F. J. Soares, P. M. Rocha Almeida and J. A. Peças Lopes, INESC TEC - INESC Technology and Science, Portugal)

Chapter 8. Environmental Rating and Classification of Electric Vehicles
(Carla Silva, Teresa Batista, Alexandre Lucas, Sara Marques, IDMEC, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal)

Chapter 9. Real-World Activity, Energy Use, and Emissions of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle
(H. Christopher Frey and Brandon M. Graver, North Carolina State University, NC, USA)

Chapter 10. Real-Life Comparison between Diesel and Electric Car Energy Consumption
(J. Martins, F. P. Brito, D. Pedrosa, V. Monteiro and João L. Afonso, Dpt. Mechanical Eng., University of Minho, Portugal, and others)

Chapter 11. On-Road Monitoring of Electric Bicycles and its Use in Bike-Sharing Systems
(Patrícia Baptista, IDMEC - Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal)

Index

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