Grapes: Production, Phenolic Composition and Potential Biomedical Effects

José de Sousa Câmara, PhD (Editor)
University of Madeira, Department of Chemistry, Campus Universitário da Penteada, Portugal

Series: Food Science and Technology
BISAC: HEA048000

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Grapes (Vitis spp.) are economically the most important fruit species in the world. Most cultivated vines belong to the European type (Vitis vinefera), the American bunch type (V. labrusca and its derivatives) or Muscadine type (V. rotundifolia). Grapes contain many of the most valuable elements necessary for life. In addition, it is known to have commendable medicinal qualities/properties, attributed mainly to polyphenols. They are famous as antioxidants, hormones, constituents of essential oils, natural neurotransmitters, and as having many other biological activities. Their antioxidant ability is known to confer many health benefits such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. They also provide antimicrobial activity for the plant’s own defense against invading pathogens. The diversity of structure and activity of phenolic compounds has resulted in a multiplicity of research areas such as chemistry, biotechnology, ecology, physiology, nutrition, medicine, and cosmetics.

The understanding of grape and wine phenolics is an increasingly important requirement for managing wine styles efficiently and an important way to enhance their healthy effects. The aim of this book is to describe grape production, its phenolic composition and the potential biomedical effects which are currently being researched. The areas of most interest at present and the subjects in which this interest is likely to continue or to increase in the following years have been selected.

The book comprises 19 chapters, each written by authorities in the field with 59 contributing authors in total. Chapters are well referenced with regard to previous work, have appropriate chapter introductory sections accommodating non-specialists, students and experts in the field, and most end with a summary of conclusions and, in some cases, recommendations for future work or new standards, protocols or procedures.

This book is highly informative, and is directed towards oenologists, physiologists and biologists, chemists, microbiologists, biomedical scientists and others (postgraduate or postdoctoral), who might be interested in reading and learning about some fascinating areas of research and discovery of the biomedical effects of grapes (Imprint: Nova Biomedical )

Preface

About the Editor

Contributors

Section 1: Phenolic Compounds in Grapes and Factors Influencing Their Biosynthesis

Chapter 1 - Influence of Genotype, Pedoclimatic Conditions, Viticultural Practices and Ripening on the Phenolic Composition of Grapes: A Review (pp. 1-26)
Antonietta Baiano (Department of Agricultural Sciences, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy)

Chapter 2 - Grape-Berries Yeast Populations: Influence of Vineyard Management (pp. 27-46)
Gustavo Cordero-Bueso, Teresa Arroyo and Eva Valero (Departamento de Biología Molecular e Ingeniería Bioquímica, Universidad Pablo de Olavide. Crtra de Utrera, Km 1. Sevilla, Spain, and Departamento de Agroalimentación, Instituto Madrileño de Investigación y Desarrollo Rural Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDRA). Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain

Chapter 3 - Phenolic Compounds in Grapes and Wines: Chemical and Biochemical Characteristics and Technological Quality (pp. 47-106)
Ellen Silva Lago Vanzela, Milla Alves Baffi, Maurício Bonatto Machado de Castilhos, Marcos Roberto Moacir Ribeiro Pinto, Vanildo Luiz Del Bianchi, Afonso Mota Ramos, Paulo César Stringheta, Isidro Hermosín-Gutiérrez and Roberto Da-Silva (Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, Jardim Nazareth, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil and others)

Chapter 4 - Factors Affecting Antioxidant Activity of Grape Tissues (pp. 107-134)
Francesca Cecchini (Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura (CRA). Research Unit for Enology in Central Italy (ENC), Via Cantina Sperimentale, Rome, Italy)

Chapter 5 - Screening the Phenolic Composition of the Wide Diversity of Autochthonous Grape Cultivars from La Mancha (Spain) (pp. 135-164)
Isidro Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Sergio Gómez-Alonso, Noelia Castillo-Muñoz, Mónica Fernández-González, Jesús Martínez-Gascueña and Esteban García-Romero (Instituto Regional de Investigación Científica Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, Ciudad Real; Fundación Parque Científico y Tecnológico de Albacete, Paseo de la Innovación, Albacete, and Instituto de la Vid y el Vino de Castilla-La Mancha, Carretera Toledo-Albacete s/n, Tomelloso, Spain)

Chapter 6 - Grape Seed Extract Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties: Use in Active Packaging (pp. 165-180)
Javiera F. Rubilar and Rui M. S. Cruz (Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile and others)

Chapter 7 - Grape Phenols and Their Healthy Properties (pp. 181-210)
A. Peralbo-Molina and M. D. Luque de Castro (University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain)

Chapter 8 - Productivity of Stilbene Compounds by Wild Grapes Native to East Asia: Vitis davidii, Vitis kiusiana, Vitis ficifolia Var. Lobata, and Vitis ficifolia Var. Ganebu (pp. 211-224)
Shuji Shiozaki, Taiji Nakamura and Tsuneo Ogata (Graduate School of Life & Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuen-cho, naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka, and Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University, Monobe, Nankoku, Kochi, Japan)

Chapter 9 - Obtaining Polyphenolic Extracts from Wine By-Products (pp. 225-244)
G. Davidov-Pardo, M. Navarro, I. Arozarena and M. R. Marín-Arroyo (Public University of Navarre. Food Technology Department, Campus Arrosadia s/n. Pamplona, Spain)

Chapter 10 - Grape Stalks Based Sorbents: Towards a Sustainable Alternative for the Detoxification of Divalent Heavy Metal Polluted Effluents (pp. 245-272)
Carlos Escudero-Oñate, Núria Fiol, Jordi Poch and Isabel Villaescusa (Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo, Norway and others)

Chapter 11 - Thermal Stability of Major Classes of Polyphenols in Skins, Seeds and Stems of Grape Pomace (pp. 273-286)
Jianmei Yu (Food and Nutritional Sciences Program, Department of Family and Consumer Science, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC, US)
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Chapter 12 - Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Oil and Bioactive Compounds from Grape Residues: Experimental Optimization, Modeling and Economic Evaluation (pp. 287-302)
Marcelo M. R. de Melo, Armando J. D. Silvestre and Carlos M. Silva (Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal)

Section 2: Health Benefits of Grape Poylyphenols

Chapter 13 - Healthy Effects of Bioactive Metabolites from Vitis vinifera L. Grapes: A Review (pp. 305-338)
R. Perestrelo, C. Silva, J. Pereira and José S. Câmara (CQM/UMa, Centro de Química da Madeira, Universidade da Madeira, Campus Universitário da Penteada, Funchal, Portugal)

Chapter 14 - Extraction, Characterization and Potential Health Benefits of Grape Seed Procyanidins (pp. 339-364)
Joana Afonso, Cláudia P. Passos, Manuel A. Coimbra, Patrício Soares-da-Silva and Carlos M. Silva (Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, and Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, Aveiro, Portugal)

Chapter 15 - Cardioprotective Effects of Grapes and Phenolic Constituents (pp. 365-386)
Bolanle C. Akinwumi and Hope D. Anderson (Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, and Canadian Centre for Agri-Food Research in Health and Medicine, St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, Winnipeg, Canada)

Chapter 16 - Vitis vinifera Seed Extract Reduces Adenosine Deaminase Activity in High Glucose-Treated Human Lymphocytes (pp. 387-394)
Luziane P. Bellé, Paula Eliete R. Bitencourt, Gustavo Scola, PhD, Mirian Salvador, PhD, Claúdia Funchal, PhD, and Maria B. Moretto, PhD (Postgraduate Program in Pharmacology Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM). 97105-900 - Santa Maria, RS, Brazil and others)

Chapter 17 - Phenolic Compounds of Grapes (Vitis vinifera): Diversity of Molecules, Content and Bioavailability (pp. 395-410)
Mariane Lutz (Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Alimentos Funcionales (CIDAF), Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile)

Chapter 18 - Potential Benefits of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Winemaking Wastes (pp. 411-428)
Milla Alves Baffi, Ph.D., Ellen Silva Lago Vanzela, Ph.D., Eleni Gomes, Ph.D., and Roberto Da-Silva, Ph.D. (Uberlandia Federal University (UFU), Uberlandia, MG, and Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil)

Chapter 19 - Health Benefits of Grape Seed Extract (pp. 429-446)
Snehal S. Joshi and Doris H. D’Souza (Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Tennessee-Knoxville, TN, US)

Index

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