Global Earth Changes Management: Technological Advances in Change Observation

Rustam B. Rustamov
Assoc. Prof. Dr., Senior Scientist, Baku, Azerbaijan

Sefer Kurnaz
Freelance specialist in IT, Istanbul, Turkey

Sabina N. Hasanova
British Petroleum, GIS specialist, Baku, Azerbaijan

Yahya A. Rahimov
Freelance specialist in environmental studies, Baku, Azerbaijan

Series: Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
BISAC: TEC010000



Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick


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This book is dedicated to the study of climate change with aspects of defining segments in the indicated area. The fact is that it is highly important to provide contributions for an investigation into this area. Earth observation studies embrace the contribution of a variety of international institutions and entities providing efforts of environmental protection for reducing and minimizing the Earth’s climate change consequences. In the meantime, scientific outcomes of Earth monitoring with a reflection of segments affecting the environment and ecological condition of the investigated area are demonstrated.

There is reflected efforts of climate change within the framework of states, international institutions and entities in order to minimize a change in the Earth’s temperature. Attempts have been demonstrated in the area provided by early and recent contributions within the Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement with commitments for interested sites of participant countries.

In the meantime, the contents of the book include the investigations of authors and contributions of other scientists, researches and specialists in climate change. It provides additional information in understanding the process. There is some answer as to how and where there are sensitive areas to be considered in the measurement and observation stage of investigations, which could be helpful in decision making by authorities.

We do hope materials that the materials presented in the book chapters will be useful for specialists and authorities involved in the study and use of outcomes for climate changes based on Earth observations. (Imprint: Nova)



Chapter 1. History of Climate Change Developments (pp. 1-10)

Chapter 2. Consequences of Climate Change (pp. 11-22)

Chapter 3. Political Approach of the United States to the Options Climate Change Options (pp. 23-30)

Chapter 4. Strengthening the Climate Change Regime Aspects (pp. 31-60)

Chapter 5. Contribution of the United Nations in Climate Change (pp. 61-70)

Chapter 6. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (pp. 71-82)

Chapter 7. Paris Agreement (pp. 83-150)

Chapter 8. Conceptual Aspects of Climate Change (pp. 151-158)

Chapter 9. Circumstances of Climate Change (pp. 159-170)

Chapter 10. The Conference of Parties and Climate Change (pp. 171-174)

Chapter 11. Relevant Link between Climate Change and Natural Disaster (pp. 175-178)

Chapter 12. Efforts on Climate Change Protection (pp. 179-198)

Chapter 13. Main Groups of Environmental Concerns and Issues (pp. 199-220)

Chapter 14. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS (pp. 221-238)

Chapter 15. An Integrated Approach for Environmental Security in the NATO Countries Based on Remote Sensing and GIS Technologies (pp. 239-252)

Chapter 16. Regional Approach of the Global Climate Change Problem (pp. 253-258)

Chapter 17. Remote Sensing and GIS Technology as the Tool of Oil and Gas Industry Environmental Affect Assessment (pp. 259-272)

Chapter 18. Concerns of Application of the Nonlinear Logic Theory in Power Engineering Objects Lightning Safety Problem Definition (pp. 273-284)

Chapter 19. Operative Selection of the Geoinformation at Extreme Situations (pp. 285-294)

Index (pp. 295)

Total Pages: 296

Chapter 1


Chapter 5
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[29] Kinver, Mark (14 December 2015). “COP21: What does the Paris climate agreement mean for me?”. BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
[30] Reguly, Eric (14 December 2015). “Paris climate accord marks shift toward low-carbon economy”. Globe and Mail (Toronto, Canada). Retrieved 14 December 2015.
[31] Davenport, Coral (12 December 2015). “Nations Approve Landmark Climate Accord in Paris”. New York Times. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
[32] “Paris climate deal: What the agreement means for India and the world”. Hindustan Times. 14 December 2015. Retrieved14 December 2015.
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[35] Andrew Pearce (6 December 2015). “Jeffrey Sachs: Fund Managers Have a Duty to Dump Fossil Fuels”. Financial News. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
[36] John Vidal (13 December 2015). “Paris Climate Agreement ‘May Signal End of Fossil Fuel Era’”. The Guardian. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
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[42] “Asia Indigenous Peoples’ Declaration on the 21st Session of the UNFCCC - Conference of Parties (COP21)”. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
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[44] “Looking ahead COP21: State of negotiations on the Indigenous Peoples’ agenda”. 11 September 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
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[46] “United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples” (PDF). Retrieved 15 November 2015.
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Chapter 7

[5] - Development/Our – strategy.

Chapter 8

[2] Brian Benscoter, Susan Page, Guillermo Rein, Guido R. van der Werf and Adam Watts, Global vulnerability of peatlands to fire and carbon loss, Nature Geoscience, 8, p. 11–14, (2015), doi:10.1038/ngeo2325.

Chapter 9

[1] IPCC (2007) Climate Change: the Physical Science Basis; Report of Working Group I; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.
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[3] Stocker TM (2013) The Closing Door of Climate Targets. Sci 339: 280-282.
[4] Cox PM, Pearson D, Booth BB, Friedlingstein P, Huntingford C, et al. (2012) Sensitivity of Tropical Carbon to Climate Change Constrained by Carbon Dioxide Variability. Nature 494: 341-344.
[5] Hansen J, Sato M, Ruedy R (2012) Perception of climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109: 2415-2423.
[6] Solomon S, Plattner G, Knutti R, Friedlingstein P (2009) Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106: 1704-1709.
[7] Rockstrom J (2009) A Safe Operating Space for Humanity. Nature 461: 472- 475.
[8] Flynn K, Blackford JC, Baird ME, Raven JA, Clark DR, et al. (2012) Changes in pH at the exterior surface of plancton with ocean acidification. Nat Clim Change 2: 510-513.
[9] PalmerT (2014) Record-breaking winters and global climate change. Sci 344: 803-804.
[10] Ding Q, Wallace JM, Battist DS, Steig ES, Gallant AJE, et al. (2014) Tropical forcing of the recent rapid Arctic warming in northeastern Canada and Greenland. Nature 509: 209-212;
[11] Balmaseda MA, Trenberth KE, Källén E (2013) Distinctive climate signals in reanalysis of global ocean heat content. Geophys Res Lett 40: 1754-1759.
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[14] Rosenzweig C, Karoly D, Vicarelli M, Neofotis P, Wu Q, et al. (2008) Attributing physical and biological impacts to anthropogenic climate change. Nature 453: 353-357.
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[21] Smith MS (2012) Equivalence of Greenhouse-gas emissions for peak temperature Limits. Nature Clim Change 2: 1-4.
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[25] Hurricane Katrina Left a Mark on George W. Bush’s Presidency, The botching of hurricane relief will affect Bush’s legacy.
[26] Al Gore (2006) An inconvenient truth. Rodale Press, N.Y..[27] Risk Business: The Economic Risks of Climate Change in the United States.[28] The economy shrank almost 3 percent in Q1.[29] Obama unveils historic rules to reduce coal pollution by 30% (June/2014).[30] Obama to Seek 30 Percent Cut in Power Plant Emissions, Reports Say (June/2014).[31] FACT SHEET: U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change and Clean Energy Cooperation, November 2014.[32] World: US and China strike deal on carbon cuts in push for global climate change pact.[33] U.S.-China Accord Includes Important Steps on Non-Fossil Energy.[34] Obama pledges to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from federal buildings.[35] Obama orders 40% emissions cut for federal government.[36] Cameron, Clegg and Miliband sign joint climate pledge.[37] Cameron, Clegg and Miliband sign joint climate change agreement.[38] Richard Branson leads call to free global economy from carbon emissions.[39] CEOs call for zero emissions goal in Paris climate deal.[40] Bank of England warns of huge financial risk from fossil fuel investments.[41] Pope Francis’s edict on climate change will anger deniers and US churches.[42] Global climate change/Managing climate change risks/Exxon Mobil.
[43] Crooks E. Exxon warns global warming target ‘unlikely’ to be met. Financial Times.[44] Thousands March for Climate Change Before United Nations Summit.
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Chapter 13

[2] and ADB’s Urban Environ-mental Profile for an interesting discussion of health - environmental links.
[3] State Statistical Committee. 2005. Azerbaijan Statistical Yearbook 2004. Baku.
[4] Sefer Mustafayev, Lale Efe, Fatih Killi, The effect of shocking treatment on cotton seeds before sowing by electrical current on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum l.) stickiness and some fiber traits under Kahramanmaras conditions, Gourlot J.-P., Frydrych R., éditeurs scientifiques, 2001. Improvement of the Marketability of Cotton Produced in Zones Affected by Stickiness. Actes du séminaire, 4–7 juillet 2001, Lille, France, CFC – ICAC – Cirad – IFTH – SCC - ARC. Montpellier, France, Cirad, CFC - Technical report, pp. 75-80.[5] Annual report 2002 Annual review, European Bank of Reconstruction and Development, 2002, pp. 152.
[7] Cultural Heritage Support Project, International Development Association Credit 3207, implemented since 2002.

Chapter 14

[1] Ramachandran, S (1993). Coastal Zone Information System – Pilot project for Rameswaram area. Report submitted to Department of Ocean Development. Govt. of India, pp. 40.
[2] Ramachandran, S, Krishnamoorthy, R, Sundramoorthy, S, Parviz, ZF, Kalyanamuthiah, A. and Dharanirajan, K. (1997). Management of Coastal Environments in Tamilnadu and Andaman & Nicobar Islands based on Remote Sensing and GIS approach. MAEER’S MIT, Pune Journal, IV (15 & 16), Special issue on Coastal Environmental Management, pp. 129‐140.
[3] Ramachandran, S, Sundramoorthy, S, Krishnamoorthy, R, Devasenapathy, J. and Thanikachalam, M (1998). Application of Remote Sensing and GIS to Coastal Wetland Ecology of Tamilnadu and Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands with special reference to Mangroves. Current Science, 75(3):101‐109).
[4] Ramachandran, S, Devasenapathy, J, Sundramoorthy, S and Krishnamoorthy, R. (2000a). Satellite Remote Sensing Application in Coastal Zone Management, In: Marine Remote Sensing Applications. Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, pp. 87‐90;IOM report (2003b). Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plans for Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Submitted to Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India.
[5] Ramachandran, S, Ramesh, S and Krishnamoorthy, R (2000b). Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Coastal Lagoonal Ecosystem: A Case Study from Pulicat Lake, Southern India, In: Marine Remote Sensing Applications. Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, pp. 333‐343]. Krishnamoorthy. R. (1995). Remote Sensing of Mangrove forest in Tamil Nadu Coast, India. Ph.D thesis, Anna University, Madras, pp. 202.
[6] Ramachandran, S, Ramesh, S and Krishnamoorthy, R (2000b). Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Coastal Lagoonal Ecosystem: A Case Study from Pulicat Lake, Southern India, In: Marine Remote Sensing Applications. Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, pp. 333‐343.
[7] Hussin, YA, Mahfud, M and Zuhair Michael Weir (1999). Monitoring Mangrove Forests using Remote Sensing and GIS. GIS development proceedings, ACRS Hussin et al., 1999.
[8] Bastin, J. (1988). Measuring areas of coral reefs using satellite imagery, Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Coastal Zone, Gold Coast Queensland. p vii.1.1‐vii.1.9.
[9] IGBP (1994). LandOcean Interactions in the Coastal Zone, Report No. 33. p. 74.
[10] IOM report (2001). No Impact Zone Studies in Pulicat Lake. Submitted to Dept. of Ocean Development, Govt. of India.
[11] IOM report (2003a). Identification of Ecologically Important Areas in India. Submitted to Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India.
[12] IOM report (2003b). Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plans for Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Submitted to Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India.
[13] Lillesand, TM and Kiefer, RW (1987). Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. John Wiley & Sons.
[14] Mumby, P, Green, EP, Clark, CD, and Edward, AJ (1998). Digital Analysis of Multispectral Airborne Imagery of Coral Reefs. Journal of the International Society for Reef Studies, 17: pp. 59‐69.
[15] Krishnamoorthy. R, and Ramachandran, S (2000). Application of Remote Sensing in Mangrove Wetland Studies. In: Marine Remote Sensing Applications. Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University, pp. 168‐205.
[16] SAC, (1992). Coastal Environment. Space Applications Centre (SAC) Scientific Note (RSAM/SAC/COM/SN/11/92), Ahmedabad, India, pp.114.
[17] Krishnamoorthy, R, Bhattacharya, A and Natarajan, T (1993). Mangrove and Coral Reef Mapping of South Andaman Islands through Remote Sensing, In: Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems. MS Swaminathan and R Ramesh (Eds), MSSRF, Madras, pp.143‐154.
[18] Krishnamoorthy, R. (1995). Remote Sensing of Mangrove forest in Tamil Nadu Coast, India. Ph.D thesis, Anna University, Madras, pp. 202.

Chapter 15

[1] Galli de Paratesi, Remote Sensing ‘96: Integrated Applications for Risk Assessment and Disaster Prevention for the Mediterranean: Proceedings of the 16th EARSeL symposium, Malta, 20-23 May 1996.
[2] In A. Spiteri (ed.) Proceedings of the EARSel 16th Symposium and Annual General Assembly, 20-23 May 1996, Malta: 51-55. Rotterdam: AA Balkema.

Chapter 17

[1] Buzmakov SA, Kulakova S.A Technogeneous Changes of Components of Natural Environment in Oil-Extracting Region. Journal of Environmental Protection in Oil and Gas Industry Sector 2007, No 1 (3), pp. 20-24.
[2] Imanova SQ, Methods of Ecological and Geographical Investigations and Urbanized Land Protection, Abstract of Dissertation, Baku, 2007 (4).
[3] Kozensnikov SI, Kazeev KS. Bio Diagnostic of Ecological Condition of the Soil Polluted by Oil and Oil Product, Journal Rostov on Don, 2007 (9), p. 153.
[4] Mamedov MX, Economic-Ecological Geographical Problems Due to the Development of Oil Industry Complexes in Absheron Baku, 2013 (9), pp. 162-169.
[5] Mamedov MX, Regional Conceptual Development: Economic-ecological Problems, Baku “Science” 2014 (10), p. 375.

Chapter 18

[1] William H Bailey, Deborah E Weil, James R Stewart “HVDC Power Transmission Environmental Issues Review”, ORNL/Sub/95-SR893/2, 1997.
[2] RD 153-34.3-35.125-99 part 3. Instruction on electrical network safety of 6-1150 kW from lightning and internal overvoltage, 1999, p. 185 (in Russian).
[3] Zadeh L. “Outline of a new approach to the analysis of complex systems and decision processes”, IEEE Trans. on Systems, Men and Cybernetics, vol.smc-3, jan.1973, pp.28-44.
[4] Shtabova SD. Design of nonlinear system by means of Matlab, Hot line-Telecom, M., 2007, p. 288 (in Russian).

Audience: 1. International and local entities engaged to the study of climate change/environment/ecology;
2. International Organizations: United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, International Astronautical Federation, European Space Agency entities;
3. Managers of organizations, for instance NGO’s relevant to activities of Earth monitoring and observation with regard to climate change;
4. State authorities or/and institutions who need to refer an official sources within/or during the process of decision-making.

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