Global Civilization in the 21st Century

Andrew Targowski
Western Michigan University, MI, USA
President Emeritus of the International Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations (2009-2013)

Series: Focus on Civilizations and Cultures
BISAC: SOC026000


Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick


Digitally watermarked, DRM-free.
Immediate eBook download after purchase.

Product price
Additional options total:
Order total:



The purpose of this book is to evaluate the question: What does the New World Order (NWO) mean in the 21st century? After the Polish Revolution in 1989 and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the Soviet Union in 1991, many people expected better times than those during the Cold War between the West and East. Since Communism lost to Capitalism, can the latter promote freedom and happiness for all of us everywhere? However, this dream did not happen, vice versa we face now so called liquid times, times of instability and chaos.

Therefore, this book is written for those who would like to know why the supposedly ideal economic solution known as Capitalism cannot bring happiness to all of us as it is promised by its promoters. This means that the book should be interesting for all kinds of readers and could be potentially read by millions.

The book discusses Hegelian dialectics under the form of competition among ideas that have been neglected in the NOW-21st century and unopposed Capitalism has been transformed into Turbo-Capitalism, also known as Undemocratic Capitalism. This process is supported by additive waves of globalization taking place in the last 500+ years. Eventually in the 21st century humanity is facing the resulted transformation of western civilization into global civilization. The book analyzes this transformational process and its positive and negative repercussions for humanity.

Modern globalization was triggered by the one globalization wave about 500 years ago. Later, globalization was deepened by the following four globalization waves, which eventually established global civilization in the 21st century. At this time, global civilization have strong promoters which are global corporations and capital. These secure this civilization’s good modus operendi, regardless of its negative impact on the population and depletion of the strategic resources
The better solution is not to look for one world with common culture, infrastructure, and perhaps government (according to some wishes), but to look for a diversified world as it was before the current Globalization Wave in the 21st century. However, such a civilization should be steered by universal values, goals and strategies leading to the development of Universal Civilization.

The Universal Civilization (UC) embraces the major premises of contemporary socio-political critical theory and practice, such as multi-culturalism (diversification) and limited integrationalism, which leads to a better order of living on the same planet. The implementation of Universal Civilization is possible if people accept metanoia (change) and their elites, pioneers, and politicians will work towards a common goal. If the UC concept is rejected, then we have to look for another civilization, comprehensive solution, which the author does not perceive at this moment. However, for a Universal Civilization to be successful, we must first transform into a wise civilization whose wise society may eventually sustain the declining civilization of humanity. (Imprint: Nova)


Chapter 1. Waves of Globalization

Chapter 2. From Globalization Waves to Global Civilization

Chapter 3. Religion of Global Civilization

Chapter 4. Infrastructure of Global Civilization

Chapter 5. Society of Global Civilization

Chapter 6. Culture of Global Civilization

Chapter 7. Spatio-Temporal Boundaries of Global Civilization

Chapter 8. Universalizing or Being Globalized?




Bauman, Z. (2007). Liquid times, living in an Age of Uncertainty. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Soros, G. (2002). On globalization. New York: Public Affairs Press.
------------(2003). The bubble of American supremacy. New York: Public Affiars, pp. 195-196.
Targowski, A. (2004). A grand model of civilization. Comparative Civilizations Review. Fall. pp. 81-106.

Chapter 1

Asimov, I. (1991). Asimov’s chronology of the world. New York: HarperCollins Publishers
Burenhult, G. (2003). People of the past. San Francisco: Fog City Press.
Boyd, D. and Ellison, N. (2007). Social network sites: definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13 (1).
Boyd, D. (2007), Why youth (heart) social network sites. MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Learning - Youth, Identity, and Digital Media Volume (ed. D. Buckingham). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Boyd, Danah (2006). Friends, friendsters, and myspace top 8: writing community into being on social network sites. First Monday 11 (12).
Ding, Y-C., H.Grady, D.Morishima, A.Kidd, J.Kidd, et al. (2002). Evidence of positive selection acting at the human dopamine receptor D4 gene locus. Proceedings of the national Academy of Sciences. 99:309-314.
Friedman, Th. (2005). The world is flat: a brief history of the twenty-first century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Grossman, L. ( 1995). The electronic republic. New York: Viking.
Harper Atlas of World History. (1999). New York: HarperCollinsPublishers
Hiltz, S. R. and M. Turoff. (1978, 1999). The network nation. (Addison-Wesley, 1978, 1993)
Jones. S., R.Martin and M. Pilbeam. (1992). The Cambridge encyclopedia of human evolution. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Logan, F.D. (1999). The vikings in history. London: Routledge.
Lέvy, P. (1995). Collective intelligence. PLENUM TRADE: New York and London.
Malinowski, B. (2010). Co Orwell mysli o Facebooku? (What does Orwell think about the Facebook?). Retrieved July 29, 2010 from malinowski%2a%
McGaughey, W.(2001). Rhytm and self-consciousness: new ideal for electronic civilization. Minneapolis: Thistlerose Publications.
Mitchell, W.J. (2000). e-topia. Cambridhe, MA: The MIT Press.
Raudzens, G. (1999). Empires. London: Sutton Publishing.
Steger, M.B. (2003). Globalization, a very short introduction. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
Targowski, A. (1991). Chwilowy koniec historii (Temporary end of history). Warsaw: Nowe Wydawnictwo Polskie
Targowski, A. (2009). Information technology and societal development. Hershey, PA and New York: Information Science Reference.
The Globalist (2010). China in History, From 200 to 2005. Retrieved on 11-3-2010

Chapter 2

Blaha, St. (2002). The life cycle of civilizations. Auburn, NH: Pingree-Hill Publishing.
Bosworth, A. (2003). “The genetics of civilization: an empirical classification of civilizations based on writing systems,” Comparative Civilizations Review, 49, 9.
Coulborn, R. (1966).

“Structure and process in the rise and fall of civilized societies,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, VIII-4: 404.
Fernandez-Armesto, F. (2001). Civilizations, culture, ambition, and the transformation of nature. New York: A Touchstone Book.
Foster, J.B. and H. Holleman (2010). The financial power elite. MONTLY REVIEW. 62(1).
Hord, J. (1992). Civilization: a definition part ii. the nature of formal knowledge systems. The Comparative Civilization Review, 26:111-135.
Huntington, S. P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Kroeber, A. L. (1957). Style and civilizations. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Krejci, J. (2004). The paths of civilization, understanding the currents of history. New York: Palgrave, Macmillan.
McGaughey, W. (2000). Five epochs of civilization. Minneapolis, MN: Thistlerose Publications.
Melko, M. (1969). The nature of civilizations. Boston, MA: Porter Sargent Publisher.
Melko, M. & Scott, L. R. (1987). The boundaries of civilizations in space and time. Lanham, MD.: University Press of America.
Quigley, C. (1979). The Evolution of civilizations. Indianapolis: Liberty Press Edition.
Sorokin, P. (1950). Social philosophies of an age of crisis. London: Stevens and Sons.
Snyder, L.D. (1999). Macro-history, a theoretical approach to comparative world history. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Meller Press.
Standage, T. (2005), A history of the world in 6 glasses. Walker & Company.
Spengler, O. (1980, reprint of 1932. The decline of the West, one volume edition, tr. Charles Francis Atkinson. 104-105.
Soros, G. (2002). On globalization. New York: Public Affairs Press
-----------(2003). The bubble of American supremacy. New York: PublicAffiars. Pp. 195-196.
Steger, M, B. (2003). Globalization, a very short introduction. New York: Oxford.
Stern, N. (2002). Globalization, Growth, and Poverty. Washington, New York: World Bank, Oxford University Press.
Stiglitz, J. (2002). Globalization and its discontents. New York: W.W Norton & Company.
Targowski, A. (2004). From global to universal civilization. Dialogue and Universalism, vol. XIV, no. 3-4, pp. 121-142.
Targowski, A. (2004). “A grand model of civilization.” Comparative Civilizations Review. 51:81-106.
Targowski, A. (2008). Information technology and social development. Hershey, PA: IGI Publishers.
Toynbee, A. (1935). A study of history, 2d ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Yip, G.S. (1995). Total global strategy. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Chapter 3

Annan, K. A. (1998). A secretary-general of the United Nations, New York, These remarks are taken from a speech at Harvard University, September 17. New York: U.N.
Aaron, Raymond (1957). The opium of the intellectuals. London: Secker & Warburg, pp. 265-294.
Aung-Thwin, M. (2001). Myth & history in historiography of early Burma: paradigms, primary sources, & prejudices. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.
Brown, Ch. (2009). Commentary: solidarity and universalism as premises of overcoming the perils of liberal globalization. Dialogue and Universalism. (XIX)11-12.
Bhadwati, J. (2007). In defense of globalization. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
Buchannan, P. (2006). State of emergency. New York: THOMAS DUNNE BOOKS.
Burman, St. (2007). The state of the American empire. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Dobbs, L. (2006). War on the middle class. New York: Penguin Books.
Esty, D. C. and A. S. Wiston. (2009). Green to gold: how smart companies us environmental strategy to innovate, create value, and build competitive advantage. New York: Wiley.
Faux, J. (2006). The global class war. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Faux, J. 2006). The party of Davos. Nation, February 13, p. 18-19.
Freeland, Ch. (2011). The rise of the new ruling elite, how the global elite is leaving you behind. The Atlantic, (307)1.
Fukuyama, F. (1992). The End of history and the last man. New York: Penguin Group.
Gogoi, P. (2010). “Job market booming overseas for many American companies.” Huff Post BUSINESS (published 12/28/2010, 05:39 PM).
Grey. J. (2007). Black mass, apocalyptic religion and the death of utopia. New York: Farrat, Straus, Giroux.
Hamel, G. and C.K. Prahald. (1996). Competing for the future. Boston: Harvard Business Scholl Press.
Hawken, P. and A. and L. Hunter Lovins. (2010). Natural capitalism: creating the next industrial revolution. Boston: Back Bay Books.
Huffington, A. (2010). The third world America. New York: Crown Publishers.
McDowell, J. and D. Stewart. (1991 ). Understanding secular religion. Manitou Spring, CO.: Summit Ministries.
Moller,J.O. (1991). Technology and culture in a European context. Copenhagen: Nyt Nordisk Forlag.
Prahald, C.R. (2009). The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Reisch, R. (2010). After-shock. New York: Alfred A, Knopf.
Ruse, M. “Is evolution a secular religion?” Science, 7 March 2003
Sennett, R. (2006). The culture of new capitalism. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Shery, N. Out sourcing America: job loss and unemployment. retrieved on 1-7-2011 from
Targowski, A. (2004). From global to universal civilization. Dialogue and Universalism, XIV(3-4), 121-142.
Targowski, A. (2009). Information technology and societal development. Hershey & New York: IGI.
Targowski, A. (2009a). Will Business End or Revive Western Civilization? Proceedings of the 39th International Conference of the International Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations. Kalamazoo, MI: The ISCSC.
Targowski, A. (1982). Red fascism. Lawrenceville, Virginia: Brunswick.
Thomas. R. (2000). “The rise of market populism: America's new secular religion”, The Nation, October 30.
Toynbee, A. (1995). A study of history. New York: Barnes & Noble.
Wilkinson, P. (1999). Illustrated dictionary of religions. New York: A DK Publishing Book.

Chapter 4

“About Rand”. Paul Baran and the Origins of the Internet. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
Carey, J. W. (1992). Communication as culture. New York: Routledge.
Coffman, K. G and Odlyzko, A. M. (2 October 1998). The size and growth rate of the Internet (PDF). AT&T Labs. Retrieved 22 June 2009.
Comer, D. (2006). The Internet book. Prentice Hall. p. 64.
Barber, B.R. (1992). “Jihad vs. McWorld.” Atlantic Monthly, March, 53-63.
Becker, J. (1989). The concept of a university of the world. Information Society, 6(3), 83-92.
Benedikt, M. (1993). Cyberspace first steps. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Bequai, A. (1981). The cashless society: EFTS at the crossroads. New York: John Wiley.
Black, W. (2003) Transportation: a geographical analysis. New York: Guilford
Button, K. (2008). The impact of globalization on international air transport activity. Paris: OECD.
Button, K.J. and Vega, H. (2008), “The effects of air transport on the movement of labour”, GeoJournal, 71(1), 67-81.
Featherstone, M. (1990). Global culture. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications.
Gibson, W. (1984). Neuromancer. New York: Ace Books.
Greenberger, M. (1984). The computers of tomorrow. Atlantic Monthly, May, 63-67.
Gromov, G. (1995). “Roads and crossroads of Internet history.” Retrieved October 1, 2013.
Grossman, L.K. (1995). The electronic republic. New York: Viking.
Hilbert, Martin; López, Priscila (April 2011). “The world’s technological capacity to store, communicate, and compute information.” Science 332 (6025): 60–65.
Huth, V. & Gould, S.B. (1993). The national information infrastructure: the federal role. Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C.: The Library of Congress.
“Internet of things strategic research roadmap”. CERP-IoT. Retrieved 15 Augustl 2013.
Johnson, J.T. (2004). “‘Net was born of economic necessity, not fear.” Retrieved August 20, 2013.
Kleinrock, L. (2005). The history of the Internet. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
Koelsch, F. (1995). The infomedia revolution. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
McLuhan, M. (1968). War and peace in the global village. New York: Bantam Books.
Nashbitt, J. & Aburdene, P. (1990). Megatrends 2000. New York: William Morrow and Company.
Ohmae, K. (1990). The borderless world. New York: Harper Perennial.
Postel, J. (November 1981). “The General Plan”. NCP/TCP transition plan. IETF. p. 2. RFC 801. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
Reich, R.B. (1992). The work of nations. Vintage Books, New York, 1992.
Ritholtz, B. (2012). The shift from manufacturing to service economy. The Big Picture, Retrieved 10,1,2013.
Ruthfield, S. (September 1995). “The Internet's history and development from wartime tool to the fish-cam”. Crossroads 2 (1).
Soros, G. (1998). The crisis of global capitalism. New York: Public Affairs.
Tapscoe, D., Ticoll, D., & Lowy, A. (2000). Digital capital. harnessing the power of business webs. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Targowski, Andrew (Andrzej) (1980). Informatyka, Modele Systemow i Rozwoju (Informatics, models of systems and developments), Warsaw, Poland: PWE, pp. 197-198.
Targowski, A. (1990). Strategies and architecture of the electronic global village. Information Society, 7(3), 187-202.
………………(1990b). The architecture of enterprise-wide IMS, Harrisburg. PA: Idea Group Publishing.
………………(1996). Global information infrastructure. Harrisburg, PA: Idea Group Publishing.
………………(2001). Enterprise information infrastructure. Boston: Pearson.
U.S. Congress (1974). A definition offered by the National Commission on Electronic Fund Transfer (NCEFT). Public Law 93-495.

Chapter 5

Appiah, Kwame Anthony (2006), Cosmopolitanism. ethics in a world of strangers. London: Penguin Books.
Bahá'í International Community (1993-06-14). “World citizenship: a global ethic for sustainable development”. 1st session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. New York, NY.
Bauman, Z. (2007). Liquid times. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Bottomore, T. (1993) Elites and society (2nd Edition). London: Routledge.
Burnham, J. (1960) The managerial revolution. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Cromwell, O. C. (1970). Caste, class, and race. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Davis, G. (1961). My country is the world: The adventures of a world citizen. New York: Putnam.
DeGraw, D. (2011). Meet the global financial elite controlling $46 trillion in wealth.$46_trillion_in_wealth (Retrieved 9/24/2013).
Domhoff, W. (2013). Who rules America? New York: McGraw-Hill.
Einstein - World citizen, erasing national boundaries, American Museum of Natural History.
Friedman, Th. (2005). The world is flat. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Giddens, A. (2003). Runaway world. New York: Routledge.
Grossman, L. (1995). The electronic republic. New York, NY: Viking.
Hiltz, S. R. & Turoff, M. (1978, 1999). The network nation. Addison-Wesley.
Israel, R. C. (Spring|Summer 2012). “What does it mean to be a global citizen?” Kosmos.
Lέvy, P. (1997). Collective intelligence. PLENUM TRADE: New York & London.
Mosco, V. (1999). Citizenship and the technopolies. In A. Calabrese and J. Burgelman (Eds.). Communication, citizenship, and social policy. (33-45). New York: Rowman and Littlefield.
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. Horizon, vol. 9(3).
Roudometof, V. (2005). “Translationalism, cosmopolitanism, and glocalization”. Current Sociology, 53 (1): 113–135.
Sassen, S. (2003). Towards post-national and denationalized citizenship. New York: Sage. p. 286.
Scholte, Jan-Aart (2005). Chapter 6: Globalization and governance. Globalization: A Critical Introduction. New York: Palgrave.
Simon, D. R. (2007). Elite deviance. Boston: Allyn & Bycon.
Smith, C. (2013). How many people use the top social media, apps & services., Retrieved 9/22/2013.
Stratte-McClure, J. (October 2, 2000). “A French exception to the science park rule”. Time EUROPE Magazine. Retrieved 9/20/2013.
Targowski, A. (2013). Harnessing the power of wisdom. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
Targowski, A. (2009). Information technology and societal development. Hershey, PA & New York: Information Science Reference.
The rise of the new global elite.

Chapter 6

Becker, J. (2007). Dragon rising: an inside look at China today. Des Moines, IA: National Geographic.
Brown, J. M. (1994), Modern India: the origins of an Asian democracy, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Butler, J. and Spivak, G. Ch. (2007). Who signs the nation-state? language, politics, belonging. Salt Lake City, UT: Segull Books.
Bruno, W. (2005). Multiculturalism – tribalism recycled. http://wolfgang, retrieved 2-6-2008.
Buchannan, P. Jr. (2002). The death of the West: how dying populations and immigrants invasions imperil our country and civilization. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Burman, St. (2007). The state of the American empire. Berkley, Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Carey, J. (1992). Communication as culture. New York: Rutledge.
Cooper, D. (2004). Challenging diversity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Cromwell, O. C. (1970). Caste, class, and race. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Dogakinai, A.
akikocause.html, retrieved 2-9-2008.
Donald, St. H. and Benewick, R. (2005). The state of China atlas. Berkley, Los Angeles: University of California Press.
D'Souza, D. (1991). Illiberated education: the politics of race and sex on campus. Glencoe, Ill: Free Press.
Fukuyama, F. (1989). “The end of history.” The National Interest, Summer.
Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations of Nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Glynn, J., Hohm, Ch, F., and E. W. Stewart (1996). Global social problems. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers.
Gordon, A. A. and Gordon, D. L. (1996). Understanding Contemporary Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Gress, D. (1999). Multiculturalism in the world history. The Newsletter of FPRI’s Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education, Vol. 5, No. 8.
Grillo, R.D. (1998). Pluralism and the politics of difference. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Harvey, P. (1990). An Introduction to Buddhism: teachings, history and practices. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Huntington, S. (1993). “The clash of civilizations?” Foreign Affairs, Summer.
Huntington, S.P. ( 1998 ). Clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. The

. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Hechter, M. (2001). Containing nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hobsbawm, E. and Ranger, T. ( 1983). The invention of tradition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Jack, A. (2006). Inside Putin’s Russia. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
Laszlo, E. (1972). The system view of the world. New York: George Braziller.
Macionis, J. J. (2006). Society: the Basics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Moynihan, D. P. (1994). Pandaemonium: ehnicity in international politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Neary, I. (1997). Japan's minorities: the illusion of homogeneity. London: Routledge.
Parekh, B. (2000). Rethinking multiculturalism: cultural diversity and political theory. Basingstoke: Palgarve.
Pieterse, J. N. (2007). Ethicities and global multiculture. Plymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Rodrik, D. (1997). “Sense and nonsense in the globalization debate.” Foreign Policy, Summer.
Riasanovsky, N. V. (1984). A history of Russia. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
Schlesinger, Jr. A. M. (1992). The disuniting of America: reflections on a multicultural society. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.
Smedley, A. (1999). Race in North America: origin and evolution of a worldview, 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Simon, D. R. (2007). Elite deviance. Boston: Allyn & Bycon.
Smith, A., D. (1987). The ethnic origins of nations. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Tapscott, D., Ticoll, D., and A. Lowy (2000). Digital capital. harnessing the power of business Webs. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Scholl Press.
Targowski, A. (1982). Red fascism. Lawrenceville, VA: Brunswick Publishing Co.
____________(2006). The emergence of global civilization. Comparative Civilizations Review. 55, Fall, 91-107.
____________ (2009). Information technology and social development. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Targowski, A. and A. Metwalli. (2009). Asymmetric communication. In A. Targowski Information technology and social development. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Taylor, J. G. (2003). Indonesia: peoples and histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
UN international convention on the elimination of all of racial discrimination, New York 7 March 1966.
Ward, C. (1997). On difference and equality. Legal Theory 3, 470-5.

Chapter 7

Axtell, J. (2013). “The colombian mosaic in colonial America.” Retrieved 10/12/2013.
Barry, T. and M. Honey (2000). Global focus. New York: St Marin’s Press.
Bower, B. (2011). “Hints of earlier human exit from Africa.” ScienceNews. Retrieved 10/5/2013.
Bowler, J. M., Johnson, H., Olley, J.M., Prescott, J.R., Roberts, R.G., Showcross, W. and Spooner, N.A. (2003) “New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia.” Nature, vol 421, February 20, Retrieved 10/12/2013.
Braudel, F. (1993). A history of civilizations. New York: Penguin Books.
Burenhult, Goran (2003). People of the past. San Francisco, CA: Fog City Press.
Burenhult, Goran (2003a). Great civilizations. San Francisco, CA: Fog City Press.
Dupuy, R. E. and T. N. Dupuy. (1986). The encyklopedia of military history from 3500 bc to the present. 2nd rev. ed. New York: Harper & Row.
Eckard, W. (1995). A Dialectical evolutionary theory of civilization, empires, and wars. In ed. St. K. Sanderson. Civilizations and World Systems, Studying World-Historical Change. Walnut Creek, London, New Delhi: Altamira Press.
Eltis, D. (2013). “Economic growth and the ending of the transatlantic slave trade.” Retrieved 10/5/2013.
Finlayson, Clive (2005). “Biogeography and evolution of the genus Homo”. Trends in Ecology & Evolution (Elsevier) 20 (8): 457–463.
Fukuyama, F. (1989). The end of history. The National Interest, vol. 16, Summer.
Huntington. S. (1993). The clash of civilizations. Foreign Affairs, vol. 72, no. 3, Summer, pp. 22-49.
-------------------(1996), The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order, New York: Simon & Schuster.
Hundley, R.O, R. Anderson, T.K. Bikson and C.R. Neu. (2003). The global course of the information revolution. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
Hunter, L. M. (2000). The environmental implications of population dynamics. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
Kawakubo, K. (2001). The vistas of the comparative study of civilizations. Comparative Civilizations Review, no. 45, pp. 51-66.
Kroeber, A. L. (1944). Configurations of culture growth. Berkley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Kurian, G. Th. (1991), The new book of world rankings. New York: Facts on File Publications.
Maddison, Angus. (2001). The world economy. Paris: OECD.
Naroll, R.E.C, B.F.K Fohl, M.J. Fried, R.E. Hildreth, and J.M. Schaefer. (1971). “creativity: a cross-historical pilot survey.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 2, pp. 181-188.
Sorokin, P.A. (1937-41). Social and cultural dynamics. 4 vols. New York: American Book.
Soros, G. (2002). On globalization. New York: Public Affairs Press.
------------(2003). The bubble of american supremacy. New York: PublicAffiars, pp. 195-196.
Taagepera, R. (1978). Size and duration of empires: systematics of size. Social Science Research, no. 7, 108-127.
------------------ (1978). Size and duration of empires: growth-decline curves, 3000 to 600 B.C. Social Science Research, no. 7, 180-196.
Targowski, A. (2004). A grand model of civilization. Comparative Civilizations Review. Fall. pp. 81-106.
-----------------(2004a). A dynamic model of an autonomous civilization. Dialogue and Universalism, no. 1-2, pp.77-90.
-----------------(2004c). From global to universal civilization, Dialogue and Universalism, no.3-4, pp. 121-142.
Tilly, Ch. (1984). Big structures, large processes, huge comparisons. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Toynbee, A. (1995). A study of history, New York: Barnes & Noble.
World Development Indicators. (1997), Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, pp. 284-286.
Uemura, H. (1996). “Report on a new policy for the Ainu: critique.” FOCUS, vol. 4, June.
World Migration Report (2010) - The Future of Migration: Building Capacities for Change. International Organization for Migration. Retrieved 10/9/2013.
Zhu, R., R., Zhisheng, A., Pott, R., Kenneth and Hoffman, K.A. (2003). “Magnetostratigraphic dating of early humans in China” (PDF). Earth Scienc Reviews 61 (3-4): 191–361.

Chapter 8

Agence France-Presse (2012). Secretary Clinton calls for taxing the global elite “in an equitable manner.” The Raw Story, September 24.
Big Question: How is globalization changing culture? CULTURE AND HISTORY. Retrieved 10/7/2012.
Cassis, Y. (2006). Capitals of capital: a history of international financial centres, 1780-2005. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Collins, P. D. (2006). The ascendancy of the scientific dictatorship: an examination of epistemic autocracy, from the 19th to the 21st century. BookSurge Publishing.
“Davos guide: what you need to know about the World Economic Forum”, The Guardian, January 21, 2012.
Legrain, Ph. (2003). Cultural globalization is not Americanization. The Chronicle of Higher Education. May 9.
Flandreau, M., Holtfrerich, C.L., and J., Harold (2003). International financial history in the twentieth century: system and anarchy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Friedman, Th. (2005). The world is flat. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Freeland Ch. (2001). The Rise of the new global elite. The Atlantic, January/February.
Kotarbinski, T. (1955). Traktat o dobrej robocie (Treaty on good job). Warsaw: PWN.
Kuczynski. J. (1986). Universalism as the meaning of recent history. Dialectics and Humanism, vol. XIII, no. 1, p. 101-118.
Kuczynski, J. (1998). Ogrodnicy świata, wprowadzenie do uniwersalizmu,part I, (The gardeners of the world, introduction to universalism). Warsaw: Dialogue Library, Warsaw University.
Kuczynski, J. (1999). Młodość Europy i wieczność Polski, (The youth of Europe and eternity of Poland, introduction to universalism, part II. Warsaw: Dialogue Library, Warsaw University.
Korten, D. (2001). When corporation rule the world. Bloomfield, Conn.: Kumarian Press.
Masson, P. (2001). Globalization: facts and figures. Washington, DC: IMF Policy Discussion Paper, no.01/4.
Matias, M. (2003). Why universalism. Dialogue and Universalism. Vol. XIII, no. 7-8, pp. 15-16.
Packer, G. (2011). The broken contract. Foreign Affairs, November/
Rothkopf, D. J. (2008). Superclass: the global power elite and the world they are making. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Targowski, A. (2013). Harnessing the power of wisdom. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
Wealth gap widens in rich countries as austerity threatens to worsen inequality: OECD. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
Wolf, M. (2005). Will globalization survive? Financial Times, April 5.

You have not viewed any product yet.