Global Agricultural Extension Practices: Country by Country Approaches



Series: Agriculture Issues and Policies
BISAC: TEC003000

While the global marketplace is cluttered with books and products about agriculture and related issues of development, very few speak specifically to agricultural extension and its practices worldwide. Agriculture is the main source of livelihood for a majority of rural people and is often referred to as the mainstay of the economy of the developing world. Agricultural Extension practices or advisory services as per usage in some countries provide a close examination of country-by-country approach. In the book, contributions are drawn from thirteen countries in four regions of the world. Furthermore, the editors list the countries alphabetically. The countries are Botswana, Cameroon, Canada, Ghana, India, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Ukraine and the United States of America.

The many contributors of the book at the onset explore the historical evolution of agricultural extension in their respective countries. For example, during the colonial era and prior to self-governance in several African countries, agriculture was the sole powerhouse that supplied raw materials to the industries of the now western societies. The effective connection between the ‘colonial masters’ and the search for rural raw materials was the agricultural extension worker. In one way, this book helps to connect the history of colonial and post-colonial Africa in the sustenance of agricultural development in Europe and America.

Canada and the United States of America share a lot but also have many differences in their approach to agricultural extension. While America owes its origins to the land grant cooperative extension service with a mandate to state supported universities for the implementation of its programs, Canada traced its need for agricultural extension services to the adaptation of technologies to individual skills for expanded production for growing population (Hamby, 2019). Additionally, while Canada, at one time with reason, withdrew from public agricultural extension, the USA never followed that path since its inception of extension work in 1785.

Formal law organizing the agricultural extension service sector in Ukraine is recent. Extension law of Ukraine was adopted in 2004 allowing for a robust participation of both public and private sector. (Windon and Zaburanna, 2019).The chapter on Ukraine provides insights to the understanding of this effort.

The success of India’s agricultural revolution could be traced to the resilience of local rural farmers who labored day and night tilling the soil in a sustainable manner. Indian and Pakistani farmers worked alongside extension workers in their respective countries to provide the advice and education that helped the transformation of the agricultural sector.

Finally, there are two important points to make here. First, this book, while based on agricultural extension practices, provides a country-by-country comparative assessment. It is easy to read and a good narrative to follow. However, the comparisons are largely limited to the countries examined in the book. Second, the book allows us to review the success and failures of major institutions such as the World Bank, international development agencies and other donor organizations for their participation and recommendation to the efforts of countries involved in the practice of agricultural extension worldwide.
(Imprint: Nova)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Agricultural Extension Approaches in Botswana from Colonial Era to Present
(Nelson M. Tselaesele, PhD, and Masa Motaung, Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gaborone, Botswana)

Chapter 2. Agricultural Extension Approaches in Cameroon: History, Current Practices and Governance Challenges
(Fonteh Athanasius Amungwa, PhD, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Buea, Cameroon)

Chapter 3. Agricultural Extension in Canada
(Helen Hambly, PhD, Capacity Development and Extension, School of Environmental Design and Rural Development, Ontario Agricultural College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada)

Chapter 4. Approaches to Agricultural Extension in Ghana
(Festus Annor-Frempong, PhD, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, School of Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana)

Chapter 5. The Journey of Watershed Approach in South India
(Venkataranga Naika K, PhD and Nataraju, PhD, Directorate of Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, Hebbal, Bangalore, Karnataka, India)

Chapter 6. Agricultural Extension Approaches in Kenya
(Justus M. Ombati, PhD, and Ronald O. Nyamwamu, Department of Agricultural Education and Extension, Egerton University, Egerton, Kenya, and others)

Chapter 7. Public-Funded Agricultural Extension Approaches in Nigeria: A Historical Perspective
(D. O. Torimiro, PhD and V. O. Okorie, PhD, Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ife, Nigeria, and others)

Chapter 8. NGOS in Nigeria’s Agricultural Extension Landscape: A Comparative Perspective
(, V. O. Okorie, PhD, D. O. Torimiro, PhD, and J. O Ayinde, Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, and others)

Chapter 9. Agricultural Extension Approaches Implemented in Pakistan
(Adeel Ahmad, PhD, and Muhammad Iftikhar, PhD, Institute of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan)

Chapter 10. Agricultural Extension Approaches in South Africa
(Elliot Zwane, PhD, and Simon Letsoalo, PhD, Department of Agricultural Economics and Animal production, Centre for Rural Community Empowerment, University of Limpopo, South Africa, and others)

Chapter 11. Agricultural Extension in Swaziland (Kingdom of eSwatini)
(Akinloye J. Farinde, PhD, and Musa A. Dube, PhD, Department of Agricultural Education and Extension, University of Swaziland, Luyengo, Swaziland)

Chapter 12. Agricultural Extension Approaches in Tanzania
(Catherine P. Msuya, PhD, Department of Agricultural Extension and Community Development,
Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania)

Chapter 13. Development of Agricultural Extension in Ukraine
(Suzanna Windon, PhD, and Lesia Zaburanna, PhD, Department of Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania, US, and others)

Chapter 14. Agricultural Extension Approaches in the United States of America
(Chris O. Igodan and Ken Martin, Department of Extension and Ohio State University Extension,
College of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, US)

About the Editors

About the Contributors



“Information about the status of country-level agricultural extension is quite scarce internationally, and the material is scattered in various places. As a researcher in extension I often have to rely on personal contacts and grey literature for information on extension systems. The proposed book gives a historical perspective and up-to-date information as to the current status of extension in 12 countries. The chapters cover quite a range of countries, from developing to industrialized, and a wide range of approaches. The book thus provides an authoritative source on global extension practices and will be useful for scholars and policymakers.” – Dr. Kristin Davis, Senior Research Fellow, International Food Policy Research Institute and Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension: Competence for Rural Innovation and Transformation

“This book, Global Agricultural Extension Practices: Country to Country Approaches, arrives at a time when agricultural extension systems have been increasingly recognized as essential to enhanced agricultural productivity and food security throughout the world and yet there is a relative paucity of comparative, international research on this issue. This book helps to correct this.” – Glen Filson, Professor Emeritus, School of Environmental Design and Rural Development, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Global Agricultural Extension Practices: Country by Country Approaches, edited by two eminent agricultural extension scientists, is a state of the arts publication on the agricultural extension services system of eight (8) countries in Africa, two (2) countries in Asia, one (1) country in Europe and two (2) countries in North America.” READ MORE…Johnson A. Ekpere, Professor (retired) of Agriculture, University of Ibadan, Nigeria


Extension workers/professionals, Academics in the field of agricultural extension, rural sociology, rural development, rural economics, agricultural economics, Community development experts, Rural Advisory Policy Makers etc.


Comparative Extension, Nigeria Extension, America Extension, Canada Extension, Ukraine Extension, Ghana extension, Cameroon Extension, India Extension, South Africa Extension, Tanzania Extension, Kenya Extension, Swaziland Extension, Pakistan Extension, Botswana Extension, Agricultural Extension System, Agricultural Extension Approaches, Agricultural Extension, Agriculture

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