Gliomas: Classification, Symptoms, Treatment and Prognosis

David Cory Adamson, MD, PhD (Editor)
Duke University Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, NC, US

Series: Neuroscience Research Progress
BISAC: MED062000

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Gliomas represent some of the most difficult tumors to understand and most challenging to treat. As illustrated in this book, the difficulty in understanding them is apparent in various ways. They have significant diversity in histology, genomic alternations, protein expression, clinical presentation, radiographic appearance, treatment approaches, and ideas of how to cure them. Our current understanding of the genetic mutations and signaling pathways that drive these tumors has greatly expanded our knowledge and at the same time, our uncertainty about how to combat these tumors.

Added to this complexity is the fact that we are typically talking about tumors that infiltrate through an organ that many of us consider the “seat of our souls,” where we must exercise the utmost caution in how we deliver treatments with great risks. This book begins with an introduction to this complex topic with a broad overview of grading criteria, histological features, common genomic alterations and affected signaling pathways, and current treatments. Most exciting is an extensive discussion on new therapeutic concepts and delivering mechanisms that arise from the complex field of nanotechnology where nanoparticles, nanotubes, and nanocrystals may someday become the Trojan horse.

Subsequent chapters are devoted to unique situations such as brainstem gliomas and gliomas in our pediatric population, where tumors and patients can behave very differently from their adult counterparts. Before devoting several chapters to the biology of these tumors, the book discusses surgical and radiotherapeutic aspects of the glioma field. One chapter focuses on a growing trend to minimize approaches to reduce morbidity, by the use of customized craniotomies, endoscopy and potential robotics in the near future. Another chapter is devoted to current common imaging characteristics with an excellent description of its limitations in describing the clear biological heterogeneity. Future imaging modalities will likely move toward more functional, metabolic, and protein-specific forms of imaging to diagnose, deliver treatments, and monitor response to treatments.

The last decade has certainly witnessed significant gains in areas that will contribute to making progress in glioma treatment. In malignant gliomas, we finally have established a trimodal “standard of care” on which all glioma clinicians agree, all glioma patients hopefully receive, and with which we can compare future experimental trials. We have an encyclopedic knowledge of the molecular biology behind these tumors, and now need to figure out where to exploit it. Imaging and drug delivery methods are achieving impressive sophistication. The challenge of the next decade will be to bring focus to our strategies and to channel them through increasingly complex, costly and lengthy clinical trial designs. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical )

Preface

Chapter 1 - Classification, Histology, Genomic Alterations and New Therapeutic Concepts (pp. 1-30)
Benjamín Pineda, Norma Y. Hernández-Pedro, Roxana Magaña Maldonado, Gustavo Vargas Félix, Alelí Salazar-Ramiro, Verónica Pérez de la Cruz and Julio Sotelo (Neuroimmunology and Neuro-Oncology Unit, and Neurochemistry Unit, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Univesidad del Valle de México)
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Chapter 2 - Brainstem Gliomas (pp. 31-58)
Zhiping Zhou (Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA)
Free Download Available

Chapter 3 - Pediatric Gliomas: Classification, Biology, Treatment and Prognosis (pp. 59-102)
Eugene I. Hwang, Lindsay B. Kilburn and Katherine E. Warren (Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA and others)

Chapter 4 - Minimally Invasive Techniques for the Surgical Treatment of Glioma (pp. 103-126)
Heather Kistka, Travis R. Ladner and Lola B. Chambless (Vanderbilt University Department of Neurosurgery, TN, USA)

Chapter 5 - Advances in Targeted Radiation Therapy for High-Grade Gliomas (pp. 127-138)
Michael F. Gensheimer, Lia M. Halasz and Shilpen Patel (University of Washington Medical Center, WA, USA)

Chapter 6 - PET Tracers in Glioma Imaging (pp. 139-144)
Giorgio Treglia, Marco Salsano and Salvatore Annunziata (Department of Nuclear Medicine, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona, Switzerland and others)

Chapter 7 - The Role of Genomic Instability and Tumor Suppressors‘ Alterations in Glioma Pathogenesis (pp. 145-164)
Vedrana Milinkovic and Nikola Tanic (University of Belgrade, Institute for Biological Research, Department of Neurobiology, Belgrade, Republic of Serbia)

Chapter 8 - Signaling Pathways and Therapeutic Targets in GBM (pp. 165-210)
Cristina Trejo-Solís, Isabel Anaya-Rubio and Julio Sotelo (Departamento de Neuroinmunología, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía “Manuel Velasco Suárez”, D.F, México)
Free Download Available

Chapter 9 - Identification of a Potent Antiglioma Agent from Pre-Clinical Screening (pp. 211-220)
Shivaputra A. Patil, Lawrence M. Pfeffer and Duane D. Miller (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, and the Center for Cancer Research, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA)

Chapter 10 - The Relationship between P53-ROS Pathway and Programmed Cell Death in C6 Glioma Cells (pp. 221-230)
Gang Wang, JunJie Wang, ShiMing Du and DongSheng Li (Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Tai he Affiliated Hospital of University of Hubei Medicine, Hubei Province; Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Embryo Stem Cells, Shiyan City, Hubei Province, and Department of Pharmacy, Chendu Traditional Chinese Medical University, Chendu City, Sichuan Province, China)

Chapter 11 - Nanoparticles and other Vectors for Delivering Targeted Therapeutics to Malignant Gliomas (pp. 231-244)
Sai An, Xi He, Yuyang Kuang, Jianfeng Li, Yubo Guo, Haojun Ma and Chen Jiang (Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education & PLA, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, China)

Index

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