Geophysics: Principles, Applications and Emerging Technologies

Gemma Aiello, PhD (Editor)
Institute for Coastal Marine Environment (IAMC), Italian National Research Council (CNR), Calata Porta di Massa – Porto di Napoli, Naples, Italy

Series: Environmental Remediation Technologies, Regulations and Safety
BISAC: SCI032000

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This book presents current research in the field of geophysics, particularly referring to some principles, applications and emerging technologies. Topics discussed comprehend environmental geophysics, with an explanation of geophysical methods (“seismic refraction and reflection techniques”, “seismic analysis of surface waves”, “electrical methods”, “gravimetric and microgravimetric methods”, “magnetic and electromagnetic methods”) and new methodologies of processing and interpretation with examples in the area of Greece; applications of innovative geophysical techniques in other coastal areas, showing a new approach to seismic data acquisition, joining up land and marine seismic data through a marine streamer connected to a land cable with examples in Procida and Ventotene islands (Southern Italy); marine geophysics of Naples Bay focusing on seismic and magnetic data offshore the Vesuvius, Phlegrean Fields, Ischia and Procida volcanic complexes and a technological evolution in seismic data acquisition from explosive, Sparker and Watergun seismic sources towards new techniques, including MEAS (Multispot Extended Array Sparker) used in marine geological mapping of Southern Italy’s continental shelf and slope. Other topics in this book include oceanographic aspects regarding the oceanic oscillation phenomena and their relationships with the synchronization and stochastic resonance, particularly referring to the transitions among stable and unstable states of western boundary currents, such as the Kuroshio in Japan and investigating their occurrence in general oceanographic circulation as a rhythmic natural phenomena; oceanographic aspects regarding the assessment of ocean variability in the Sicily Channel (Southern Italy) through a numerical 3D model based on Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis aimed at studying the seasonal and interannual variability of oceanographic circulation and hydrology, and extending down to the African coast, involving the Tunisian and Lybian continental shelves (Mediterranean sea); and finally, experimental application of distributed optical fiber sensors through Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (BOTDA) to the monitoring of artificially induced cracks opening in the volcanic rocky slope of the Coroglio coastal cliff (Naples, Southern Italy) aimed at the development of early warning systems and geomorphological setting of coastal cliffs, characterized by a rocks falls, topples and slides. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Chapter 1. Environmental Geophysics: Techniques, Advantages and Limitations
Pantelis Soupios and Eleni Kokinou (Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Greece, and Dynamics of the Ocean Floor, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Geomar, Germany)

Chapter 2. Application of Innovative Geophysical Techniques in Coastal Areas
Vincenzo Di Fiore, Michele Punzo, Daniela Tarallo, Giuseppe Cavuoto (Institute for Coastal Marine Environment (IAMC), Italian National Research Council (CNR), Calata Porta di Massa - Porto di Napoli, Naples, Italy)

Chapter 3. Marine Geophysics of the Naples Bay (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): Principles, Applications and Emerging Technologies
Gemma Aiello and Ennio Marsella (Institute for Coastal Marine Environment (IAMC), Italian National Research Council (CNR), Calata Porta di Massa - Porto di Napoli, Naples, Italy)

Chapter 4. Oceanic Oscillation Phenomena: Relationships with Synchronization and Stochastic Resonance
Shinya Shimokawa and Tomonori Matsuura (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, and University of Toyama, Toyama, Toyama, Japan)

Chapter 5. Assessment of Ocean Variability in the Sicily Channel from a Numerical Three-Dimensional Model using EOFs Decomposition
R. Sorgente, A. Olita, A.F. Drago, A. Ribotti, L. Fazioli, C. Tedesco (Institute for Coastal Marine Environment of the National Research Council in Oristano, Loc. Sa Mardini, Oristano – Italy, and Physical Oceanography Unit, IOI-Malta Operational Oceanography, University of Malta, Malta)

Chapter 6. Monitoring Test of Crack Opening in Volcanic Tuff (Coroglio Cliff, Italy) Using Distributed Optical Fiber Sensor
Aldo Minardo, Mauro Caccavale, Agnese Coscetta, Giuseppe Esposito, Fabio Matano, Marco Sacchi, Renato Somma, Giovanni Zeni and Luigi Zeni (Department of Industrial and Information Eng., Second University of Naples, Aversa, Italy, Institute for Marine and Coastal Environment (IAMC), Italian National Research Council (CNR), Naples, Italy, National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), Naples Section – Osservatorio Vesuviano, Naples, Italy, and Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA), Italian National Research Council (CNR), Naples, Italy)

About the Editor

Index

This book is written for academic people, but it should be useful also to students and post.graduate students in Geological Sciences and Geophysics. Professional people of industries may find it useful mainly on aspects on environmental and applied geophysics.

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