The present review book of Lev I. Dorman, The Geomagnetosphere and Coupling Phenomena, Volume II: Coupling of the Geomagnetosphere/Ionosphere/Atmosphere System with Processes Underground, in Low Atmosphere, on the Sun, and in Space reflects the development of the geomagnetosphere’s research and applications for the last few decades. The importance and actuality of the geomagnetosphere’s research are based on the following three factors:
1. The geomagnetosphere is the nearest giant natural laboratory, where it is possible via many satellites and ground measurements to investigate in detail many different plasmas and energetic processes in space, caused by the interaction of high kinetic energy, solar wind plasmas and their perturbations (Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections – ICMEs, Interplanetary Shock Waves – ISWs, Interplanetary Interaction Regions – IIR), including those frozen within the Interplanetary Magnetic Fields (IMF) with the rotated main geomagnetic field. This interaction leads to a dynamic transformation of magnetic fields in the geomagnetosphere, generation and trapping of high energy particles (which can be called as Magnetospheric Cosmic Rays – MCR), generation of numerous instabilities and electromagnetic radiations. These processes are, in principle, similar to processes in magnetospheres of other planets and their moons, in the atmosphere of the sun and other stars, in interplanetary and in interstellar space, and in many different astrophysical objects. This research is an important basis for fundamental space and astrophysical science.
2. In modern times, technology, economics, navigation, TV, internet, radio connections, military aspects, and the life of people on our planet are strongly connected with the work of many satellites moving inside the geomagnetosphere. Different processes and MCR in the geomagnetosphere influence the satellites’ work and often lead to satellite malfunctions up to fully destroying them; the satellites essentially “die”. The described research can be considered as a basis for developing methods of forecasting dangerous situations for satellites in different orbits as well as to decrease the risk of satellite malfunctions and loss. For this purpose, this research has important practical applications.
3. The interaction of ICME, ISW, and IIR with the geomagnetosphere leads to the generation of big magnetic storms accompanied with the Forbush decrease and precursory effects in Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) intensity. These magnetic storms are dangerous not only to satellites, but also to the Earth’s surface for technology, radio connections, car accidents, and human health (e.g., increasing the frequency of infarct myocardial and brain strokes). Investigations of magnetic storm causes can help to develop methods of their forecasting and decreasing the level of magnetic storms hazards. Therefore, the other practical application of this research is connected with the problem of space weather and space climate influence on technology, radio connections, navigation, transportation, and human health on Earth independent of altitude and geomagnetic latitude.
We hope that this review book will be interesting and useful for researches, engineers, students, and all people interested in the developing of modern technologies in space and concerning issues with the geomagnetosphere, ionosphere, upper and low Atmosphere, cosmic rays, space weather and space climate influence on Earth.