Gallstones: Recent Advances in Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management

David Q.-H. Wang (Editor)
Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA

Piero Portincasa (Editor)
Professor of Internal Medicine, University of Bari Medical School, Italy

Series: Hepatology Research and Clinical Developments
BISAC: MED114000

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Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Gallstone disease is one of the most prevalent digestive diseases, resulting in a considerable amount of financial and social burden in the USA. Approximately 20 million Americans have gallstones. Because gallstone disease is a common clinical problem, basic and clinical studies on this disease continue to advance at a rapid pace, and a book focusing on basic science, current diagnosis and management of gallstones will greatly help practicing gastroenterologists, gastroenterological endoscopists, physicians and surgeons to understand the etiology of this disease and the availability of effective medical therapies. In this book, recognized medical experts discuss recent advances in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, pathogenesis, genetics and diagnosis, as well as endoscopic, medical and surgical therapies of gallstone disease.

This compilation on gallstone disease was written by fifty authors from eight countries (Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the USA).

There are thirty chapters in this book. Chapters One and Two discuss the epidemiology and natural history of cholesterol and pigment gallstone disease. Chapters Three through Six summarize recent progress in the pathogenesis of gallstone disease from a physical-chemical and pathophysiological perspective. Chapter Seven elucidates the roles of the immune system and the microbiome on the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. Chapters Eight and Nine review the roles of nuclear receptors and the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in cholesterol gallstone diseases. Chapters Ten through Twelve discuss the discovery of Lith genes and more fundamental knowledge concerning the genetic determinants and the molecular mechanisms underlying the critical role of Lith genes in gallstone formation in mice and humans. Chapter Thirteen discusses gallstones in pregnancy and explains why gallstone prevalence is higher in women than in men. Chapters Fourteen through Eighteen discuss the effects of diet, insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease on the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Chapter Nineteen provides diagnostic flow charts for biliary lithiasis. In Chapter Twenty, important non-invasive imaging findings of common gallbladder pathology are reviewed, and current strategies for the optimal use of imaging in the evaluation of patients with suspected gallbladder disease is discussed. Chapter Twenty-One evaluates current pharmacological therapy in cholesterol gallstones. Chapter Twenty-Two describes laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Chapters Twenty-Three through Twenty-Six discuss surgical treatment and endoscopic management of common bile duct stones and hepatolithiasis. Chapter Twenty-Seven reviews recent progress on the endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones with endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation. Chapter Twenty-Eight addresses surgical treatment of gallstones and their complications. Chapter Twenty-Nine discusses treatment of intrahepatic duct stones from a Western perspective. Chapter Thirty describes the history and incidence rate of Mirizzi syndrome, and summarizes recent progress in its classification, diagnosis, and management.

The articles in this book provide a state-of-the-art review of the current knowledge on the lithogenesis and the management of gallstone disease, as well as promote future epidemiological investigation, basic and translational research, and clinical studies on this prevalent biliary disorder worldwide. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Preface

Chapter 1. Epidemiology and Natural History of Gallstone Disease
Laura M. Stinton and Eldon A. Shaffer (Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada)

Chapter 2. Gallstone Disease in Japan
Susumu Tazuma (Department of General Internal Medicine, Hiroshima University Hospital, Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan)

Chapter 3. Physical-Chemistry of Biliary Lipids and Cholesterol Crystallization
Tony Y. Wang, Piero Portincasa and David Q.-H. Wang (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA)

Chapter 4. The Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management of Biliary Sludge
Piero Portincasa, Helen J. Wang, Ornella de Bari, and David Q.-H. Wang (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA)

Chapter 5. Pathophysiology of Gallstones
Cynthia W. Ko (Division of Gastroenterology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA)

Chapter 6. Gallbladder Motility Dysfunction on Gallstone Formation
Piero Portincasa and David Q.-H. Wang (Clinica Medica “A. Murri”, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy)

Chapter 7. The Roles of the Immune System, Inflammation, Infection and the Microbiome on Cholesterol Gallstone Pathogenesis
Kirk J. Maurer (Center for Comparative Medicine and Research, Department of Surgery, Dartmouth College and Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH, USA)

Chapter 8. The Function of Nuclear Receptors in Cholesterol Gallstone Disease
Jinhan He and Wen Xie (Center for Pharmacogenetics and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA)

Chapter 9. The Role of Enterohepatic Circulation of Bile Acids in Cholesterol Gallstone Diseases
Tiangang Li (Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA)

Chapter 10. The Role of Lith Genes in Cholesterol Gallstone Formation
Helen H. Wang, Piero Portincasa and David Q.-H. Wang (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA)

Chapter 11. Identification of Gallstone Susceptibility (Lith) Genes in the Inbred Mouse Model of Cholelithiasis
Henning Wittenburg (HELIOS Hospital Schleswig, Department of Internal Medicine II/Gastroenterology, Lutherstraße, Schleswig, Germany)

Chapter 12. Heritability of Gallstones in Humans
Marcin Krawczyk and Frank Lammert (Department of Medicine II, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg, Germany)

Chapter 13. Gallstones in Pregnancy
Piero Portincasa, Ornella de Bari and David Q.-H. Wang (Clinica Medica “A. Murri”, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy)

Chapter 14. Diet and Gallstones
Piero Portincasa, Leonilde Bonfrate, Agostino Di Ciaula, Ornella De Bari, Gabriella Garruti, Marco Gobbetti, Gema Frühbeck, and David Q.-H. Wang (Clinica Medica “A. Murri”, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy)

Chapter 15. The Effects of Diet and Obesity on Cholesterol Gallstone Disease
Aaron May and Min Liu (Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA)

Chapter 16. Role of Insulin Resistance in the Formation of Cholesterol Gallstones
Agostino Di Ciaula, Gabriella Garruti, David Q.-H. Wang, and Piero Portincasa (Division of Internal Medicine, Hospital of Bisceglie, Bisceglie, ASL BAT, Italy)

Chapter 17. Diabetes and Gallstones
Agostino Di Ciaula, Gabriella Garruti, David Q.-H. Wang, and Piero Portincasa (Division of Internal Medicine, Hospital of Bisceglie, Bisceglie, ASL BAT, Italy)

Chapter 18. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gallstone Disease
Piero Portincasa and David Q.-H. Wang (Clinica Medica “A. Murri”, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy)

Chapter 19. Diagnostic Flow Charts for Biliary Lithiasis
Samer Alkaade, Nabeel S. Koro and Mitesh B. Patel (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA)

Chapter 20. Gallbladder Imaging
Jacob S. Ecanow and Richard M. Gore (Department of Radiology, NorthShore University Health System, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Evanston, IL, USA)

Chapter 21. Current Pharmacological Therapy in Cholesterol Gallstones
Piero Portincasa and David Q.-H. Wang (Clinica Medica “A. Murri”, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy)

Chapter 22. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
Felice Giuliante, Gennaro Clemente and Agostino M. De Rose (Hepatobiliary Surgery Unit, Foundation University Hospital “A. Gemelli”, Catholic University of Sacred Hearth, Rome, Italy)

Chapter 23. Surgical Treatment of Common Bile Duct Stones
Charlotte S. Loozen and Djamila Boerma (Department of Surgery, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands)

Chapter 24. Recent Progress in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Gallstones
Eric C.H. Lai (Department of Surgery, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Chai Wan, Hong Kong SAR, China)

Chapter 25. Endoscopic Management of Biliary Ductal Stones
Luigi M. Fenoglio, Cristina Serraino, Laura M. Spadafora, and Carlo Fenoglio (Department of Internal Medicine, Santa Croce General Hospital, Cuneo, Italy)

Chapter 26. Hepatolithiasis: Progress in Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment
Yutaka Suzuki, Toshiyuki Mori, Susumu Tazuma, Hajime Takikawa, and Masanori Sugiyama (Department of Surgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan)

Chapter 27. Recent Progress on the Endoscopic Treatment of Bile Duct Stones with Endoscopic Papillary Large Balloon Dilation
Toshio Tsuyuguchi, Harutoshi Sugiyama, Yuji Sakai, and Osamu Yokosuka (Department of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan)

Chapter 28. Surgical Treatment of Gallstones and their Complications
Kurinchi Gurusamy (Royal Free Campus, UCL Medical School, Royal Free Hospital, London, the United Kingdom)

Chapter 29. Treatment of Intrahepatic Duct Stones: A Western Perspective
Felice Giuliante, Agostino M. De Rose and Francesco Ardito (Hepatobiliary Surgery Unit, Foundation University Hospital “A. Gemelli”, Catholic University of Sacred Hearth, Rome, Italy)

Chapter 30. Mirizzi Syndrome
Helen H. Wang, Piero Portincasa, and David Q.-H. Wang (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA)

About the Editors

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