Fungicides: Perspectives, Resistance Management and Risk Assessment

Paula Pérez-Rodríguez, Ph.D. (Editor)
Laboratory of Hydrology and Geochemistry of Strasbourg (LHyGeS), Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France
Plant Biology and Soil Science Department, University of Vigo, Galiza, Spain

Diego Soto-Gómez (Editor)
University of Vigo, Vigo, Spain

Inmaculada de la Calle, Ph.D. (Editor)
University of Vigo, Vigo, Spain

Series: Chemical Engineering Methods and Technology
BISAC: TEC009010

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Fungi are responsible for a great number of diseases in plants and cause crop loss. The spread of fungal diseases can be controlled by crop management, rotation systems, the use of resistant cultivars and the application of fungicides. Fungicides are often employed by farmers due to their simplicity and efficiency. However, fungicides are expensive, and their effectiveness is reduced when the pathogen develops a resistance. Additionally, the excessive use of fungicides represents a potential risk for the environment and for human health. Apart from their use, the production generates pollution, and the natural degradation of the majority of fungicides is very complex. Due to the high persistence of fungicides, it is important to consider their residues in food.

This book attempts to shed light on fungi biology, their ecology and their infection mechanisms; fungicide use and management, from their place in the market until their modes of action; the fungicide effects, the mechanisms of action and the way to increase their efficiency. In addition, other topics are considered such as the appearance of resistance, the causes and the methods employed to prevent or decrease their incidence. Finally, the latest trends in analytical determinations and new technologies are also included, like computer simulations that may help scientists to make predictions and act accordingly.

Prologue

Section I: Introduction

Chapter 1. Introduction to Fungicides: Use, Management and Analytical Determinations
(Paula Pérez-Rodríguez, Diego Soto-Gómez and Inmaculada De La Calle, Plant Biology and Soil Science Department, Soil Science and Agricultural chemistry group, Universidade de Vigo – Facultade de Ciencias, Ourense, Galiza, Spain, and others)

Chapter 2. A Mechanical Approach to Fungicidal Agents: Universal and Novel Strategies
(Heejeong Lee and Dong Gun Lee, School of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea)

Section II: Examples of Different Fungicides

Chapter 3. The Fungicide Pyrimethanil: An Overview of the Current Status, Environmental Fate and Toxicological Studies
(Cristina A. Viegas, iBB-Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Department of Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal)

Chapter 4. Complementary Nitrogen Fertilization and Foliar Fungicide on Maize in Southern Brazil
(Fabiano Pacentchuk, Jaqueline Huzar Novakowiski, and Itacir Eloi Sandini, Department of Agronomy, Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Guarapuava, Paraná, Brazil, and others)

Section III: Fungicide Resistance

Chapter 5. Fungal Resistance to Fungicides in Field Crops: A Growing Problem Worldwide
(Marcelo Aníbal Carmona, Erlei Melo Reis and Francisco José Sautua, University of Buenos Aires, School of Agriculture, Department of Plant Pathology, Capital Federal, Argentina, and others)

Chapter 6. Computational Simulation as a Tool for Fungicide Resistance Management
(Lucas Henrique Fantin, Marcelo Giovanetti Canteri, Agronomy, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Paraná)

Chapter 7. The Late Blight of Potatoes by the Pseudofungus Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary: Control Options and Resistance to Fungicides
(Emil Rekanoviæ, Miloš Stepanoviæ and Ivana Potoènik, Laboratory of Phytopathology, Institute of Pesticides and Environmental Protection, Belgrade-Zemun, Serbia)

Chapter 8. Fungicide Resistance in Mitosporic Fungi Causing Biodeterioration
(I. L. Kuzikova and N. G. Medvedeva, Saint-Petersburg Scientific-Research Centre for Ecological Safety RAS, Saint-Petersburg, Russia)

Section IV: Risk Assessment

Chapter 9. The Biological Efficacy Data for Fungicide Products at the EU Level in the Framework of Regulation (EC) NO 1107/2009
(Jesús Jiménez-Ruiz, Plant Protection Products Unit (UPF) – DTEVPF, National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology (INIA), Madrid, Spain)

Index

Keywords: Fungicides, fungal resistance, fungicide management, analytical determinations, food residues, environmental fate, toxicology, fungicidal agents, maize, strobilurin-based fungicides, foliar fungicides, computational simulation, epidemiology, Phytophthora infestans, potato, disease control, mitosporic fungi, biodeterioration, plant protection products, biological efficacy data, European legislation

This book could interest people in the world of research, which is dedicated to the study of fungicides, their application, modes of action, and characteristics. It would also be interesting for those people who study the emergence of the resistances, especially in fungi, the risks of this issue, and the most effective systems to detect the resistances, fight against them and delay their appearance. The book could be also interesting for people that study the issue of the resistance to herbicides and bactericides. Additionally, agrochemical companies interested in placing their products in the European market could also be considered a group of interest as well as farmers which perform both conventional and organic practices.

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