Flow and Capillary Electrophoretic Analysis

Paweł Kościelniak (Editor)
Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Krakow, Poland

Marek Trojanowicz (Editor)
Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, and University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

Series: Analytical Chemistry and Microchemistry
BISAC: SCI013010

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Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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The main way of making progress in analytical chemistry is searching for new techniques and developing new methods of determination. This also includes constant development of the laboratory methods to be used in both flow analysis (FA) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). They were developed almost simultaneously in the recent decades, and although both FA and CE techniques exhibit many differences in instrumentation, exploited phenomena and employed processes and applications, their numerous features allow for them to be considered related. The most general common feature of both techniques is that they use different phenomena and properties of chemical species exhibited in the flowing stream of a liquid for analytical purposes. The flow itself is generated and modulated in various ways, and the selectivity of detection of analytes is achieved in result of the application of strong electric field (CE), carrying out both offline and online sample processing or analyte transformation (CE, FA) and employing the most suitable detection methods (CE, FA). A basic common attribute of both techniques is carrying out the detection of analytes during the flow of solution through the detector, with the possibility of applying a large variety of different techniques for this purpose, including the most complex ones. A commonly exploited advantage is the sample processing under flow conditions inside the CE capillary or in flow-through modules/reactors of appropriate designs (FA). The same approaches are employed for the miniaturization of measuring systems, leading to microfluidic systems, which with an appropriate design can be simultaneously used for a flow-injection screening of analytes as well as for quantitative CE determinations. Yet another valuable approach is a construction of hybrid measuring systems, combining FA and CE. In spite of the presence of chromatographic methods for CE or the mechanization/automation of analytical multi-step procedures with different concepts of discrete analyzers in FA, both abovementioned techniques maintain their solid position in modern chemical analysis with thousands of applications in different fields.

This book presents current development trends in flow analysis and capillary electrophoresis. It contains numerous review chapters dedicated to various aspects of both techniques. There are also chapters reporting the results of selected studies on the development of detailed analytical procedures for different fields in routine analysis. Based on an appropriate selection of the discussed problems, it reports the present status of both analytical techniques, offering a unique comparison of relations and similarities of those important fields of contemporary analytical chemistry. There are numerous world renowned experts in these fields included in the long list of contributing authors. The book can be a valuable assets for students of all disciplines, which utilize the achievements of modern analytical chemistry, including food chemistry, clinical analysis or forensic chemistry, as well as laboratory personnel and research staff involved in the development of new analytical methods and designing analytical instrumentation.

Preface

Chapter 1. Flow Analysis and Capillary Electrophoresis: Are They Related Techniques?
(Marek Trojanowicz, Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Methods, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology and Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland)

Chapter 2. Combining Flow Injection Analysis and Capillary Electrophoresis: Electroinjection Analysis and Electrophoretically Mediated Microanalysis
(Gary D. Christian, Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, USA)

Chapter 3. Simultaneous Flow Analysis Based on a Single Injection Peak
(Joanna Kozak and Justyna Paluch, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Krakow, Poland)

Chapter 4. The Development of Flow Analysis Systems for an Enzymatic Determination of Disaccharides
(Marta Pokrzywnicka, Michał Michalec, and Mateusz Granica, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland)

Chapter 5. Flow Analysis Strategies for Examination of Iron Storage and Distribution in Human Serum
(Kamil Strzelak and Natalia Rybkowska, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland)

Chapter 6. Capillary Electrophoresis as a Monitoring Tool for Flow Composition Determination with an Emphasis on Bioprocesses
(Mihkel Kaljurand, School of Science, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Tallinn University of Technology Tallinn, Estonia)

Chapter 7. Equilibrium Analysis of Weak Chemical Reactions in an Aqueous Solution via the Capillary Electrophoretic Method
(Toshio Takayanagi and Shoji Motomizu, Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokushima University, Tokushima, Japan, and others)

Chapter 8. Non-Equilibrium Capillary Electrophoresis of Equilibrium Mixtures (NECEEM) Method in Quantitative Characterization of Aptamer-Target Interactions
(Karolina Matyjaszczyk and Maria Walczak, Jagiellonian Centre for Experimental Therapeutics (JCET), Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland, and others)

Chapter 9. Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography for the Clinical Evaluation of New Potential Biomarkers: Biogenic Amines
(Natalia Miękus, Ilona Olędzka, Piotr Kowalski, and Tomasz Bączek, Department of Animal and Human Physiology, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland, and others)

Chapter 10. Flow Analysis Systems for Enzyme Activity Assays
(Justyna Bzura and Marta Fiedoruk-Pogrebniak, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland)

Chapter 11. Multicommutated Systems for Analytical Control of Hemodialysis Treatments
(Michał Michalec and Łukasz Tymecki, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland, and others)

Chapter 12. Direct-Injection Detectors: A Novel Approach to Flow Analysis
(Sławomir Kalinowski and Stanisława Koronkiewicz, Department of Chemistry, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland)

Chapter 13. New Instrumentation for On-Chip Capillary Gel Electrophoresis
(Wojciech Kubicki and Rafał Walczak, Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Poland)

Chapter 14. Bare versus Coated Capillaries: A Key Decision in the Development of Methods Based on Capillary Electrophoresis
(Paweł Mateusz Nowak, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Krakow, Poland)

Chapter 15. Application of Graphene Oxide in Capillary Electrochromatography
(Ewa Poboży and Karolina Wołoszyn, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland)

Chapter 16. Implementation of Flow Methods in Laboratory Practice
(Paweł Kościelniak, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Krakow, Poland)

Chapter 17. The Application of Capillary Electrophoresis in the (Bio)pharmaceutical Industry
(Cari E. Sänger-van de Griend, Kantisto BV, Baarn, The Netherlands and Faculty of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden)

Chapter 18. Capillary Electrophoresis in Clinical Analysis
(Petr Kubáň, Department of Bioanalytical Instrumentation, CEITEC Masaryk University and Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the Czech Academy of Sciences, v.v.i, Brno, Czech Republic)

Chapter 19. Application of Capillary Electrophoresis to Forensic Analysis
(Michał Woźniakiewicz, Małgorzata Król, and Renata Wietecha-Posłuszny, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland)

Index

Keywords: flow analysis, flow injection analysis, flow techniques, flow titration, microfluidics, lab-on-valve, capillary electrophoresis, capillary zone electrophoresis, capillary electrokinetic chromatography, electroinjection analysis, electrophoretically mediated microanalysis

The book can be a valuable help for academic staff and students of all disciplines which utilize the achievements of modern analytical chemistry, including e.g. food chemistry, clinical analysis or forensic chemistry, as well as for laboratory personnel and research staff involved in the development of new analytical methods and designing analytical instrumentation.

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