Flocculation: Processes and Applications


Eleonora Vollan (Editor)

Series: Chemistry Research and Applications
BISAC: SCI013000

This book opens by approaching current trends in preparation and chemical modification of flocculant polysaccharides derived from plants and their flocculation performance. In addition, aspects including mechanisms of flocculation, chemical modification, the effect of physicochemical factors on flocculating activity, and recent applications of flocculant polysaccharides are reviewed.

The authors go on to propose plant extracts which can efficiently perform coagulation and flocculation operations without the environmental risk of residual sludge with high concentrations of aluminum or iron.

A separate study aimed to use the organic polymer from Opuntia cochenillifera cactus associated with the addition of aluminum sulfate to treat the water of a lentic body applying coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration processes.

The authors propose that the design and operation of flocculators is crucial for the process efficiency andlargely dependent on the following features: floc characteristics, flocculation kinetics, and engineering aspects of flocculation.

This compilation also discusses current knowledge on algal organic matter (AOM) flocculation, the impact of AOM on the removal of other compounds and links AOM composition and character to the efficiency of flocculation, the reaction conditions and mechanisms and finally, to the properties of flocs.

Additionally, the performance of natural coagulant tanin compared to chemical coagulants aluminium sulphate and ferric chloride commonly used in the treatment of raw wastewater from tannery, by means of the physicochemical processes of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation are examined.

Through physical and chemical parameters, the efficiency of the coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation/filtration processes using organic coagulants in the treatment of water from a lentic system in Brazil are examined as well.

Later, the physicochemical performance of chitosan and mesquite gum as coagulant flocculent agent for the treatment of residual water of the cutting and packing of meat products factory is presented.

The brewing industry generates effluent that can cause serious environmental impacts when not treated properly due to high loads of organic matter in its composition. Thus, in view of the growing emergence of breweries in Brazil and consequent increase in effluent production, alternatives are sought for the auxiliary treatment using coagulants and their efficiency is analyzed.

Urban development also contributes to increasing water pollution, therefore the authors perform water treatment (through the electrocoagulation process) to calculate the cost of the operation.

Eutrophication is one of the most prevalent water quality problems in the United States as well as other parts of the world. It has led to excessive growth of algal blooms, which not only cause the death of aquatic plants and animals, but also produce high levels of toxins and odorous compounds. The authors examine the performance of the coagulation/flocculation process using aluminum and ferric salt coagulants for the removal of microcystins.

One study focuses on the coagulation flocculation of young leachate from the Kenitra city landfill. Tests were carried out by adding ferric chloride mixed with three flocculants, namely: the chitosan, the Superfloc SD2065 and the Himoloc.

The authors outline research about combining assisted sedimentation with other operations such as oxidation processes in order to evaluate the solids removal of the complete designed wastewater treatment focusing on OMW treatment.

The penultimate chapter focuses on the preparation and characterization of the chitosan based flocculant for removal of heavy metal ion prepared from chitosan by N-acylation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid monoanhydride.

The concluding study aims to apply the Bratby method in the characterization of the turbidity removal process, through the determination of the kinetic aggregation coefficient (KA) of the flocs and the kinetic coefficient of rupture (KB) of the flocs.



Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Flocculant Polysacharides Mainly from Plants
(Priscilla B. S. Albuquerque, Weslley Felix Oliveira, Priscila Marcelino dos Santos Silva, Maria Tereza dos Santos Correia and Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Centro de Tecnologias Estratégicas do Nordeste-CETENE, Cidade Universitária, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 2. Coagulation and Flocculation with Plant Extracts
(Jesús Manuel Epalza Contreras and Johan Jaramillo Peralta, Environmental engineering, Universidad de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia, and others)

Chapter 3. The Process of Water Treatment with Aluminum Sulphate Associated with the Application of the Cactus Opuntia cochenillifera
(Higgor Henrique Dias Goes and Rita de Cássia Pereira de Souza, Joseane Débora Peruço Theodoro, Environmental Engineering Student – UTFPR- Londrina, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 4. Flocculation: Mechanisms and Applications for Wastewater Treatment
(Elvis Carissimi, Cristiane Oliveira Rodrigues, Dounia Elkhatib and Vinka Oyanedel-Craver, Department of Sanitary and Environment Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 5. Flocculation of AOM in Water Treatment
(Martin Pivokonský, Jana Načeradská, Kateřina Novotná, Lenka Čermáková and Petra Vašatová, Institute of Hydrodynamics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic)

Chapter 6. Comparison of Natural Coagulant and Chemistry in Tanning Wastewater Treatment Using the Flocculation Process
(Edilaine Regina Pereira, Gustavo da Silva Souza and Joseane Débora Peruço Theodoro, Department of Environmental Academic, Federal Technological University of Paraná, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 7. Moringa Oleifera Seed Use in Salina Solution in Water Treatment in Lentic Bodies
(João Carlos Belisário Junior, Edilaine Regina Pereira and Joseane Débora Peruço Theodoro, Environmental Engineer – UTFPR- Londrina, Londrina, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 8. Evaluating New Biopolyelectrolytes for the Meat Processing Wastewater Treatment via Coagulation-Flocculation
(E. A. López-Maldonado and M. T. Oropeza-Guzmán, Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Autonomous University of Baja California, Tijuana, Mexico, and others)

Chapter 9. Treatment of Residual Waters of the Brewery Industry through the Flocculation Process with the Use of Inorganic and Organic Coagulants
(Fellipe Jhordã Ladeia Janz, Edilaine Regina Pereira, Thaís Ribeiro, Dandley Vizibelli and Julio Cesar Angelo Borges, Environmental Engineer – UTFPR- Londrina, Londrina, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 10. Application of Electrocoagulation with Voltage Variation to Obtain Potable Water
(Ingrid Cardozo Botelho, Thiago Andre Bezerra Higuchi and Joseane Débora Peruço Theodoro, Environmental Engineering Student – UTFPR- Londrina, Londrina, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 11. An Evaluation of the Performance of the Coagulation/Flocculation Process with Aluminum and Ferric Salts on the Removal of Algal Toxins
(Ayşe Büşra Şengül, PhD, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS, US)

Chapter 12. Treatment of Leachate from the Ouled Berjal Landfill in Morocco by Coagulation Flocculation: A Study of the Effect of Order for Reagent Introduction
(Hajar Bakraouy, Salah Souabi, Khalid Digua and Levent Yilmaz, Process and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Science and technics, Hassan II University, Mohammedia, Morocco)

Chapter 13. OMW Pretreatment by Assisted Sedimentation Methods: Coagulation/Flocculation
(Gassan Hodaifa and Cristina Agabo García, Molecular Biology and Biochemical Engineering Department, Chemical Engineering Area, University of Pablo de Olaivde, Seville, Spain)

Chapter 14. Chitosan Based Flocculants for the Removal of Heavy Metal Ions
(Sayaka Fujita and Nobuo Sakairib, Division of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, National Institute of Technology, Tomakomai College, Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Japan, and others)

Chapter 15. Determination of the Kinetic Coefficient of Aggregation and the Kinetic Coefficient of Rupture in the Turbidity Removal Process
(Joseane Debora Peruço Theodoro, Paulo Sergio Theodoro and Rosangela Bergamasco, Department of Environmental Academic, Federal Technological University of Paraná, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, and others)


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