Field Propulsion Physics and Intergalactic Exploration

Yoshinari Minami
Advanced Science-Technology Research Organization (Formerly NEC Space Development Division)

Herman David Froning
Flight Unlimited, Retired

Series: Space Science, Exploration and Policies
BISAC: SCI098000

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Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Due to the lack of space propulsion technology and space navigation technology that can accelerate at high speeds in a short time, it is well-known that mankind does not currently have technology to realize a journey to other star systems.

This book explains galaxy exploration by combining field propulsion based on the physical structure of space-time and a new navigation theory.

A field propulsion system is propelled without mass expulsion. The propulsive force as a pressure thrust arises from the interaction of space-time around the spaceship itself; this causes the spaceship to propel against the space-time structure. Firstly, from the physical and engineering point of view, the propulsion principle and propulsion theory of field propulsion are explained.

As a typical example of field propulsion, the space drive propulsion system includes its theory, the registered patent, and the latest development from the viewpoint of cosmology and astrophysics.

Secondly, for galaxy exploration, navigation technology such as a wormhole that bypasses the wall of light speed, not propulsion technology, is indispensable. A method for overcoming the “light barrier” (the seeming “wall-of-light” in 4-D space-time), or a hyperspace navigation theory to “jump the light-barrier”, is explained. Combining the space propulsion system and the navigation system makes it possible to perform a realistic galaxy exploration.

The reader will not only get a good introduction to the science and technology of field power and propulsion physics, but also to the possibility of interstellar navigation.

Preface

Prologue

About the Authors

Chapter 1. Introduction to Field Propulsion (pp. 1-36)
Yoshinari Minami

Chapter 2. Energy for Spaceflight Power and Propulsion from Space Itself (pp. 37-58)
Herman D. Froning Jr.

Chapter 3. The Evolution of Field Propulsion from a Much Slower-than-Light to Much Faster-than-Light Speed (pp. 59-68)
Herman D. Froning Jr.

Chapter 4. Space Drive Propulsion: A Typical Field Propulsion System (pp. 69-122)
Yoshinari Minami

Chapter 5. Astrophysical Propulsion (pp. 123-154)
Yoshinari Minami

Chapter 6. Galaxy Exploration: An Attempt to Begin with an Initiative for Interstellar Flight (pp. 155-160)
Yoshinari Minami

Chapter 7. Rapid Transit by Field Propulsion to Distant Stars (pp. 161-192)
Herman D. Froning Jr.

Chapter 8. Hyper-Space Navigation (pp. 193-222)
Yoshinari Minami

Conclusion (pp. 223-224)

Appendices (pp. 225-248)

Index (pp. 249)

Chapter 1

[1] Minami Y., “Space Strain Propulsion System”, 16th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (16th ISTS), Vol.1, 1988: 125-136.
[2] Minami, Y., “An Introduction to Concepts of Field Propulsion”, JBIS 56, 2003: 350-359.
[3] Minami, Y., “Possibility of Space Drive Propulsion”, In 45th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF), (IAA-94-IAA.4.1.658), 1994.
[4] Minami, Y., “Spacefaring to the Farthest Shores-Theory and Technology of a Space Drive Propulsion System”, Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (JBIS) 50, 1997: 263-76.
[5] Minami, Y., “A Superstring-Based Field Propulsion Concept”, JBIS, 57, 2004: 216-224.
[6] Puthoff, H.E., “Gravity as a zero-point-fluctuation force”, Phys. Rev. A,

39, pp.2333-2342, 1989.
[7] Haisch, B. Rueda, A. and Puthoff, H.E. “Inertia as a zero-point-field Lorentz force”, Phys. Rev. A,

49, pp.678-694, 1994.
[8] Millis M.G., “Exploring the Notion of Space Coupling Propulsion, In Vision 21: Space Travel for the Next Millennium”, Symposium Proceedings, Apr 1990, NASA-CP-10059, 1990: 307-316.
[9] Froning Jr. H.D., “Vacuum Energy For Power and Propulsive Flight?”, AIAA 94-3348, 30th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, June 27-29, 1994/Indianapolis, IN, USA.
[10] Froning Jr. H.D., Barrett T.W., “Inertia Reduction-And Possibly Implusion-By Conditioning Electromagnetic Fields”, AIAA 97-3170,33rd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE, Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, July 6-9, 1997.
[11] Puthoff H.E., Little S.R., Ibison M., “Engineering the Zero-Point Field and Polarizablel Vacuum for Interstellar Flight”, Journal of The British Interplanetary Society, Vol.55, 2002: 137-144.
[12] Millis M.G., Williamson G. S., (Eds.), “NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop Proceedings”, Jan 1999, NASA-CP-1999-208694: 263-273.
[13] Minami, Y., Musha, T., “Field propulsion systems for space travel”, Acta Astronautica, 82, 215-220 (2013).
[14] Gerry, C.C. and Knight, P.L., Introductory Quantum Optics, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
[15] Vedral, V., Modern Foundations of Quantum Optics, Imperial Collage Press, London, 2005.
[16] Walls, D.F. and Milburn, G.J., Quantum Optics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 1994.
[17] Matsuoka, M., Quantum Optics, Shokabo, Tokyo Japan, 2000.
[18] Weigert, S., “Spatial squeezing of the vacuum and the Casimir effect”, Phys. Lett A., 214, pp.215-220, 1996.
[19] Caves, C.M., “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer”, Phys. Rev. D, 23, pp.1693-1708, 1981.
[20] Kuo, C-I. and Ford, L.H., “Semiclassical gravity theory and quantum fluctuations”, Phys. Rev. D, 47, pp.4510-4519, 1993.
[21] Davis, E.W. and Puthoff, H.E., “Experimental Concepts for Generating Negative Energy in the Laboratory”, in proceedings of Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-2006), edited by M. S. El-Genk, AIP Conference Proceedings, Melville, New York, 2006, pp.1362-1373.
[22] Minami Y., “Extraction of Thrust from Quantum Vacuum Using Squeezed Light”, STAIF-2007, edited by Mohamed S. El-Genk, AIP Conference Proceedings, Feb.11-15, 2007, Albuquerque, NM, USA.
[23] Minami, Y., “Preliminary Theoretical Considerations For Getting Thrust Via Squeezed Vacuum”, JBIS, 61, 2008: 315-321.

Chapter 2

[1] Sanger, E. “The attainability of the Stars”, 7th International Congress, Rome, Italy, 1956.
[2] Bussard, R.W., “Galactic Matter and Interstellar Flight”, Astronatical Acta, Vol.6, 1960.
[3] Wheeler, J.A., “Superspace and the Nature of Quantum Geometrodynamics”, Topics in Non-linear Physics, pp. 615-654; Proceeding of the Physics Session of the International School of Nonlinear Mathematics and Physics, Springer Verlag, 1968.
[4] Froning, H.D., Jr., “Propulsion Requirements for a Quantum Interstellar Ramjet”, Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Volume 36, Number 7, July, 1980.
[5] Leinweber, Derek B. <Derek B. Leinweber, Visual QCD Archive> Google, 2017.
[6] Hannson, P.A., “On the Use of Vacuum for Interstellar Travel”, 37th International Astronautical Federation, IAA 87-631, (1987).
[7] Hannsson, P.A., “On the Use of Vacuum for Interstellar Travel”, 39th International Astronautical Federation, IAA, 80-667, (1989).
[8] Froning, H.D. Jr., “Quantum Vacuum Engineering for Power and Propulsion from the Energetics of Space”, Proceedings of COFE 3, The Third Conference on Future Energy, Integrity Research Institute, IntegrityResearchInstitute.org.

Chapter 3

[1] Froning, H.D. Jr., Czysz, P., “Advanced Technology and Advanced Breakthrough Propulsion Physics for 2025, 2050 Military Vehicles”, Space Technologies and Applications International Forum, (STAIF 2006), AIP Conference Proceedings, Editor S. El Genk, AIP, Melville New York, 2006.
[2] Barrett, T.W. “The distinction between fields and their metric”, annals de la Louis be Broglie, 14, 1, 1989.
[3] Froning, H.D. Jr., Roach, R.L., “AIAA 2000-3478, Preliminary simulation of Vehicle Interactions with the Zero-Point Vacuum”, 36th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion and Exhibit, July 17-19, Huntsville, AL, 2000.
[4] Froning, H.D. Jr., “AIAA 96-4329, Economic and Technical Challenges of Expanding Space Commerce by RLV Development”, AIAA Space Programs and Technologies Conference, Huntsville, AL, 1996.

Chapter 4

[1] Minami, Y., “Space Strain Propulsion System”, 16th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (16th ISTS), Vol.1, 1988: 125-136.
[2] Forward, R.L. (Forward Unlimited, Malibu CA), Letter to Minami, Y. (NEC Space Development Div., Yokohama JAPAN) about Minami’s “Concept of Space Strain Propulsion System”, (17 March 1988).
[3] Minami, Y., “Possibility of Space Drive Propulsion”, paper IAA-94-IAA.4.1.658, presented at 45th IAF Congress, 1994.
[4] Hayasaka, H., “Parity Breaking of Gravity and Generation of Antigravity due to the de Rham Cohomology Effect on Object’s Spinning”, In 3rd International Conference on Problems of Space, Time, Gravitation.1994.
[5] Huggett, S.A., and Todd, K.P., An Introduction to Twistor Theory, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
[6] Pauli, W., Theory of Relativity, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1981.
[7] Minami, Y., “Space Drive Force Induced by a Controlled Cosmological Constant”, paper IAA-96-IAA.4.1.08, presented at 47th IAF Congress, 1996.
[8] Minami, Y., “Spacefaring to The Farthest Shores - Theory and Technology of A Space Drive Propulsion System”, JBIS, 50, 1997: 263-276.
[9] Minami, Y., “Conceptual Design of Space Drive Propulsion System”, STAIF-98, edited by Mohamed S. El-Genk, AIP Conference Proceedings 420, Part Three, 1516-1526, Jan. 25-29, 1998, Albuquerque, NM, USA.
[10] Flügge, W., Tensor Analysis and Continuum Mechanics, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1972.
[11] Fung, Y.C., Classical and Computational Solid Mechanics, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pre. Ltd., 2001.
[12] Minami, Y., “Continuum Mechanics of Space Seen from the Aspect of General Relativity - An Interpretation of the Gravity Mechanism”, Journal of Earth Science and Engineering 5, 2015: 188-202.
[13] Kolb, E.W. and M.S. Turner.,

The Early Universe, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, New York, 1993.
[14] Tolman, R.C.,

Relativity Thermodynamics and Cosmology, Dover Books, New York, 1987.
[15] Kane, G., Modern Elementary Particle Physics, Addison- Wesley Publishing Company, New York, 1993.
[16] Ryden, B., Introduction to Cosmology, Addison Wesley, 2003.
[17] Matsubara, T., Introduction to Modern Cosmology Coevolution of Spacetime and Matter, University of Tokyo Press, 2010.
[18] Matloff, G. L., Deep Space Probes, Springer, 2000; page 127 (Ch. 9: 9.4 ‘Cabbages and Kings’: General Relativity and Spacetime Warps.
[19] Zampino, E.J., Critical Problems for Interstellar Propulsion Systems, Available from: ralph.open-aerospace.org/deep/repository/ zampino2.pdf; website shown on Google, June 1998.
[20] Alcubierre, M., “The Warp Drive: Hyper-Fast Travel within General Relativity”, Class. Quantum Gravity 11, L73-L77, 1994.
[21] Minami, Y., “Space drive propulsion principle from the aspect of cosmology”, in: STAIF (Space Technology & Applications International Forum) II, Albuquerque, NM, Apr. 16-18, 2013.
[22] Minami, Y., “Space Drive Propulsion Principle from the Aspect of Cosmology”, Journal of Earth Science and Engineering 3 (2013) 379-392. http://davidpublishing.org/
[23] Minami, Y., “Basic concepts of space drive propulsion―Another view (Cosmology) of propulsion principle―”, Journal of Space Exploration (METHA PRESS), (2013) 106-115.
[24] Minami, Y., A Journey to the Stars – By Means of Space Drive Propulsion and Time-Hole Navigation- published in Sept. 1, 2014 (LAMBERT Academic Publishing; https://www.morebooks.de/ store/gb/book/a-journey-to-the-stars/isbn/978-3-659-58236-3).
[25] Williams, C. (Editor); Minami, Y. (Chap.3); et al. Advances in General Relativity Research, Nova Science Publishers, 2015.


Chapter 5

[1] Minami, Y., “Spacefaring to The Farthest Shores - Theory and Technology of A Space Drive Propulsion System”, JBIS, 50, 1997: 263-276.
[2] Minami, Y., “Space propulsion physics toward galaxy exploration”, 2015, J Aeronaut Aerospace Eng 4: 2.
[3] Minami, Y., “Space Drive Propulsion Principle from the Aspect of Cosmology”, Journal of Earth Science and Engineering 3, 2013: 379-92.
[4] Contopoulos, I., Gabuzda, D., Kylafis, N., Editors, The Formation and Disruption of Black Hole Jets, Springer, 2015.
[5] Dermer, C. D. and Menon, G., High Energy Radiation from Black Holes, Princeton University Press, 2009.
[6] Kato, S., Fukue, J. and Mineshige, S., Black-Hole Accretion Disks-Towards a New Paradigm-, Kyoto University Press, 2008.
[7] Shibata, K., Fukue, J., Matsumoto, R., Mineshige, S., Editors, Active Universe―Physics of Activity in Astrophysical Objects―, SHOKABO, Tokyo, 1999.
[8] Fukue, J., Shining Black-Hole Accretion Disks, Pleiades PUBLISHING Co., Ltd., 2007.
[9] Mineshige, S., Black Hole Astrophysics, Nippon Hyoron sha co., Ltd., 2016.
[10] Koyama, K. and Mineshige, S., Black Hole and High-Energy Phenomena, Nippon Hyoron sha co., Ltd., 2007.
[11] Minami, Y., “A Journey to the Stars: Space Propulsion Brought About by Astrophysical Phenomena Such as Accretion Disk and Astrophysical Jet”, Global Journal of Technology & Optimization, 2016, 7:2 DOI: 10.4172/2229-8711.1000197.
[12] Minami, Y., “Another Collimation Mechanism of Astrophysical Jet”, Journal of Earth Science and Engineering 7, 2017: 74-89.
[13] Potter, P. E., Gravitational Manipulation of Domed Craft, Adventures Unlimited Press, 2008.
[14] JSUP, “Prometheus in Space: Survey Report of Research Committee on Functional New Material”, 1993. (http://www.researchgate.net/ publication/281423024).
[15] Minami, Y., “Possibility of Space Drive Propulsion”, In 45th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF), (IAA-94-IAA.4.1.658), 1994. (http://www.researchgate.net/publication/
280320680).

Chapter 6

[1] Vulpetti G., “Problems and Perspectives in Interstellar Exploration”, JBIS, 52, 1999: 307-323.
[2] Santoli S., Nano-to-Micro Integrated Single-Electron Bio-Macro Molecular Electronics for Miniaturised Robotic “Untethered Flying Observers”, Acta Astronautica, 41, Nos. 4-10, 1997: 279-287.
[3] Forward, R.L., “Space Warps: A Review of One Form of Propulsionless Transport”, JBIS, 42, pp.533-542 (1989).
[4] Froning Jr, H.D., “Requirement for Rapid Transport to the Further Stars”, JBIS, 36, 1983: 227-230.
[5] Minami, Y., “Hyper-Space Navigation Hypothesis for Interstellar Exploration (IAA.4.1-93-712)”, 44th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF),1993.
[6] Minami, Y., “Travelling to the Stars: Possibilities Given by a Spacetime Featuring Imaginary Time”, JBIS, 56, 2003: 205-211.

Chapter 7

[1] Froning, H.D. Jr., “A Metaphysical Interpretation of Tachyons”,
Speculations in Science and Technology, Elsevier, Sequoia S.A. Lausanne Switzerland, 1981, 1982.
[2] Stevens, W.C., UFO, Contact from the Pleiades, ISBN 0-9608558-2-3, UFU Photo Archives, Tuscon Arizona, ISBN 9608558, 1982.
[3] Froning, H. D. Jr., “Propulsion Requirements for Rapid Transits to Distant Stars”, Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 36, No. 5, May,1985.
[4] Froning, H.D. Jr., “Swift, Unlabored Vehicle Acceleration by Momentum and Energy-Conserving Paths in Higher Dimensions”, 47th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, San Diego California, August, 2011.
[5] Froning, H.D. Jr., “Preliminary Simulations of Vehicle Interactions with the Zero-Point Quantum Vacuum by Fluid-Dynamic Approximations”, AIAA 2000-3478, 36th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASME Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Huntsville Alabama, July, 2000.
[6] Froning, H.D., “An Interstellar Exploration Initiative for Future Flight”, MDC 91 H7041, Mc Donnell Douglas Space Systems Company, Presented at the 28th Space Congress, Cocoa Beach, Florida, April, 1991.
[7] Papagainnis, M.J., “Natural Selection of Stellar Civilizations by the Limits of Growth”, Astronomy Department, Boston University, 1984,

Chapter 8

[1] Forward, R.L., “Space Warps: A Review of One Form of Propulsionless Transport”, JBIS,

42, pp.533-542 (1989).
[2] Froning Jr, H.D., “Requirements for Rapid Transport to the Further Stars”, JBIS,

36, pp.227-230 (1983).
[3] Froning Jr, H.D., The Halcyon Years of Air and Space Flight: And the Continuing Quest, published in May. 13, 2016 (LAMBERT Academic Publishing).
[4] Minami, Y., “Hyper-Space Navigation Hypothesis for Interstellar Exploration (IAA.4.1-93-712)”, 44th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF),1993.
[5] Minami, Y., “Travelling to the Stars: Possibilities Given by a Spacetime Featuring Imaginary Time”, JBIS,

56, pp.205-211 (2003).
[6] Minami, Y., “A Perspective of Practical Interstellar Exploration: Using Field Propulsion and Hyper-Space Navigation Theory”, in the proceedings of Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-2005), edited by M. S. El-Genk, AIP Conference Proceedings 746, Melville, New York, 2005, pp. 1419-1429.
[7] Minami, Y., A Journey to the Stars – By Means of Space Drive Propulsion and Time-Hole Navigation-, published in Sept. 1, 2014 (Lambert Academic Publishing).
[8] Minami, Y., “Interstellar travel through the Imaginary Time Hole”, Journal of Space Exploration 3, 2014: 206-212.
[9] Minami, Y., “Space propulsion physics toward galaxy exploration”, J Aeronaut Aerospace Eng 4: 2; 2015.
[10] Hawking, S., A Brief History of Times, Bantam Publishing Company, New York, 1988.
[11] Hawking, S., Hawking on Bigbang and Black Holes, World Scientific, 1993.
[12] Williams C, Cardoso JG, Whitney CK, Minami Y, Mabkhout SA, et al., Advances in general relativity research, Nova Science Publishers, 2015.

Appendix C

[1] Minami, Y., “Space Strain Propulsion System”, 16th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (16th ISTS), Vol.1, 1988: 125-136.
[2] Pauli, W. Theory of Relativity, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1981.

Audience: Researchers and students to make further researches on the space propulsion system, interstellar travel, Astronomy.

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