Evaluating the Suitability of Groundwater in Pakistan: An Analysis of Water Quality Using Synthetic Pollution Index (SPI) and Water Quality Index (WQI)


Authors: Mir Zafarullah Jamali, Salim Khoso, Zuhairuddin Soomro, Samiullah Sohu, and Ahmed Faraz Abro
Page Range: 311-328
Published in: International Journal of Energy, Environment, and Economics, Volume 30 Issue 3
ISSN: 1054-853X

Table of Contents


Groundwater deterioration has become an issue of grave concern. This calamity has engulfed the whole world, including Pakistan. Therefore, this study has evaluated groundwater suitability for drinking purposes at the Union councils of RatoKot and Khairpur Juso regions in Pakistan. Twenty-five water samples were taken from different villages in both union councils, and physicochemical analysis of groundwater samples was conducted. The on-site characteristics include color, taste, and odor, while the laboratory analyzed other parameters. The physicochemical parameters like color, odor, taste, and the intensity of SO4, EC, pH, TH, Ca, Mg, and TDS were determined, and the results of each sample were compared with the recommended limits of the WHO. Groundwater samples were analyzed using two approaches, WQI and SPI indexical techniques. Analysis of groundwater samples based on the physicochemical parameters revealed that all samples had no external color or odor and turbidity below 5 NTU. However, the taste of 68% of samples collected from 17 villages was highly bitter and unfit for drinking. Overall, the results of the analysis summarized that about 100%, 88%, 72%, 68%, 60%, and 52% of the samples possessed concentrations of EC, TDS, Mg, Cl, Ca, TH, and SO4 higher than the allowable limits fixed by the WHO. Assessment of groundwater samples based on the SPI disclosed that 40%, 48%, 8%, and 4% of samples were highly contaminated, slightly contaminated, and moderately contaminated, respectively. The WQI value described that 12%, 36%, 40%, and 12% of the groundwater samples were found unfit for drinking, very poor for consumption, poor water, and good for health, respectively.

Keywords: groundwater, suitability, turbidity, physicochemical, WQI, SPI

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