Ethnicity and Syndrome X

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Mithun Das, PhD (Editor)
Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology and Tribal Studies, Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Purulia, West Bengal, India

Kaushik Bose, PhD, DSc (Editor)
Professor, Department of Anthropology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India

Series: Endocrinology Research and Clinical Developments
BISAC: MED027000

The syndrome X or metabolic syndrome may be defined as a constellation of several interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin which includes centrally distributed obesity, decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, elevated blood pressure and hyperglycemia. Persons with syndrome X are at twice the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, and are at about five-fold the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus as compare to persons with this syndrome.

There are considerable evidences of important ethnic differences in the prevalence of syndrome X, its components and sequelae. The prevalence varied between ethnic groups even within the same geographical location. Apart from multifactorial (genetic vs. environmental) nature, there are intriguing metabolic and anthropometric differences found across different ethnic groups. The estimates vary by ethnicity, for instance, high prevalence in non‐European groups such as Black African‐Caribbeans, Hispanics, indigenous populations of North America, South Asians, and the Western Pacific Region and lower prevalence in Chinese populations, and European‐White.

Public health strategies that are well known to be important for chronic disease prevention in general can substantially reduce the prevalence of syndrome X. Population-specific studies will be important in identifying subgroups for which syndrome X is a health issue and for which disease management strategies are needed.

Simultaneously, studies to identify different biomarkers associated with syndrome X that are linked with the development of specific chronic diseases, such as CVD and diabetes, will significantly enhance the early detection of these diseases. Existing preventions strategies, if implemented in population subgroups at highest risk, may have a substantial effect on reducing these trends. The prevalence of syndrome X increases with advancing age suggests that the efforts to increase awareness of prevention strategies must begin early. Intensive treatment and effective targeting efforts would help in avoiding future sequelae of syndrome X across different ethnicity.

This book will be an assemblage of similarities and differences in the risk of syndrome X and related disorders among different ethnic groups worldwide, and reviews potential mechanisms for ethnic differences. It would certain help in translational research for early intervention and better prevention of syndrome X and its associated public health burden worldwide. (Imprint: Nova Medicine and Health)

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Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. Ethnicity and Syndrome X
(Mithun Das and Kaushik Bose, Department of Anthropology, Sidho-Kanho-BIrsha University, Purulia, West Bengal, India, and others)

Chapter 2. Transnational Migration as a Risk Factor for Syndrome X
(Sylvia Kirchengast, Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Vienna, Austria)

Chapter 3. Ethnic Diversities and Risk Factors with Syndrome X in South Africa
(Yackoob Kassim Seedat, Emeritus Professor, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa)

Chapter 4. A Comparative Study on Nutritional Status among Tribal and Non-tribal Mothers in Rajshahi District Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study
(Md. Masud Rana, Md. Reazul Karim, Md. Rafiqul Islam, Premananda Bharati, Md. Golam Hossain, Department of Population Science and Human Resource Development, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh, and others)

Chapter 5. Comparative Analysis of Total Body Parameters and Functional Characteristics of Mongolian Rural and Urban Children and Adolescents
(Z. Godina Elena, L. Gundegmaa and Yu. Permiakova Ekaterin, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Anuchin Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Moscow, Russia, and others)

Chapter 6. Metabolic Syndrome among Indian Females: A Review
(Ramanpreet Randhawa and Sharda Sidhu, Department of Human Genetics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India)

Chapter 7. Prevalence of Undernutrition, Obesity and Hypertension among Adult Shabars and Mahalis of Bankura District of West Bengal, India
(Shilpita Bhandari, Sadaruddin Biswas, Mihir Ghosh, Binoy Kumar Kuiti and Kaushik Bose, Research Scholar of the Deptartment of Anthropology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India)

Chapter 8. Effect of Human Migration on Hypertension, Cardiovascular Diseases, Type 2 Diabetes and Their Associations with Metabolic Syndrome among the Asian Indians
(Nitish Mondal and Jaydip Sen, Assistant Professor, Department of Anthropology, Assam University, Karbi-Anglong, Assam, India, and others)

Chapter 9. Ethnic Differences in Proinflammatory State and Syndrome X: An Overview
(Plaban Chaudhury1, Riddhi Goswami1 and Mithun Das2
1Department of Biotechnology, Heritage Institute of Technology, Kolkata, India

Chapter 10. Anthropometric Measures, Body Composition and the Risk of Hypertension: A Study on Indian Tribes
(Gautam Kumar Kshatriya and Anjali Kumar, Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, Delhi, India)

Chapter 11. Cardio-Metabolic Risk among the High Altitude Inhabitants: A Brief Review
(Sovanjan Sarkar and Mithun Das, Department of Anthropology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India, and others)

Index

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