Essentials of Chronic Kidney Disease. Second Edition

Stephen Z. Fadem, M.D. (Editor)
Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, US

Series: Nephrology Research and Clinical Developments
BISAC: MED055000

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Kidney disease touches nearly 14% of the population. Of the 661,000 Americans at the end stage of chronic kidney disease, 468,000 require dialysis and 193,000 have an effective kidney transplant. Both are miracles and have reshaped an illness once universally fatal into one of expectation and life. (Source: NIDDK) However, Medicare payments for dialysis alone are 34 billion dollars a year; it is among their foremost expenditures. (Source: USRDS). As both a life-saving procedure and a costly enterprise, the management of kidney disease commands the attention of care givers, providers and patients. Our understanding of the nuances of care make a difference, not just in the quality and betterment of the lives of patients, but in reducing the cost burdens we as a society must bear.

Within this context, the intent of this book is to anticipate what the practicing nephrologist or internist needs to know when approaching, diagnosing and managing a patient with kidney disease. It is also designed to inspire the reader to seek a deeper understanding of the subject that pertains to the patient being treated.

It is also ideal to use as a reference, as it is packed full of knowledge that will be most useful at the point of care. Thus, it is to be kept on the desk or a convenient shelf in a doctor’s office, or in the house staff or clinic break room, so that it is easily accessible for everyday use.

The book is divided into five sections. The first section, “The Approach to Chronic Kidney Disease”, consists of eleven chapters. Each chapter is designed to help the clinician gain perspective in caring for kidney patients, and taken together, will help create the foundation on which to build a well-rounded approach to CKD patients. In the second section, “Major Medical Conditions and Management”, an additional eleven chapters each focus on a specific disorder and how it can be best approached. These disorders range from everyday conditions like hypertension and diabetes to those that are rarely seen. The seven chapters of the third section, “Management Principles in CKD”, focus on specific conditions and complications that result from an impairment in kidney function.

Once a patient has reached the point where renal replacement therapy is necessary, there are several options and modalities that are available. The nine chapters of the next section, “ESRD Replacement Therapy”, will discuss modalities and the approaches taken to optimize the patient’s quality of life and well-being. The final section, “Innovations and Updates in Kidney Disease”, includes two chapters that will give the reader a glimpse of what is on the horizon.

Forward

Acknowledgments

Section 1: The Approach to Chronic Kidney Disease

Chapter 1. Introduction and General Principles
(Eleanor Lederer, MD)

Chapter 2. Defining, Classifying and Staging CKD
(Morgan Grams, MD, PhD, and Shoshana H. Ballew, PhD)

Chapter 3. Selecting the Right Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate
(Andrew S. Levey, MD)

Chapter 4. Imaging in CKD
(Barry Toombs, MD)

Chapter 5. Approach to the Psychological Aspects of Chronic Kidney Disease
(Emily Steinberg Fadem)

Chapter 6. Reversing the Reversible
(Stephen Z. Fadem, MD)

Chapter 7. Preventing Chronic Kidney Disease: An Overview
(Stephen Z. Fadem, MD)

Chapter 8. Kidney “Disease” in the Elderly
(Richard J. Glassock, MD)

Chapter 9. Medications to Avoid in Chronic Kidney Disease
(Sarah McDaniel, PharmD, Jeffrey Chamberlain, PharmD, and William M. Bennett, MD)

Chapter 10. Disease Management in Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease
(Bryan N. Becker, MD)

Chapter 11. When to Refer to a Nephrologist
(William H. Herman, MD, and Richard Hellman, MD)

Section 2: Major Medical Conditions and Management

Chapter 12. The Approach to Hematuria in Chronic Kidney Disease
(Wooin Ahn, MD, Andrew Bomback, MD and Gerald Appel, MD)

Chapter 13. Acute Kidney Injury: Classification and Prognosis
(Biruh Workeneh, MD)

Chapter 14. The Metabolic Acidosis of CKD
(Donald E. Wesson, MD)

Chapter 15. Hyponatremia
(Samaya J. Qureshi, MD, Ahmed A. Awan MD and Horacio J. Adrogué, MD)

Chapter 16. Diabetic Nephropathy
(Stephen Z. Fadem, MD, and Richard Hellman, MD)

Chapter 17. The Role of Blood Pressure Control and Anti-Hypertensive Therapy in Preventing Kidney Disease Progression
(Jordana B. Cohen, MD, and Raymond R. Townsend, MD)

Chapter 18. Genetic Renal Tubular Disorders
(Sheryl Caberto, MD, and Stephen Z. Fadem, MD)

Chapter 19. Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Collapsing Glomerulopathy Syndrome
(Jeffrey B. Kopp, MD)

Chapter 20. The Approach to Glomerular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease
(Wooin Ahn, MD, Andrew Bomback, MD, and Gerald Appel, MD)

Chapter 21. Other Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease
(Anjay Rastogi, MD, PhD, Farid Arman, MD, Adis Asaturyan, MD, Khalid Mohammed Ameen, MD, and Rohit Singhal, MD)

Chapter 22. Onconephrology: An Emerging Discipline
(Biruh Workeneh, MD, and Farhad Danesh, MD)

Section 3: Management Principles in CKD

Chapter 23. Nutritional Therapy for Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
(Jingyin Yan, MD, PhD, and William E. Mitch, MD)

Chapter 24. Uric Acid and Chronic Kidney Disease
(Anuradha Wadhwa, MD, and Richard J. Johnson, MD)

Chapter 25. Chronic Kidney Disease Produced Disorders in Vascular, Skeletal, and Cardiac Tissues and Mineral Metabolism Affect Mortality, the CKD-MBD Syndrome
(Toshifumi Sugatani, DDS, PhD, and Keith A. Hruska, MD)

Chapter 26. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease
(Barbara Greco, MD, Yossi Chait, PdD, Adam E. Gaweda, PhD, and Michael J. Germain MD)

Chapter 27. Metabolic Acidosis and Management with Dietary Acid Reduction
(Donald E. Wesson, MD)

Chapter 28. Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease
(Peter A. McCullough, MD)

Chapter 29. Advances in the Management of Hyperkalemia
(Hunter K. Huston, MD and Jamie P. Dwyer, MD)

Section 4: ESRD Replacement therapy

Chapter 30. DIALYSIS AS AN OPTION AND NOT THE DEFAULT
(Rebecca J. Schmidt, DO)

Chapter 31. Assessing the Hemodialysis Patient for Vascular Access
(Vo Nguyen, MD)

Chapter 32. Access Management
(Philip L. Auyang, MD, and Eric K. Peden, MD)

Chapter 33. The Surprise Question and Prognostication in Nephrology
(Barbara A. Greco, MD, Jennifer Scherer, MD, and Michael J. Germain, MD)

Chapter 34. Preemptive Kidney Transplant
(Horacio E. Adrogue, MD)

Chapter 35. Keeping Patients Employed
(Robert Provenzano, MD)

Chapter 36. Update in Peritoneal Dialysis: The Building Blocks for a Successful Peritoneal Program
(Martin Schreiber, MD)

Chapter 37. Home Hemodialysis: Building the Knowledge Base for Home Hemodialysis
(Martin Schreiber, MD)

Chapter 38. Staff Assisted in Center Hemodialysis
(Douglas S. Johnson, MD, Toros Kapoian, MD, Klemens B. Meyer, MD)

Section 5: Innovations and Updates in kidney disease

Chapter 39. APOL1 Kidney Disease: An Update
(Jeffrey B. Kopp, MD and Cheryl A. Winkler, MD)

Chapter 40. The Future of Nephrology
(Devika Nair, MD, and Julia Breyer Lewis, MD)

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