Environmental Pharmacology of Diclofenac

Eugenia Yiannakopoulou (Editor)
Department of Medical Laboratories, Faculty of Health and Caring Professions, Highest Technological Educational Institute of Athens (ATEI), Athens, Greece

Series: Pharmacology – Research, Safety Testing and Regulation
BISAC: MED071000

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Nowadays, there is growing concern for the environmental risks of pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceuticals are present in the environment as a consequence of patient use, drug production and formulation, and improper disposal. Pharmaceuticals pose a risk for aquatic organisms as well as for terrestrial environment. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is one of the most commonly prescribed medicines worldwide. Thus, there is growing concern for the potential environmental risks posed by diclofenac. Diclofenac has been included in the watch list of substances in EU that requires its environmental monitoring in the member states. Diclofenac has been shown to cause dramatic population declines (>99%) in Gyps vulture species in India and Pakistan, resulting in localised extinctions. Diclofenac has also been recognized as a threat for plants. Environmental toxicity of diclofenac in plants has implications for human health. Potential human exposure to diclofenac and diclofenac metabolites through dietary intake should be taken into account. Diclofenac as wells as other medications and personal care products may contaminate food produce via plant uptake, thus constituting a route for human exposure.

This book presents current knowledge on the environmental pharmacology of diclofenac, taking into account the potentially toxic effect of diclofenac in different eco-systems. In addition, using diclofenac as a paradigm, the book focuses on the discipline of eco-pharmacovigilance as well as on research methodology issues in the field of eco-pharmacovigilance.

All the chapters are well-written and structured and appropriately referenced. The most important feature of the book is that although the different chapters have been contributed by scientists with different fields of interest, the book can also be useful for medical doctors who are interested in the field of environmental pharmacology.

Environmental pharmacology is a multidisciplinary field of science. The book will be interesting for researchers with research interest in environmental pharmacology, i.e. pharmacologists, chemists, veterinary doctors, health policy makers, etc. The book will also be interesting for academic teachers, medical doctors, pharmacologists, pharmacists and medical students.
(Imprint: Nova Medicine and Health)

Preface

Chapter 1. Environmental Pharmacovigilance
(Syed Ziaur Rahman and Ahmad Zee Fahem, Department of Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India)

Chapter 2. Environmental Pharmacology of Diclofenac with Special Reference to Vultures’ Sensitivity
(Syed Ziaur Rahman and Ahmad Zee Fahem, Department of Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India)

Chapter 3. Environmental Toxicity of Diclofenac
(Francis Orata, PhD, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega, Kenya)

Chapter 4. Source of Diclofenac in Drinking and Wastewater
(Noshin Hashim, PhD, Aveen Alkhatib PhD, Ajay K Ray PhD, and Noshin Hashim, PhD, Lecturer, Faculty of Engineering, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, and others)

Chapter 5. From Environmental Pharmacology of Diclofenac to Human Pharmacology of Diclofenac: Implications for Human Health
(Eugenia Yiannakopoulou, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences University of West Attica, Athens, Greece)

Chapter 6. The Role of Oxidative Stress in the Environmental Toxiclogy of Diclofenac
(Yiannakopoulou Eugenia, Department of Biomedical Sciences Faculty of Health and Caring Professions, University of West Attica, Athens, Greece)

Chapter 7. Methodological Issues in Environmental Pharmacology: The Paradigm of Diclofenac
(Yiannakopoulou Eugenia, Department of Biomedical Sciences Faculty of Health and Caring Professions, University of West Attica, Athens, Greece)

Index

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