Environmental Health: Poverty, Race and Child Health in the Time of COVID-19

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I. Leslie Rubin, MD – Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Morehouse School of Medicine, Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine; Co-director, Southeast Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit, Emory University School of Medicine; Founder, Break the Cycle of Health Disparities, Inc.; Medical Director, The Rubin Center for Autism and Developmental Pediatrics, Atlanta, GA, USA
Joav Merrick, MD, MMedSci, DMSc – Division of Adolescent Medicine, KY Children’s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Lexington, Kentucky, USA National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Jerusalem, Israel Division of Pediatrics, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Centers, Mt Scopus Campus, Jerusalem, Israel School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Series: Health and Human Development
BISAC: MED116000
DOI: 10.52305/NIQR1132

This book presents a wide ranging selection of nine chapters covering topics of poverty, race and child health in the time of COVID-19. Chapter One reviews the student projects of the 16th annual Break the Cycle of Children’s Environmental Health Disparities program, an annual collaborative interdisciplinary research and training program involving university students in academic tracks focusing on the impact of adverse social, economic, and environmental factors on children’s health, development, education, and prospects for their future. Chapter Two is a broad overview of the prevalence of COVID-19 in the Texas juvenile justice system. Chapter Three examines the six month outcomes of malnourished children who are enrolled in the Nutritional Therapeutic program in a peri-urban, low-income settlement in the Western Cape, South Africa. Chapter Four asks the question, “Does early life phthalate exposure mediate racial disparities in children’s cognitive abilities?” Chapter Five assesses the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of families with a low socioeconomic status in regards to phthalate exposure in children. Chapter Six examines a comparison of the Neighborhood Deprivation Index and food desert status as environmental predictors of early childhood obesity. Chapter Seven takes a look at the implications for children’s mental health in Durham, North Carolina, on account of equitable access to greenspace during the COVID-19 pandemic. Chapter Eight reviews neighborhood quality and positive health indicators among urban adolescents. Chapter Nine looks to the development of evidence-based intervention for teens that have lost a parent through human-centered design, seeking to create a grief group for today’s teens.

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Table of Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1. Intersection of poverty, race and child health in the time of COVID-19: 16th annual break the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities program and student projects
I. Leslie Rubin1-5,*, MD, Abby Mutic3,4,8, APRN, PhD, Claire D Coles3,11,12, PhD, Victoria Green3,7, JD MD, Rebecca Philipsborn2,3, MD, MPA, Melissa Gittinger3,6, DO, Nathan Mutic3,4,8, Wayne Garfinkel3,10, BSCE, Henry Falk3, MD, MPH, Benjamin A Gitterman9, MD, and Joav Merrick13-17, MD, MMedSci, DMSc
1Department of Pediatrics, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia
2Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia
3Southeast Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia
4Break the Cycle of Health Disparities, Inc. Atlanta, Georgia
5The Rubin Center for Autism and Developmental Pediatrics, Atlanta, Georgia
6Georgia Poison Center, Grady Health System, Atlanta, Georgia
7Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia
8Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia
9Departments of Pediatrics and Public Health, George Washington University Schools of Medicine and Public Health and Health Services, General and Community Pediatrics, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington DC
10Retired EPA Region 4 Children’s Environmental Health Coordinator, Atlanta, Georgia,
11MotherToBaby, Atlanta, Georgia
12Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
13National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Jerusalem, Israel
14Office of the Medical Director, Health Services, Division for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services, Jerusalem, Israel
15Division of Pediatrics, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Mt Scopus Campus, Jerusalem, Israel
16Kentucky Children’s Hospital, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky
17Center for Human Development, School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Section One: BTC in the Time of COVID-19

Chapter 2. An Examination of the Prevalence of COVID-19 in the Texas Juvenile Justice System
Rachel J Slover1 and Rebecca Fry2, PhD
1University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
2Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gilling School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Chapter 3. Six Month Outcomes of Malnourished Children Enrolled in the Nutritional Therapeutic Program in a Peri-Urban, Low-Income Settlement in the Western Cape, South Africa
Suzanne Kerswill, MBChB, Etienne Nel, PhD, FCPaed and Thandi Wessels, FCPaed
Department of Paediatrics, University of Stellenbosch,
Department of Health – Metro East, Cape Town, South Africa

Chapter 4. Does early life phthalate exposure mediate racial disparities in children’s cognitive abilities?
Marisa A Patti1,*, MHS, Melissa Eliot1, PhD, Nan Li1, PhD, Kimberly Yolton2, PhD, Bruce P Lanphear3,4, MPH, MD, Aimin Chen5, MD, PhD and Joseph M Braun1, RN, MSPH, PhD
1Department of Epidemiology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States
2Department of Pediatrics, Division of General and Community Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
3Child and Family Research Institute, British Columbia Children’s Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
4Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
5Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Chapter 5. Phthalate exposure in children: Assessing knowledge, attitudes and behaviors in families with low socioeconomic status
Rachana Charla, David Collier, MD PhD, Melissa Johnson, MPH, Brittany Meier, MA, Andrew Binder, PhD, and Katlyn May, MS
Center for Human Health and the Environment, Brody School of Medicine,
East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, United States of America

Chapter 6. Comparison of neighborhood deprivation index and food desert status as environmental predictors of early childhood obesity
Shannon C Conrey1,2, PhD, Allison R Burrell1,2, BSN, Cole Brokamp1,3, PhD, Rachel M Burke4, PhD, Sarah C Couch5, PhD, RD, Liang Niu1, PhD, Claire P Mattison4,6, MPH, Daniel C Payne7, PhD, Mary A Staat1,2, MD, MPH, and Ardythe L Morrow1,2, PhD
1University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Environmental and Public Health Sciences, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America
2Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Infectious Disease, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America
3Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America
4Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Viral Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
5University of Cincinnati College of Allied Health Sciences, Department of Rehabilitation, Exercise and Nutrition Science, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America
6Cherokee Nation Assurance, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America
7Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Chapter 7. Investigating equitable access to greenspace during the COVID-19 pandemic: Implications for children’s mental health in Durham, North Carolina
Sharmi Amin, Kate Hoffman, PhD, Catherine Kastleman, MPH and Heather M Stapleton, PhD
Trinity College of Arts and Sciences, Duke University, Durham and Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Nicholas School of the Environment, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Chapter 8. Neighborhood quality and positive health indicators among urban adolescents
Han N Oo1, Miranda Spratlen1, MHS, PhD, Courtney K Blackwell2, PhD, Teresa Durham1, Jia Guo3, MS, PhD, Lori Hoepner1, MPH, DrPh, Diurka Diaz1, MA, Gladys Badia1, MA, Shuang Wang4, PhD and Julie B Herbstman1, MSc, PhD
1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University Mailman
School of Public Health, New York, United States of America
2Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University,
Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
3Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, United States of America
4Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University, New York, United States of America

Chapter 9. A Grief Group for Today’s Teens: Using Human-Centered Design to Develop an Evidence-Based Intervention for Teens That Have Lost a Parent
Julia Chavez1, BA, Jessica Cheng1, BA, Amelie Liu2, HSD, Alexis Hansen3, SWLC, Jesse Boring3, PhD, Irwin Sandler5,6, PhD, and Dana Suskind7, MD
1Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
2University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
3Crown Family School of Social Work, Policy, and Practice, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
4Psychology and Human Services Department, SUNY Broome Community College, Binghamton, New York
5REACH Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona
6Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona
7Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Section Two: Acknowledgments

About the Editors

About the Break the Cycle of Health Disparities Inc

About the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in Israel

Section Three: Index