Enterococcus faecalis: Molecular Characteristics, Role in Nosocomial Infections and Antibacterial Effects

Henry L. Mack (Editor)

Series: Bacteriology Research Developments
BISAC: MED016020

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Volume 10

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Enterococcus faecalis is a gram-positive, coccus shaped, lactic acid bacterium, with demonstrated ubiquity across multiple anatomical sites. Enterococcus faecalis isolates have been isolated from clinical samples as the etiological agent in patients with overt infections, and from body sites previously thought to be sterile but absent of signs and symptoms of infection. E. faecalis is implicated in both human health and disease, recognized as a commensal, a probiotic and an opportunistic multiply resistant pathogen. E. faecalis has emerged as a key pathogen in nosocomial infections. Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastro-intestinal tract of humans.

Interestingly, although it is not clear whether E. faecalis is part of the oral cavity microbiome, it is frequently recovered from root canal infections. Specifically, it is the major pathogen found in persistent infections associated with root canal treatment failure. Moreover, E. faecalis is one of the leading multidrug resistant nosocomial pathogens, causing infective endocarditis, and participating in urinary tract, wound, and device- device-related infections. This book discusses the molecular characteristics, its role in nonsocomial infections and the antibacterial effects of Enterococcus faecalis. It begins by discussing the virulence factors of enterococcus faecalis and concludes with E. faecalis in dental infections. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Chapter 1 - Virulence Factors of Enterococcus faecalis: The Promoters for Their Pathogenicity (pp. 1-18)
Joana Barbosa, Sandra Borges and Paula Teixeira (CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Centro Regional do Porto da Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. António Bernardino Almeida, Porto, Portugal)

Chapter 2 - Naturally-Derived Molecules As a Strategy for Countering E. faecalis Infection (pp. 19-28)
David M. Pereira (3B’s Research Group - Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Guimarães, Portugal and others)

Chapter 3 - Enterococcus faecalis: Role in Nosocomial Infection, Resistance Traits and Molecular Epidemiology (pp. 29-68)
Juliana Caierão (Federal University of Health Science of Porto Alegre, UFCSPA, Porto Alegre, Brazil)

Chapter 4 - Promiscuity, Pheromones and Pathogenicity: Why All Enterococci Are Not Created Equal (pp. 69-92)
Elise Pelzer, Irani Rathnayake and Flavia Huygens (The Wesley Research Institute, Women’s Health Laboratory, The Wesley Hospital, Auchenflower, Queensland, Australia)

Chapter 5 - High-Level Gentamicin Resistance in Enterococcus faecalis: Molecular Characteristics and Relevance in Severe Infections (pp. 93-108)
Mónica Sparo and G. Delpech (ESCS-Medicina, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina)

Chapter 6 - Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics (pp. 109-122)
María Gabriela Pacios and María Elena López (Cátedra de Química Biológica, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Argentina)

Chapter 7 - Molecular Characterization of Natural Dairy Isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Potential (pp. 123-136)
Katarina Veljović, Amarela Terzić-Vidojević, Maja Tolinački, Sanja Mihajlović, Goran Vukotić, Natasa Golić and Milan Kojić (Laboratory for Molecular Microbiology, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Serbia)

Chapter 8 - Enterococcus faecalis in Dental Infections: Virulence Factors, Molecular Characteristics, Antibacterial and Anti-Infective Techniques (pp. 137-164)
Nurit Beyth, Ronit Poraduso-Cohen and Ronen Hazan (Department of Prosthodontics, the Hebrew University-Hadassah, School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, and others)

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