Energy Policies of Turkey During the Erdogan Era: Facts and Lies

Tugce Varol
21st Century Turkey Institute, San Diego, CA, USA

Series: Energy Policies, Politics and Prices
BISAC: BUS070040

Clear

eBook

Digitally watermarked, DRM-free.
Immediate eBook download after purchase.

Product price
Additional options total:
Order total:

Quantity:

Details

Erdogan discovered in 2002 that energy policies and the energy sector would create a mechanism to institute his dynasty in Turkey. The energy policies of the Erdogan era include how the Erdogan family engaged in the international energy business in Turkey and neighboring countries, and how they became wealthy.

After many years of supporting the Calik Holding, the former CEO, Berat Albayrak, Erdogan’s son-in-law, was appointed Turkey’s Minister of Energy by Erdogan in 2015. Since Erdogan came to power in 2002, many books and articles were published on Turkey’s foreign policy and domestic politics by scholars. However, this is the first book that combines Erdogan’s energy policy actions (country by country in chronological order) as well as describing the underlying corruption allegations, the Zarrab case, and the smuggling of ISIS oil. As a result of the research through official Turkey institutions and international institutions, it is shown that an overseas Turkish energy company was and continues to be involved in the energy blocks of Iraqi Kurdistan, thanks to Erdogan’s agreement with the Barzani administration.

This book aims to analyze Turkey’s energy relations with Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq-Iraqi Kurdistan, Eastern Mediterranean and Central Asian countries since 2002. One of the notable outcomes of the book is to reveal how Erdogan contributed to Israel’s energy security despite his anti-Israeli rhetoric. The reader will learn the details of the energy projects between Turkey and other countries. In addition, the reader will also learn the roles of Turkey’s energy companies close to the Erdogan family. The book emphasizes the deterioration of Turkey-Russia relations and its impact on Turkey’s energy security, thanks to the Erdogan-Putin rivalry over Syria. Erdogan has been in power since 2002 (President since 2014), and is trying to convert Turkey’s political regime to remain in power for as long as possible. Appointing his son-in-law as Turkey’s Minister of Energy is not a coincidence, but rather a business strategy.

Preface

Abbreviations

Chapter 1. Russia

Chapter 2. Azerbaijan

Chapter 3. Iraq and Kurdistan Regional Government

Chapter 4. Iran

Chapter 5. Eastern Mediterranean

Chapter 6. Central Asia

Chapter 7. Conclusions: Turkey's Energy Outlook and Its Future

About the Author

Index

This book was reviewed by the online platform Politurco.


- Politurco

Chapter 1:
ABC. Az. 2013. “Starting From 2014 SOCAR will let URALS Oil in BTC Pipeline Within Framework of Partnership With Rosneft.” August 19. Accessed November 26, 2015. http://abc.az/eng/news/75542.html.
Akkuyu NPP Project. 2013. “Akkuyu’da İnşaat 2015 Sonunda Başlayacak.” April 3. Accessed January 10, 2016. http://www.akkunpp.com/akkuyuda-insaat-2015-sonunda-baslayacak [Contruction of Akkuyu Will Commence Late 2015].
Akkuyu NPP Project. 2014. “Press Release - Akkuyu NPP JSC has field to authorities of the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Urbanization the EIA Report of the Akkuyu NPP Project.” April 19. Accessed January 9, 2016. http://www.akkunpp.com/press-release.
Aksa Dogalgaz. “Areas of Naural Gas Distribution.” Accessed January 10, 2016. http://www.aksadogalgaz.com.tr/dogal-gaz-dagitim-bolgelerimiz.html.
Al-Arabiya. 2015. “Turkey Won’t Retaliate Against Russia’s Sanctions.” December 2. Accessed December 3, 2015. http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/middle-east/2015/12/ 02/Erdogan-vows-no-retaliation-against-Russian-sanctions.html.
Atac, Yelda. 2004. “Petrolde ‘Boğazları By-Pass Hattı’ İçin Yarış Kızıştı.” Hurriyet. September 1. Accessed August 20, 2015. http://hurarsiv.hurriyet.com.tr/goster/ haber. aspx?id=253941 [Race Heat to By-Pass Line over the Straits in Oil Business].
Aybak, Tunc. 2010. “Russia and Turkey: An Ascendent Strategic Partnership in the Black Sea Neighborhood.” In The Black Sea Region and EU Policy: The Challenges of Divergent Agendas, by Karen Henderson and Carek Weaver, 107-118. Ashgate.
Bal, Idris. 2013. “US Policies Towards The Black Sea Region.” In Blue Black Sea, New Dimensions of History, Security, Strategy, Energy and Economy, edited by Giray Saynur Bozkurt, 207-218. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Barcahrd, David. 2014. “Russia, Turkey Relations Warming Over Energy.” Middle East Eye. December 1. Accessed September 5, 2015. http://www.middleeasteye.net/columns/ russia-turkey-relations-warming-over-energy-142367243.
BBC. 2015. “Russian Troops ‘Fear Secret Syria Mission.” September 18. Accessed September 22, 2015. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34290115.
Cetin, Umit. 2015. “President Erdogan Signals He will not give Mandate to CHP Leader for New Government.” Hurriyet. August 19. Accessed September 02, 2015. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/president-erdogan-signals-he-will-not-give-mandate-to-chp-leader-for-new-govt.aspx?pageID=238&nid=87176.
Churkin, Vitaly. Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations. 2016. “Illegal Trading in Hydrocarbons by ISIL.” January 29. Accessed February 2, 2016. Released February 1, 2016.
Conant, Eve. 2013. “Russia’s New Empire: Nuclear Power.” Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. October 17. Accessed January 4, 2016. http://pulitzercenter.org/reporting/asia-europe-russia-empire-nuclear-power-reactor-generator-expo-sale-kremlin.
Coskun, Orhan. 2016. “Gazprom Cancels Gas Discount For Turkey –industry sources.” Reuters. January 29. Accessed February 2, 2016. http://af.reuters.com/article/energy OilNews/idAFL8N15D1CP.
Crandall, Maureen S. 2006. Energy, Economics, and Politics in the Caspian Region. Praeger Security International.
Daily Mail. 2015. “Russia Halts Turkey Nuclear Work, Ankara Looks Elsewhere.” December 9. Accessed December 10, 2015. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/ reuters/article-3352782/Russia-halts-Turkey-nuclear-work-Ankara-looks-elsewhere.html.
Daily Sabah. 2015. “Erdogan Pledges to Step Down If Russia Proves Deash Oil Claims.” December 2. Accessed December 3, 2015. http://www.dailysabah.com/politics/ 2015/12/02/erdogan-pledges-to-step-down-if-russia-proves-daesh-oil-claims.
—. 2015. “Russian Gazprom to buy Akfel Gaz.” January 7. Accessed January 8, 2015. http://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2015/01/07/russian-gazprom-to-buy-turkish-akfel-gaz.
Demir, Metehan. 2016. “ABD’den Türkiye’ye Şok Uyarı.” March 3. Accessed March 3, 2016. http://www.lojiblog.com/abdden-turkiyeye-sok-uyari/. [Shocking Warning of US to Turkey].
DFNS.net Policy. 2015. “Turkey Accustomed to Suffering, Erdogan Says on Possible Russian Gas Cut.” December 2. Accessed December 2, 2015. By Today’s Zaman. http://policy.dfns.net/2015/12/02/turks-accustomed-to-suffering-erdogan-says-on-possible-russian-gas-cut/.
EIA. 2014. “World Oil Transit Chokepoints.” November 10. Accessed December 4, 2015. https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/regions-topics.cfm?RegionTopicID=WOTC.
Embassy of Russian Federation in Czech Republic. 2015. “Dmitri Medvedev’s Meeting With Slovak Prime Minister Robert Fico.” June 2. Accessed Februrary 10, 2016. http://www.czech.mid.ru/cz/press-rel/news_711.htm.
Enerji Gunluğu. 2013. “Kazancı Holding, TANAP ve Irak Doğalgazı İçin Temasta.” March 14. Accessed November 28, 2015. http://www.enerjigunlugu.net/kazanci-holding-tanap-ve-irak-dogalgazi-icin-temas_2703.html?Pagenum1=289&Pagenum=289&id=2703& yid=#.VuzUEMf4F4s. [Kazanci Holding in Contact for TANAP and Iraqi Natural Gas].
Enerji Gunlugu. 2014. “Mavi Akım’ın Kapasitesi Artırıldı.” October 1. Accessed July 4, 2015. http://www.enerjigunlugu.net/mavi-akimin-kapasitesi-arttirildi_10310.html [Capacity of Blue Stream Increased].
—. 2015. “Türk Akımı Ertelendi.” September 14. Accessed September 15, 2015. http://enerjigunlugu.net/turk-akimi-ertelendi_15296.html#.VgG2pXi7NTc. [Turkish Stream Delayed].
—. 2014. “TPAO’nun Rusya’da ki Petrol Hisse Alımı Tamamlandı.” April 4. Accessed March 3, 2016. http://www.enerjigunlugu.net/tpaonun-rusyadaki-petrol-hisse-alimi-tamamlandi_7862.html#.VvA8UMf4F4s. [TPAO Completed the Purchase of Oil Share in Russia].
—. 2015. “Yıldız: Türk Akımı Henüz Meclis Onayından Geçmedi.” June 10. Accessed June 11, 2015. http://enerjigunlugu.net/yildiz-turk-akimi-henuz-meclis-onayindan-gecmedi_ 14005.html#.VgGrK3i7NTc. [Yildiz: Turkish Stream Has Not Approved Yet by the Turkish Parliament].
EPDK. 2016. “Doğal Gaz Piyasası Sektör Raporu 2015.” Accessed July 13, 2016. http://www.epdk.org.tr/TR/Dokumanlar/Dogalgaz/YayinlarRaporlar/Yillik. [Natural Gas Market 2014 Sector Report. EMRA - Energy Market Regulatory Authority].
Eraz, Seyma. 2015. “Russian Energy Giant Gazprom Refuses Turkey’s Demand For Additional Natural Gas.” Daily Sabah. October 9, 2015. Accessed October 10, 2015. http://www.dailysabah.com/energy/2015/10/09/russian-energy-giant-gazprom-refuses-turkeys-demand-for-additional-natural-gas.
Ercin, Recep. 2015. “Türkiye Doğal Gaz Pazarına Rusya Hakim Olacak.” Aydinlik. January 7. Accessed January 8, 2015. http://www.aydinlikgazete.com/v5/m/?id=60300. [Russia Will Dominate The Turkish Natural Gas Market].
Erdil, Merve. 2014. “İşte Türk Akımı.” Hurriyet. December 5. Accessed December 27, 2015. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/27697527.asp. [Here is Turkish Stream].
Financial Times. 2015. “Turkey Initiates Legal Action Against Russia’s Gazprom.” October 27. Accessed October 28, 2015. https://next.ft.com/content/11665996-7cc6-11e5-a1fe-567b37f80b64.
Granholt-Pedersen, Jacob. 2011. “Turkey Approves Russian Gas Plan.” The Wall Street Journal. December 29. Accessed December 4, 2015. http://www.wsj.com/articles/ SB10001424052970204632204577126220469891132.
Haber Turk. 2016. “Rusya’dan Gazda Yeni Hamle İçin Özel Hazırlık.” January 29. Accessed February 2, 2016. http://www.haberturk.com/ekonomi/enerji/haber/1187850-rusyadan-gazda-yeni-hamle-icin-ozel-hazirlik. [Russian Special Preparation for the New Action in Gas].
Hacisalihoglu, Bilge. 2008. “Turkey’s Natural Gas Policy.” Energy Policy. 1867-1872.
Hayatsever, Huseyin. 2016. “CHP’li Cihaner’den Enerji Bakanına Gazprom Sorusu.” Sputnik. February 4. Accessed February 5, 2016. http://tr.sputniknews.com/politika/20160204/ 1020657151/chp-cihaner-enerji-bakan-gazprom.html. [Gazprom Question of CHP’s Cihaner to Ministry of Energy].
Hill, Fiona, and Omer Taspinar. 2006. “Russia and Turkey in the Caucasus: Moving Together to Preserve the Status Quo?” IFRI, Russie.Nei.Visions (28).
Hurriyet. 2013. “Boğazlardan Geçen Yıl Yaklaşık 93bin Gemi Geçti.” January 23. Accessed January 8, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/22422384.asp [About 93 Thousand Vessels Passed Through Straits Last Year].
—. 2015. “Russia Says Hopes to Sign Agreement on Turkish Stream After Turkey Government Formed.” July 24. Accessed July 25, 2015. http://www.hurriyetdailynews. com/russia-says-hopes-to-sign-agreement-on-turkish-stream-after-turkey-government-formed.aspx?pageID=238&nID=85878&NewsCatID=348.
—. 2015. “Russia’s Gazprom Launches Construction of Turkish Stream Gas Pipeline.” May 8. Accessed January 4, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/russias-gazprom-says-launches-construction-of-turkish-stream-gas-pipeline-.aspx?pageID=238&nid=82146.
—. 2015. “Türk Akımı’ndan İlk Doğal Gaz Aralık 2016’da.” January 27. Accessed December 4, 2015. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/28061245.asp. [Turkish Stream to Start First Gas Supplies in December 2016].
—. 2015. “Turkey Permits Turkish Stream Engineering Survey.” June 23. Accessed June 24, 2015. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/29353989.asp.
—. 2015. “Turkish PM Says No Reason to Halt Akkuyu Plant With Russia.” December 14. Accessed December 14, 2015. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-pm-says-no-reason-to-halt-akkuyu-plant-with-russia.aspx?pageID=238&nID=92505&NewsCatID= 348.
—. 2016. “Rusya Türk Şirketlerine İndirimi İptal Etti.” January 29. Accessed February 2, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/rusya-turk-sirketlere-indirimi-iptal-etti-40046720. [Russia Cancelled Discount For Turkish Companies].
IEA. 2010. “Turkey 2009 Review.” Accessed September 25, 2015. https://www.iea.org/ publications/freepublications/publication/turkey2009.pdf.
Interfax. 2012. “Russia Still Awaiting Turkish Reply to Ideas on Samsun-Ceyhan Oil Pipeline – Minister.” December 1. Accessed November 1, 2015. http://www.interfax.com/ newsinf.asp?id=379507.
Tharoor, Ishaan. 2014. “How Russia’s Putin and Turkey’s Erdogan Were Made For Each Other.” The Washington Post. December 2. Accessed October 5, 2015. https://www.
washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2014/12/02/how-russias-putin-and-turkeys-erdogan-were-made-for-each-other/?utm_term=.9ff943927121.
Karanfil, Nese. 2015. “Turkey’s First Nuclear Power Plant Project Enters Uncertain Period Amid Syria Row.” Hurriyet. October 9. Accessed October 10, 2015. http://www.hurriyet dailynews.com/turkeys-first-nuclear-power-plant-project-enters-uncertain-period-amid-syria-row-.aspx?pageID=238&nID=89658&NewsCatID=348.
Kasim, Kamer. 2003-2004. “Turkey’s Foreign Policy Towards The Russian Federation.” Journal of Administrative Sciences 1 (1-2): 203-224.
Koylu, Hilal, and Tarik Isik. 2009. “Rusya’dan Çalık’a Petrol, Türkiye’den Rusya’ya İhale.” Radikal. August 6. Accessed November 27, 2015. http://www.radikal.com.tr/turkiye/ rusyadan-calika-petrol-turkiyeden-rusyaya-ihale-948508/ [Oil From Russia to Calik, Bid from Turkey to Russia].
Magen, Zivi., and Gallia Lindenstrouss. 2013. “Russian-Turkish Relations: Contemporary Dilemmas of Post-Empires.” Strategic Investment 16 (2): 61-70.
Nissenbaum, Dion. 2015. “Russia Expands Military Presence in Syria, Satellite Photos Show.” The Wall Street Journal September 22. Accessed September 23, 2015. http://www.wsj.com/articles/russia-expands-military-its-presence-in-syria-satellite-photos-show-1442937150.
NTV. 2015. “Rusya’dan Türk Akım’ı Açıklaması.” June 30. Accessed August 21, 2015. http://www.ntv.com.tr/ekonomi/rusyadan-turk-akimi-aciklamasi,ghhJqau_YEy6H5km GHVACQ. [Russian Statement About Turkish Stream].
Olson, Robert. 1996. “The Kurdish Question and Turkey’s Foreign Policy Toward Syria, Iran, Russia and Iraq Since the Gulf War.” In The Kurdish Nationalist Movement in the 1990s, edited by Robert Olson, 84-113. The University Press of Kentucky.
Ozbay, Fatih. 2013. “5 Soru: Erdoğan’ın Rusya Ziyareti Bağlamında Türkiye-Rusya İlişkileri - Söyleşi: Sadık Şanlı.” SETAV. November 23. Accessed September 5, 2015. http://setav.org/tr/5-soru-erdoganin-rusya-ziyareti-baglaminda-turkiye-rusya-iliskileri/yorum/14192 [5 Questios: Turkey-Russia Relations Regarding Erdogan’s Russia Visit, Interview: Sadik Sanli].
—. 2015. “Suriye Expresi, Türkiye-Rusya İlişkilerini Nasıl Etkiler?” Politika. 29-31. [How Syrian Express will affect Turkey-Russia Relations? Politics].
Ozen, Erdinc. 2012. “Turkey’s Natural Gas Market: Expectations and Developments.” Deloitte Report.
Pamuk, Humeyra, and Orhan Coskun. 2013. “Turkey’s First Nuclear Power Plant Likely to be Delayed.” Reuters. January 8. Accessed January 4, 2016. http://www.reuters. com/article/2013/10/08/us-turkey-nuclear-delay-idUSBRE9970D120131008.
Republic of Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources. “Petrol Pipelines and Projects.” Accessed August 22, 2016. http://www.enerji.gov.tr/en-US/Pages/Petrol-Pipelines-and-Projects.
Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey. 2009. “Turkey’s Energy Strategy.” January. Accessed July 13, 2016. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/data/DISPOLITIKA/
EnerjiPolitikasi/Turkey's%20Energy%20Strategy%20(Ocak%20 2009).pdf.
Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. “Turkey’s Energy Profile and Strategy.” Accessed August 22, 2016. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkeys-energy-strategy.en.mfa.
Rettmani, Andrew. 2014. “Putin Says Will Not Build South Stream Gas Pipeline.” EU Observer. December 2. Accessed December 5, 2015. https://euobserver.com/foreign/ 126749.
Reuters. 2015. “Gazprom, European Partners Sign Nord Stream-2 Deal.” September 4. Accessed September 4, 2015. http://www.reuters.com/article/russia-forum-nord-stream-idUSL5N11A0G420150904.
Rosatom. 2014. “Turkish Ministry of Environment and Urbanization Approved the EIA Report of Akkuyu NPP.” December 1. Accessed January 6, 2016. http://rosatom.ru/en/ press-centre/news/154-turkish-ministry-of-environment-and-urbanization-approved-the-eia-rep.
Rosatom. 2015. “The Foundation of the Off-shore Hydrulic Engineering Structures of Akkuyu NPP Was Laid in Turkey.” April 15. Accessed January 11, 2016. http://www.rosatom.ru/en/press-centre/highlights/the-foundation-of-the-off-shore-hydraulic-engineering-structures-of-akkuyu-npp-was-laid-in-turkey-4/.
Rosner, Kevin. 2006. Gazprom and the Russian State. GMB Publishing Ltd.
RT. 2015. “Moscow and Ankara Agree 10.25% Gas Discount For Turkey.” March 18. Accessed March 19, 2015. https://www.rt.com/business/241949-russia-turkey-gas-discount/.
—. 2015. “Putin & Erdogan Discuss Energy Projects in Azerbaijan Closed-Door Talks.” June 13. Accessed June 14, 2015. https://www.rt.com/news/266983-putin-erdogan-talks-azerbaijan/.
—. 2015. “Putin: ISIS Financed From 40 Countries, Including G20 Members.” November 16. Accessed November 17, 2015. https://www.rt.com/news/322305-isis-financed-40-countries/.
—. 2015. “Russia Presents Proof of Turkey’s Role in ISIS Oil Trade.” December 2. Accessed December 2, 2015. https://www.rt.com/news/324263-russia-briefing-isis-funding/.
—. 2015. “Russia, Greece Sign €2 bn Deal on Turkish Stream Gas Pipeline.” June 19. Accessed June 20, 2015. http://www.rt.com/business/268279-russia-greece-turkish-stream/.
—. 2016. “Tehran Bans Re-export of Turkish Goods to Russia, Aims for Tighter Economic Ties.” January 24. Accessed January 25, 2016. https://www.rt.com/business/329943-iran-turkey-re-export-russia/.
Salt, Jeremy. 2015. “Turkey’s Countterrevolution: Notes From the Dark Side.” Accessed February 3, 2016. http://www.mepc.org/journal/middle-east-policy-archives/turkeys-counterrevolution-notes-dark-side?print.
Saunders, Paul J. 2015. “Putin, Erdogan Meet Face to Face, But Don’t See Eye to Eye.” June 19. Accessed June 20, 2015. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/fr/contents/articles/ originals/2015/06/putin-erdogan-angry-azerbaijan.html.
SeaNews Turkey. 2015. “Gazprom Terminated Contract with Saipem on Turkish Stream.” July 8. Accessed February 11, 2016. http://www.seanews.com.tr/news/151178/rp-0/act-print/rf-1/Print.html.
Shaffer, Brenda. 2006. “Turkey’s Energy Policies in a Tight Global Energy Market.” Insight Turkey 2: 97-104.
Socor, Vladimir. 2008. “South Stream Gas Project Defeating Nabucco by Default.” Eurasia Daily Monitor. The Jamestown Faundation. 5(42). March 4. Accessed November 25, 2015. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D= 33432.
Sotnikov, Vladimir. 2010. “Russia to Build Nuclear Power Plant in Turkey.” International Affairs-Междурадная Жизнь. June 8. Accessed January 6, 2016. http://en.interaffairs.ru/ events/260-russia-to-build-nuclear-power-plant-in-turkey.html.
Sozcu. 2014. “Suriye’ye Satılan Elektriğin Parası, İmam Hatip Oldu.” October 12. Accessed November 27, 2015. http://www.sozcu.com.tr/2014/gundem/suriyeye-satilan-elektrigin-parasi-imam-hatip-oldu-620181/. [Payment of Electricty Sold to Syria Happens to be Religious School].
Sputnik. 2016. “No to Rumors! Gazprom Maintains Discounts For Turkish Energy Companies.” January 29. Accessed February 2, 2016. http://sputniknews.com/business/ 20160129/1033933108/gazprom-discounts-turkish-companies.html.
—. 2015. “Putin Denies Russia Invested $3.5 Bln in Turkey’s Nuclear Power Plant.” December 15. Accessed December 15, 2015. http://sputniknews.com/middleeast/ 20151217/1031904069/russia-denies-invested-power-plant.html.
—. 2013. “Russia, Azerbaijan Agree on Oil, Gas Project as Putin Visits Baku.” August 13. Accessed November 25, 2015. http://sputniknews.com/politics/20130813/182750506/ Russia-Azerbaijan-Agree-on-Oil-Gas-JV-as-Putin-Visits-Baku.html.
—. 2015. “Turkey’s Erdogan Claims Putin Changing Stance on Syria.” August 3. Accessed August 22, 2015. http://sputniknews.com/politics/20150803/1025347364.html.
—. 2015. “Watch: Russian President Holds Annual Year-End Press Conference.” December 17. Accessed December 18, 2015. http://sputniknews.com/russia/20151217/1031880586/ putin-annual-press-conference.html.
T24. 2016. “ABD, Üç Türk Bankasını ‘Terör Örgütlerine Destek Veren İsimler’ İçin Uyardı.” March 4. Accessed March 4, 2016. http://t24.com.tr/haber/abd-turk-bankalarini-teror-orgutlerine-destek-veren-isimler-icin-uyardi,330649. [US Warned Three Turkish Banks For the Individuals of Supporting Terror Organizations].
Tass. 2015. “Turkey Files Arbitration Case Against Gazprom, Disputing Price For Russian Gas.” October 27. Accessed October 28, 2015. http://tass.ru/en/economy/832020.
Telekomcular Dernegi. 2015. “Abdullah Tivnikli 38 Şirketin Yönetiminde.” March 2. Accessed February 10, 2016. http://www.telekomculardernegi.org.tr/haber-5987-abdullah-tivnikli-38-sirketin-yonetiminde.html. [Tivnikli is in Board of Directors of 38 Companies].
TRT Haber. 2015. “Boğazlardan Geçiş Yapan Gemi Sayısı.” February 14. Accessed August 20, 2015. http://www.trthaber.com/haber/turkiye/bogazlardan-gecis-yapan-gemi-sayisi-167924.html. [Number of Vessels Passed Through Straits].
Tsvetkova, Maria and Lidia Kelly. 2015. “Russia Says It Has Proof Turkey Involved in Islamic State Oil Trade.” Reuters. December 2. Accessed December 2, 2015. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-russia-turkey-idUSKBN0TL19S20151202.
Tufekci, Hasan. 2005. “16 Varilden Biri Türkiye’den Geçecek.” Hurriyet. September 3. Accessed August 20, 2015. http://hurarsiv.hurriyet.com.tr/goster/haber.aspx?id=347026 [One of 16 Barrels Will Pass Through Turkey].
TUIK. 2016. Accessed October 2, 2016. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/Start.do;jsession id=2mhKXGlWx5Zhq8z0Hy3b2STngpJH6DthCQGLsv4gMcb2DCDSZpCh!-1519628609. [Turkish Statistical Institute].
Turkiye Gazetesi. 2015. “Doğal Gaz 2016 Yılında %14 Azalacak.” October 27. Accessed February 15, 2016. http://www.turkiyegazetesi.com.tr/ekonomi/319439.aspx. [Price of Natural Gas Will Decline 14% in 2016].
UPI. 2013. “Turkey’s Samsun-Ceyhan Oil Pipeline Shelved.” April 23. Accessed November 2015. http://www.upi.com/Business_News/Energy-Resources/2013/04/23/Turkeys-Samsun-Ceyhan-oil-pipeline-shelved/UPI-24281366711120/.
US News. 2015. “Russia Says It Will Consider Sending Troops to Syria if Damascus Asks For Them.” September 18. Accessed September 22, 2015. http://www.usnews.com/ news/world/articles/2015/09/18/russia-if-syria-asks-us-to-send-troops-well-consider-it.
Vestnik Kavkaza. 2015. “Private Turkish Companies to Receive Discount From Gazprom.” May 5. Accessed May 6, 2015. http://vestnikkavkaza.net/news/economy/70525.html.
World Nuclear News. 2014. “Akkuyu Project EIA Gets Ministry Approval.” December 1. Accessed January 10, 2016. http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN-Akkuyu-project-EIA-gets-ministry-approval-01121401.html.
Yavuz Tiftikcigil, Burcu, and Cagla Gul Yesevi. 2014. “Energy Relations Between Turkey and Russia: Conflict in Energy Projects.” Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 5 (12): 56-70.
Yeginsu, Ceylan. 2015. “President of Turkey to Call For New Election.” The New York Times. August 21. Accessed August 21, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/ 08/22/world/europe/president-erdogan-of-turkey-to-call-for-new-election.html?_r=0.
Yeni Safak. 2002. “Putin ile Ticari Pazarlık.” December 25. Accessed August 30, 2015. http://www.yenisafak.com/arsiv/2002/aralik/25/p2.html. [Commercial Negotiations with Putin].
Yetkin, Murat. 2004. “2003 Irak Yılıydı, 2004 Kıbrıs Olacak.” January 1. Accessed September 6, 2015. http://www.radikal.com.tr/haber.php?haberno=100869 [2003 Was The Year of Iraq, 2004 Will Be The Year of Cyprus].
Yigitguden, Yurdakul. 2010. “Turkey – Turning the European Periphery Into An Energy Hub?” In Prospect of a Triangular Relationship? Energy Relations Between the EU, Russia and Turkey, by Kristen Linke and Marcel Victor, 15-19. Freidrich Ebert Stiftung.
Zhdannikov, Dmitry, and Denis Pinchuk. 2015. “Russia’s Gazprom to Expand Natural Gas Pipeline With E.ON, Shell, OMV.” Reuters. June 18. Accessed June 20, 2015. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2015/06/18/energy-gazprom-pipeline-idUKL5N0Z42O B20150618.

Chapter 2:
Agacan, Kamil. 2009. “Ermenistan’la Protokoller ve Türkiye-Azerbaycan İlişkisine Etkisi.” 21. Yüzyıl Türkiye Enstitüsü Dergisi. November. 1-14. [Protocols with Armenia and Its Impact on Turkey-Azerbaijan Relations. Journal of 21st Century Turkey Institute. November. 1-14].
Babali, Tuncay. 2005. “Implications of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Main Oil Pipeline Project.” Perceptions. 29-60.
Bal, Harun, and Ali Eren Alper. 2010. “Bakü-Tiflis-Ceyhan Petrol Boru Hattı ve Türkiye Ekonomisine Etkileri.” Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi. 19 (3): 345-360. [Oil Pipeline of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and Its Impact on Turkey’s Economy.” Cukurova University Journal of Institute of Social Sciences. 19(3):345-360].
Baran, Zeyno. 2005. “The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline: Implications for Turkey.” In The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline: Oil Window to the West, by S. Frederick Starr and Svante E. Cornell, Central Asia –Caucasus Institute, Silk Road Studies.103-118.
BBC. 2009. “Armenia and Turkey Normalize Ties.” October 10. Accessed March 1, 2016. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8299712.stm.
Boromisa, Ana Maria. 2014. “Will Outsiders Apply EU Rules, and Why?” In Regional Energy Initiatives, MedReg and the Energy Community, edited by Carlo Cambini and Alessandro Rubino. Routledge. 63-83.
BP. 2016. “Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline.” June. Accessed March 1, 2016. http://www.bp.com/en_az/caspian/operationsprojects/pipelines/BTC.html.
—. 2016. “Statistical Review of World Energy.” June. Accessed July 14, 2016. https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/pdf/energy-economics/statistical-review-2016/bp-statistical-review-of-world-energy-2016-full-report.pdf.
Cal, Sedat. 2008. “Bakü-Tiflis-Ceyhan Boru Hattı Projesi Kapsamındaki Anlaşmaların Hukuki Yönden Değerlendirilmesi.” Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi. 63 (4): 89-134. [The Legal Assessment of Agreements within the Scope of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline Project. Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Social Sciences. 63(4):89-134].
Ciment, James, and Kenneth Hill. 1999. Encyclopedia of Conflicts Since World War II – Volume I. Routledge.
Cornell, Svante E, and Fariz Ismailzade. 2005. “The Baku-Tiblisi-Ceyhan Pipeline: Implications For Azerbaijan.” In The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline: Oil Window to the West, by S. Frederick Starr and Svante E. Cornell, Central Asia–Caucasus Institute, Silk Road Studies. 61-84.
Cornell, Svante E. 2013. “Turkish-Armenian Relations: Wrong Priority, Wrong Approach.” Hazar Raporu 108-121.
DESFA. 2015. “National Natural Gas System.” Accessed March 12, 2016. http://www.desfa.gr/?page_id=3278&lang=en.
Dilek, Olcay. 2012. “Zarar Boru Hattı’nda Uzlaşma.” HaberTurk. January 6. Accessed March 3, 2016. http://www.haberturk.com/ekonomi/makro-ekonomi/haber/703407-zarar-boru-hattinda-uzlasma. [Reconciliation Over Deficit Pipeline. HaberTurk].
Ekathimerini. 2013. “Gazprom Withdraws Interest For Greek Gas Firm DEPA on Deadline Day, Say Reports.” June 10. Accessed March 12, 2016. http://www.ekathimerini. com/133602/article/ekathimerini/business/gazprom-withdraws-interest-for-greek-gas-firm-depa-on-deadline-day-say-reports.
Ekspress. 2011. “Türkiye, Yunanistan’a Gaz Satışını Durduruyor.” April 27. Accessed March 10, 2016. http://www.byegm.gov.tr/turkce/haber/trkye-yunanstana-gaz-satiini-durduruy or/7745. [Turkey Halts Gas Sale to Greece].
Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United States of America. 2015. Accessed March 7, 2016. http://www.azembassy.us/755-israel-buys-40-of-its-oil-from-azerbaijan. html.
Enerji Gunlugu. 2014. “SOCAR Sondaj Platformu Göndermekten Vazgeçti.” November
10. Accessed January 4, 2016. http://enerjigunlugu.net/socar-sondaj-platformu-gondermekten-vazgecti_10810.html#.Vmd2TIS7N4s. [SOCAR Gave up Sending Drilling Platform].
Enerji Magazin. 2014. “Enerji Bakanlığında Yolsuzluk İddiaları.” May 25. Accessed March 9, 2016. http://enerjimagazin.com/haber-1811-Enerji-Bakanliginda-Yolsuzluk-Iddalari. html. [Corruption Allegations in Ministry of Energy].
EPDK. 2016. “Doğal Gaz Piyasası Sektör Raporu 2015.” Accessed February 4, 2016. http://www.epdk.org.tr/TR/Dokumanlar/Dogalgaz/YayinlarRaporlar/Yillik. [Natural Gas Market 2015 Sector Report. EMRA - Energy Market Regulatory Authority].
Erdil, Merve. 2014. “BOTAŞ Sisteminde 13, TANAP’ta 90 Dolar.” Hurriyet. September 16. Accessed March 11, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/botas-sisteminde-13-tanap-ta-90-dolar-27210984. [(Gas Transpotation Fee) In BOTAS Sytem $13, in TANAP $90. Hurriyet].
Ergin, Evrim. 2014. “Turkey’s Denizbank in Talks with SOCAR Over $1,7 Bln Loan Deal.” Reuters. March 21. Accessed March 14, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/turkey-socar-idUSL6N0MI2QY20140321.
Erkaya, Baris. 2011. “Bakü Tiflis Ceyhan Borç Hattı.” Haber Turk. April 12. Accessed March 2, 2016. http://www.haberturk.com/ekonomi/makro-ekonomi/haber/619866-baku-tiflis-ceyhan-borc-hatti. [Debt Line of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan. HaberTurk].
EUD. 2012. “Ucuz Azeri Gazı, İnşaatı Bitmeyen İstasyonlara Takıldı.” Accessed March 2016. http://www.eud.org.tr/TR/Genel/BelgeGoster.aspx?F6E10F8892433CFF7A2395 174CFB32E1F1141CA1B7B48A58. [Cheap Azeri Gas Got Stuck in Incomplete Stations. Electricty Producers Association].
European Commission. 2014. “Mergers: Commission Opens in-depth Investigation into Proposed Acquisition of Greek Gas Transmission System Operator DESFA by SOCAR.” November 5. Accessed March 15, 2016. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-14-1442_en.htm.
European Parliament. 2016. “Petition 0318/2013 by Savvas Poulos (Greek), on the Privatization of the Greek Public Gas Company DEPA.” April 29. Accessed March 15, 2016. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=COMPARL&reference=PE-532.499&format=PDF&language=EN&secondRef=05.
Farschy, Jack. 2015. “Azerbaijan Devalues Currency by One-Third Amid Oil Price Tumble.” Financial Times. February 22. Accessed February 23, 2015. http://www.ft.com/intl/ cms/s/0/f7d91efe-ba7f-11e4-945d-00144feab7de.html#axzz3pt40mFlV.
Gazprom. 2012. “Gazprom Doubling Azerbaijani Gas Purchase.” January 23. Accessed March 7, 2016. http://www.gazprom.com/press/news/2012/january/article128158/.
—. 2011. “Turkey Grants Permit For South Stream Construction.” December 28. Accessed March 2, 2016. http://www.gazprom.com/press/news/2011/december/article126759/.
Geukjian, Ohannes. 2016. Negotiating Armenian-Azerbaijani Peace: Opportunities, Obstacles, Prospects. Routledge.
Hurriyet Daily News. 2015. “BP Acquires 12 Percent Stake in TANAP Pipeline Project.” March 13. Accessed March 11, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/bp-acquires-12-percent-stake-in-tanap-pipeline-project------.aspx?pageID=238&nID=79662&News CatID=348.
—. 2012. “PETKIM Stake Sale Approved.” May 10. Accessed March 11, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/petkim-stake-sale-approved.aspx?pageid=238&nid= 20372.
Internethaber. 2014. “İsrail’e Petrol Satışımız Yok.” July 22. Accessed March 6, 2016. http://www.internethaber.com/israile-petrol-satisimiz-yok-701138h.htm. [We Do Not Sell Oil to Israel. Internet News].
Iseri, Emre. 2016. “Turkish Armenian Impasse in the Caucasus Security Complex.” In Turkey in the 21st Century – Quest for a New Foreign Policy, edited by Ozden Zeynep Oktav, 115-134. Routledge.
Keinon, Herb. 2015. “Top Aid to President: Israel Important Strategic Partner.” January 27. Accessed March 7, 2016. http://www.jpost.com/Israel-News/Top-aid-to-Azerbaijan-president-Israel-important-strategic-partner-389060.
Kodaman, Timucin. 2013. “Ermeni Açılımı ve Türk Dünyası.” SDÜ Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. (30): 111-122. [Armenian Opening and Turkish World. SDU Faculty of Arts and Sciences Journal of Social Sciences. 30:111-122].
Liaggou, Chryssa. 2013. “SOCAR Enters Final Stage of DESFA Sale.” Ekathimerini. September 3. Accessed March 11, 2016. http://www.ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/_w_articles _wsite2_1_03/09/2013_517015.
Ozdal, Baris. 2009. “Türkiye-Ermenistan Diyaloğu: Uzun Bir Sürecin Başlangıcı mı?” Ortadoğu Analiz. 1 (10): 67-75. [Turkish-Armenian Diologue: Is This The Beginning of a Long Process?, Middle East Analysis. 1(10):67-75].
Ozdemir, Volkan. 2015. “Turkish Foreign Energy Policy and the TANAP Project.” EPPEN. March 26. Accessed March 11, 2016. http://www.eppen.org/en/index.php?sayfa= Yorumlar&link=&makale=179.
Pala, Cenk. 2001-02. “Hazar Boru Hatları, Bakü-Tiflis-Ceyhan Ham Petrol Boru Hattı Projesi ve Türkiye.” Avrasya Dosyası. Kazakistan-Kırgızistan Özel. 7 (4): 231-252. [Caspian Pipelines, Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline Project and Turkey. Eurasian Dossier. Special Edition Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan. 7(4):231-252].
Pamuk, Humeyra, and Evrim Ergin. 2014. “SOCAR Turkey Signs $3.29 Bln Financing Deal For Star Refinery.” Reuters. May 30. Accessed March 11, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/ article/turkey-socar-financing-idUSL6N0OG1QC20140530.
Patronlar Dunyasi. 2014. “İsrail’in Petrolü Yandaş Medyadan.” July 21. Accessed March 6, 2016. http://www.patronlardunyasi.com/haber/Israil-In-petrolu-yandas-medyadan/1597 47. [Oil of Israel is From Slanted Media. World of Bosses].
PETKIM. “A Story of Growth.” Accessed March 14, 2016. http://www.petkim.com.tr/ Sayfa/2/548/CORPORATE-A-STORY-OF-GROWTH.aspx.
—. 2011. “About Us.” Accessed March 11, 2016. http://www.petkim.com.tr/Sayfa/2/ 790/CORPORATE-ABOUT-US.aspx.
—. 2013. “Why Petkim?” Accessed March 14, 2016. http://www.petkim.com.tr/Sayfa/2/ 820/INVESTING-IN-PETKIM.aspx.
Pipeline and Gas Journal. 2010. “Natural Gas Talks Conclude Between Turkey, Azerbaijan.” 237(6). Accessed March 7, 2016. http://pipelineandgasjournal.com/natural-gas-talks-conclude-between-turkey-azerbaijan.
Pritchin, Stanislav. 2010. “Azerbaijan’s New Gas Strategy.” Turkish Policy Quarterly 9 (2): 123-127.
Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2009. “Turkey’s Energy Strategy.” January. Accessed July 13, 2016. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/data/DISPOLITIKA/EnerjiPolitikasi/ Turkey's%20Energy%20Strategy%20(Ocak%202009).pdf.
Resmi Gazete. 2010. “Memorandum of Understanding Between The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of the Republic of Turkey and The Ministry of Industry and Energy of the Republic of Azerbaijan For Sales and Transport of Natural Gas.” October 6. Accessed March 5, 2016. http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2010/10/20101006-4-1.pdf. [The Official Gazette].
Reuters. 2012. “Gazprom Warns Turkey Over Azeri Gas Pipeline Deal.” June 29. Accessed March 11, 2016. http://af.reuters.com/article/idAFL6E8HT3S220120629.
RFERL. 2009. “Azerbaijan Criticizes Turkey Over Gas Prices, to Seek New Routes.” October 16. Accessed March 11, 2016. http://www.rferl.org/content/Azerbaijan_Criticizes_ Turkey_Over_Gas_Prices_To_Seek_New_Routes/1853890.html.
—. 2013. “Rosneft Signs Deal With SOCAR During Putin’s Visit.” August 13. Accessed March 12, 2016. http://www.rferl.org/content/azerbaijan-russia-energy-deal/25074620. html.
Sabah. 2009. “Aliyev’den ‘Doğal Gaz Fiyatı’ Yorumu.” April 28. Accessed March 10, 2016. http://arsiv.sabah.com.tr/2009/04/28/haber,62AA8B6B92054762950E7997AA4469D5.html. [Aliyev’s Comment on Natural Gas Price].
Sozcu. 2015. “CHP’li Vekilden ‘Enişte’ İddiası.” October 21. Accessed January 4, 2016. http://www.sozcu.com.tr/2015/ekonomi/chpli-vekilden-eniste-iddiasi-965956/. [Brother-in-law Allegation from CHP’s Deputy].
Sputnik. 2013. “Russia, Azerbaijan Agree on Oil, Gas Project as Putin Visists Baku.” August 13. Accessed March 12, 2016. http://sputniknews.com/politics/20130813/182750506/ Russia-Azerbaijan-Agree-on-Oil-Gas-JV-as-Putin-Visits-Baku.html.
Star Refinery. “Technical Information.” Accessed March 14, 2016. http://www.starrafineri. com.tr/en/star-rafineri/technical-information/57/.
The Armenian Weekly. 2015. “Sarkisian Wihdraws Protocols From Parliament.” February 16. Accessed March 10, 2016. http://armenianweekly.com/2015/02/16/sarkisian-withdraws-protocols/.
The World Bank. 2016. “Azerbaijan.” Accessed July 14, 2016. http://data.worldbank.org/ country/azerbaijan.
Turkishnews.com. 2009. “Aliyev’den Karabağ ve Protokol Açıklaması.” October 9. Accessed March 10, 2016. http://www.turkishnews.com/tr/content/2009/10/09/aliyevden-karabag-ve-protokol-aciklamasi/. [Aliyev’s Statement on Nagarno-Karabag and The Protocol].
Turkov, Maksim. 2015. “SOCAR’s Buying Stake in DESFA Runs Smoothly – Greek Minister.” En.Trend.Az. October 1. Accessed March 12, 2016. http://en.trend.az/ azerbaijan/business/2439005.html.
Valiyev, Anar. 2009. “The Turkish-Armenian Protocols: Implications For Azerbaijan.” Caucasus Analytical Digest. 11 (9): 5-8.
Varol, Tugce. 2014. “SOCAR, İsrail ve Kuzey Irak Gazını Görüyor, Türkmen Gazını Göremiyor?” 21. Yüzyıl Türkiye Enstitüsü. February 17. Accessed March 6, 2016. http://www.21yyte.org/tr/arastirma/enerji-ve-enerji-guvenligi-arastirmalari-merkezi/2014/02/17/7434/socar-israil-ve-kuzey-irak-gazini-goruyor-turkmen-gazini-goremiyor. [SOCAR Sees Gas of Israel and Northern Iraq But Cannot See Turkmen Gas. 21st Century of Turkey Institute].
Varol, Tugce. 2013. “Importance of TANAP in Competition Between Russia and Central Asia.” International Journal of Energy Economics 3 (4): 352-359.
Vestnik Kavkaza. 2013. “Why Did Sechin Visit Baku?” July 9. Accessed March 12, 2016. http://vestnikkavkaza.net/articles/economy/42391.html.

Chapter 3:
AA. 2012. “Massud Barzani Attends AK Party Congress.” September 30. Accessed March 23, 2016. http://aa.com.tr/en/turkey/massoud-barzani-attends-ak-party-congress/331239.
—. 2016. “Peshmerga Needs $300 a Month to Fight Daesh: Official.” February 9. Accessed April 7, 2016. http://aa.com.tr/en/politics/peshmerga-needs-300m-a-month-to-fight-daesh-official-/518322.
Abdulrazaq, Hawar. 2016. “Explosion Damages Gas Pipeline Near Kirkuk.” Basnews. January 29. Accessed April 6, 2016. http://www.basnews.com/index.php/en/economy/ kurdistan/256095.
Ahmed, Raed Asad. 2015. “Attacks Shuts Down Kirkuk-Ceyhan Pipeline Carrying Kurdish Oil.” Rudaw. July 29. Accessed April 6, 2016. http://rudaw.net/english/middleeast/ turkey/290720153.
Akay, Fusun. 2012. “Fatih Birol, Enerji Piyasasının Kahini.” Platin Dergisi. November. [Fatih Birol: Oracle of Energy Markets. Journal of Platin].
Aksam. 2012. “Siyah Kalem Ben Değilim.” March 10. Accessed March 7, 2016. http://www.aksam.com.tr/siyah-kalem-ben-degilim--103896h.html. [I am Not Siyah Kalem].
Al-Arabiya. 2012. “Iraq Expels Turkey’s TPAO From Exploration Deal.” November 7. Accessed March 24, 2016. http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/11/07/248177.html.
—. 2016. “Iraq’s Oil Output Hits Record 4.775 mln bpd in January.” February 16. Accessed February 17, 2016. http://english.alarabiya.net/en/business/energy/2016/02/16/Iraq-s-oil-output-hits-record-4-775-mln-bpd-in-January.html.
—. 2012. “Turkish Minister’s Plane Denied Permission to Land in Northern Iraq.” December 4. Accessed March 21, 2016. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/12/04/ 253319.html.
Al-Jazeera. 2014. “Iraqi Kurdistan’s Oil Flows to Turkey.” January 2. Accessed April 6, 2016. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/europe/2014/01/iraqi-kurdistan-oil-flows-turkey-2014129192983835.html.
Al-Kharleeb, Luay. 2014. “How Iraq’s Black Market in Oil Funds ISIS.” CNN. August 22. Accessed April 9, 2016. http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/18/business/al-khatteeb-isis-oil-iraq/.
Aydilek, Olay. 2013. “İşte, Türkiye’nin Kuzey Irak’ta ki Petrol Sahası.” HaberTürk. November 21. Accessed April 5, 2016. http://www.haberturk.com/ekonomi/enerji/haber/ 896331-iste-turkiyenin-kuzey-iraktaki-petrol-sahasi. [Turkey’s Oil Fields in the Northern Iraq. HaberTurk].
Balci, Ali. 2014. “Enerjisine Kavuşan Komşuluk – Türkiye-Kürdistan Bölgesel Yönetimi İlişkileri.” SETA. June. 97. [Neighborhood Retrieved Its Energy – Turkey and Kurdish Regional Government Relations].
Barkey, Henry J. 2010. “Turkey’s New Engagement in Iraq.” United States Institute of Peace. No.237. May. Special Report.
Barzanji, Yahya. 2011. “Kurdish Government, ExxonMobil Ink Oil Search Deal.” The Washington Times. November 13. Accessed March 23, 2016. http://www.washington times.com/news/2011/nov/13/kurdish-government-exxonmobil-ink-oil-search-deal/.
Benmayor, Gila. “Rus Gazına Rekabet Getirdik.” Hurriyet. August 28. Accessed March 8, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/yazarlar/21319958.asp. [We Brought Competition to Russian Gas].
Blas, Javier. 2012. “Iraq’s Oil Output Overtakes Iran’s.” Washington Post. August 10. Accessed March 22, 2016. http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/iraqs-oil-output-overtakes-irans/2012/08/10/8c4ddad4-e314-11e1-ae7f-d2a13e249eb2_story.html.
Bloomberg HT. 2012. “Kümaş’a En Yüksek Teklif Kobin Madencilik’ten.” January 10. http://www.bloomberght.com/turkiye-ekonomisi/haber/1056589-kumasa-en-yuksek-teklif-kobin-madencilikten. [Highest Bid For Kumas From Kobin Mining].
Botelho, Greg. 2015. “Russia, Turkey Trade Accusations Over Who Bought Oil From ISIS.” CNN. December 2. Accessed April 9, 2016. http://www.cnn.com/2015/12/02/europe/ syria-turkey-russia-warplane-tensions/.
Burges, James. 2016. “PKK Attacks Turkey-KRG Oil Pipeline.” Oil Price. February 18. Accessed April 7, 2016. http://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/PKK-Attacks-Turkey-KRG-Oil-Pipeline.html.
Chulov, Martin. 2015. “Turkey Sends in Jets as Syria’s Agony Spills Over Every Border.” The Guardian. July 25. Accessed April 10, 2016. http://www.theguardian.com/world/ 2015/jul/26/isis-syria-turkey-us.
Davies, Rob. 2016. “Genel Energy Shares Drop 40% After Oilfield’s Value Slashed by $1bn.” The Guardian. February 29. Accessed April 2, 2016. https://www.theguardian. com/business/2016/feb/29/genel-energy-shares-drop-oilfield-value-slashed-tony-hayward.
Degerler, Bizim Menkul. 2015. “Bilgi Notu - PETKIM.” August 31. Accessed April 3, 2016. http://www.bmd.com.tr/content/userfiles/files/petkm_2._ceyrek_2015_1.pdf. [Newsletter - PETKIM. BMD Securities Inc.].
Demir, Hakan. 2012. “Irak’ta Petrol Mücadelesi: Çok Uluslu Şirketler, Uluslararası Anlaşmalar ve Anayasal Tartışmaların Işığında Bir Analiz.” ORSAM. Ankara. 103. January. Accessed April 5, 2016. http://www.orsam.org.tr/eski/tr/trUploads/Yazilar/ Dosyalar/201222_103orsamrepot.pdf. [The Struggle For Oil in Iraq: An Analysis in the Light of Multi-National Companies, International Contracts and Constitutional Debates. Center For Middle Eastern Strategic Studies].
DHA. 2014. “Davutoğlu’nun Bilinmeyenleri.” August 21. Accessed April 4, 2016. http://www.dha.com.tr/davutoglunun-bilinmeyenleri_739261.html. [Unknowns of Davutoglu. Dogan News Agency].
Dogan Holding. 2014. “Energy.” Accessed April 5, 2016. http://www.doganholding.com.tr/ en/business-areas/dogan-energy.aspx.
Dombey, Daniel. 2014. “Turkey Ready to Accept Kurdish State in Historic Shift.” Financial Times. June 27. Accessed April 6, 2016. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/65ae9ac2-fe00-11e3-bd0e-00144feab7de.html#axzz4HjF8SW83.
DW. 2016. “German Bundeswehr Weapons Reportedly Resold by Kurdish Peshmerga Fighters.” January 21. Accessed April 7, 2016. http://www.dw.com/en/german-bundeswehr-weapons-reportedly-resold-by-kurdish-peshmerga-fighters/a-18997098.
EIA. 2016. “Country Analysis Brief Iraq.” April 28. Accessed May 21, 2016. https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis_includes/countries_long/Iraq/iraq.pd.
Ekurd Daily. 2012. “Iraq’s Kurdistan President Massoud Barzani Visit Peshmerga Forces in Kirkuk.” December 10. Accessed March 23, 2016. http://ekurd.net/mismas/articles/misc 2012/12/kirkuk762.htm.
—. 2016. “Kurdish Peshmerga Needs $300 Mln A Month to Fight Islamic State: Official.” February 9. Accessed April 7, 2016. http://ekurd.net/peshmerga-needs-300-million-month-2016-02-09.
—. 2013. “Turkish PM Recep Erdogan Meets Kurdistan PM Nechirvan Barzani.” March 14. Accessed April 4, 2016. http://ekurd.net/mismas/articles/misc2014/3/turkey4973.htm.
Enerji, Calik. 2014. “Adana-Ceyhan Refinery.” Accessed April 3, 2016. http://eng.calikenerji. com/Pages/BORU-HATLARI-VE-RAFİNERİ.aspx.
Enerji Gunlugu. 2012. “Bağdat’tan Türkiye’ye Sarı Kart: TPAO’nun Anlaşması Ertelendi.” September 26. Accessed March 23, 2016. https://enerjigunlugu.net/bagdattan-turkiyeye-sari-kart-tpaonun-anlasmasi-er_883.html#.VmthfoS7N4s. [Yellow Card From Baghdad to Turkey: Agreement with TPAO Postponed].
Enerji Gunlugu. 2014. “2. Gemi Yola Çıktı, Irak, Türkiye’yi Ticari İlişkiler İçin Uyardı.” June 10. Accessed April 8, 2016. http://enerjigunlugu.net/ikinci-gemi-yola-cikti-irak-turkiyeyi-ticari-ilisk_8916.html#.Vo1yeoT4F4s. [2nd Tanker Departed, Iraq Warned Turkey for Commercial Relations].
Engdahl, F. William. 2015. “Erdogan’s Dirty Dangerous ISIS Games.” New Eastern Outlook. April 24. Accessed August 12, 2016. http://journal-neo.org/2015/08/24/erdogan-s-dirty-dangerous-isis-games/.
EPDK. 2016. “Petrol Piyasası Sektör Raporları.” http://www.epdk.org.tr/TR/Dokumanlar/ Petrol/YayinlarRaporlar/Yillik [Petroleum Market Sector Reports. EMRA - Energy Market Regulatory Authority].
—. 2016. “Petrol Piyasası Sektör Raporu 2015.” http://www.epdk.org.tr/TR/Dokumanlar/ Petrol/YayinlarRaporlar/Yillik [Petroleum Market Sector Report 2015. EMRA - Energy Market Regulatory Authority].
Erdil, Merve. 2015. “Genel Energy Founder and President Sepil Retires.” Hurriyet Daily News. October 16. Accessed March 7, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/genel-energy-founder-and-president-sepil-retires-.aspx?pageID=449&nID=89965&NewsCat ID=348.
—. 2014. “Kürt Gazından 2 Milyar $ Kar.” Hurriyet. April 9. Accessed April 6, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/kurt-gazindan-2-milyar-k-r-26182540. [Profit of 2 Billion $ From Kurdish Gas].
Ergin, Evrim. 2012. “Iraqi Kurds to Sell Gas Directly to Turkey-Minister.” Reuters. July 3. Accessed March 21, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-iraq-kurds-gas-idUSBRE8620PR20120703.
Finans Gundem. 2016. “Mehmet Sepil Hisselerini Sıfırladı.” February 26. Accessed February 26, 2016. http://www.finansgundem.com/haber/mehmet-sepil-hisselerini-sifirladi/ 465550. [Mehmet Sepil Set his Shares Zero].
GazpromNeft. 2014. “Gazprom Neft Begins Exploratory Drilling in Kurdistan.” August 1. Accessed March 8, 2016. http://www.gazprom-neft.com/press-center/news/1102603/.
Genel Energy. 2012. “Approval For Waiver of Obligations Under Rule 9 of the City Code on Takeovers and Mergers.” August 16. Accessed March 16, 2016. http://www.genelenergy. com/media/1572/shareholder_circular.pdf.
—. 2015. “Genel Energy PLC Notice of Annual General Meeting.” March 19. Accessed March 21, 2016. http://www.genelenergy.com/media/1574/annual_general_meeting_-_19_march_2015.pdf.
—. 2015. “H1 2015 Results and Outlook.” August 6. Accessed April 12, 2016. http://www.genelenergy.com/media/1846/genel-2015-interim-results-final.pdf.
—. 2016. “History.” Accessed March 25, 2016. http://www.genelenergy.com/about-us/history/.
—. “Where We Operate.” Last Modified in 2016. http://www.genelenergy.com/ operations/overview/.
Giglio, Mike. 2014. “This Is How ISIS Smuggles Oil.” Buzz Feed. November 3. Accessed April 9, 2016. http://www.buzzfeed.com/mikegiglio/this-is-how-isis-smuggles-oil#.gpr4BzdyP.
Gorener, Aylin S. 2008. “Turkey and Northern Iraq on the Course of Rapprochement.” SETA Policy Brief. No.17. June.
Haberler. 2012. “Öğütçü: Kürt Meselesinin Çözümünde Enerji Politikaları Büyük Önem Arz Ediyor.” July 12. Accessed March 21, 2016. http://www.haberler.com/ogutcu-kurt-meselesinin-cozumunde-enerji-3772240-haberi/. [Ogutcu: Energy Policies are Significant in Solving Kurdish Issue].
HaberTurk. 2012. “Kuzey Suriye Değil, Suriye’nin Kuzeyi.” August 12. Accessed March 9, 2016. http://www.haberturk.com/polemik/haber/767454-kuzey-suriye-degil-suriyenin-kuzeyi. [It is not Northern Syria, North of Syria].
Halk Yatirim. 2013. “Erdoğan: Exxon ile Kuzey Irak’ta Petrol Arayacağız.” May 15. Accessed March 22, 2016. http://www.halkyatirim.com.tr/NewsContent.aspx?haber Code=20130515065103. [Erdogan: We Will Explore Oil With ExxonMobil in Northern Iraq. Halk Invest].
Hurriyet. 2012. “Amacımız Kürt Gazını ve Petrolünü Türkiye’ye Getirmek.” August 9. Accessed March 18, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/21189166.asp. [Our Goal is to Bring Kurdish Gas and Oil to Turkey].
—. 2012. “Irak’tan Gaz Getirmek İçin Başvuru Süresi Soldu, Tek Niyetli ‘Siyah Kalem’ Çıktı.” April 10. Accessed March 7, 2016. http://hurarsiv.hurriyet.com.tr/goster/ printnews.aspx?DocID=20309313. [Deadline for Applying For Import License From Iraq Expired, Only ‘Siyah Kalem’ Remains].
—. 2015. “Top Turkish Officials in Baghdad to Defuse Tension Over Troop Deployment.” December 10. Accessed April 6, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/top-turkish-officials-in-baghdad-to-defuse-tension-over-troop-deployment.aspx?pageID=238&nID= 92330&NewsCatID=352.
Hurriyet Daily News. 2012. “Arbil’s Turkey Trade Rising, More to Come.” September 10. Accessed March 24, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/Default.aspx?pageID= 517&nID=29743&NewsCatID=345.
—. 2013. “KRG Starts Independent Crude Oil.” January 8. Accessed 2016 29, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/krg-starts-independent-crude-oil-exports.aspx? pageID=238&nID=38593&NewsCatID=348.
—. 2014. “First Tranche of Kurdish Iraqi Oil Revenue Deposited in Turkey’s Halkbank: Minister.” June 23. Accessed April 11, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/first-tranche-of-kurdish-iraqi-oil-revenue-deposited-in-turkeys-halkbank-minister.aspx?page ID=238&nID=68145&NewsCatID=348.
—. 2015. “Dogan Group Refutes Claims About Business Partnership.” September 4. Accessed April 10, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/dogan-group-refutes-claims-about-business-partnership.aspx?pageID=238&nid=87975.
—. 2016. “KRG Announces Severe Loss From Ceyhan Pipeline Attack.” February 22. Accessed April 7, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/krg-announces-severe-loss-from-ceyhan-pipeline-attack.aspx?pageID=238&nID=95532&NewsCatID=348.
Imrag, Ramazan. 2012. “Binlerce Kürt Peşmerge Suriye’ye Geçti.” Radikal. July 24. Accessed March 21, 2016. http://www.radikal.com.tr/turkiye/binlerce-kurt-pesmerge-suriyeye-gecti-1095124/. [Thousands of Kurdish Peshmerga Passed to Syria. Radical].
Inan, Ercan. 2012. “Cepte 1.9 Milyar Dolar Cash Var, Önümüzdeki 18 Aylık Dönemde Çok Agresif Büyümek İstiyoruz.” Vatan. February 22. Accessed March 22, 2016. http://haber.gazetevatan.com/cepte-19-milyar-dolar-cash-var-onumuzdeki-18-aylik-donemde-cok-agresif-buyumek-istiyoruz/432642/4/Haber. [Have 1.9 Billion Cash in Pocket, Want to Grow Aggressively in the Coming 18 Months Period].
Intellinews, BNE. 2012. “Calik Company Ikideniz Plans Oil Pipeline Between Turkey-Iraq.” February 20. Accessed April 4, 2016. http://www.intellinews.com/calik-company-ikideniz-plans-oil-pipeline-between-turkey-iraq-361862556/?archive=intellinews.
Interactive Investor. 2012. “Genel Energy PLC – Genel to Acquire Additional Interest in the Miran Block and assume Operatorship.” August 21. Accessed March 21, 3016. http://www.iii.co.uk/research/LSE:GENL/news/item/459733.
Iraq Energy. 2013. “Baghdad Offers to Build Basra-Ceyhan Pipeline,” Minister Says.” April 1. Accessed March 27, 2016. http://www.iraqenergy.org/news/?detailof=6107&content= Baghdad-Offers-to-Build-Basra-Ceyhan-Pipeline,-Minister-Says.
Iraq Trade Links News. 2016. “Political Quarters Targeted Kirkuk-Arbil Gas Pipeline, Commission.” January 31. Accessed April 8, 2016. http://www.iraqtradelinknews. com/2016/01/political-quarters-targeted-kirkuk.html.
Knights, Micheal. 2014. “Here’s What The Big Iraqi-Kurdish Oil Deal Really Means.” The Washington Institute. December 3. Accessed April 13, 2016. http://www.washington institute.org/policy-analysis/view/making-the-baghdad-krg-revenue-generating-deal-work#When:16:20:11Z.
Konuk, Mehmet. 2015. “Turkey Aims to be an Energy ‘Bridge of Peace’.” The World Folio. Accessed April 3, 2016. http://www.theworldfolio.com/interviews/turkey-aims-to-be-an-energy-bridge-of-peace/3617/.
KRG Ministry of Natural Resources. 2016. “Monthly Production and Export Revenue Overview.” July. Accessed August 29, 2016. http://mnr.krg.org/images/monthlyreports/ EXPORTs/July%202016%20Monthly%20Overview.pdf.
Larabee, Stephen F., and Alireza Nader. 2013. “Turkish-Iranian Relations in a Changing Middle East.” RAND Corporation.
Markets, RBC Capital. 2015. “ISIS and Oil: Off the Radar but on Our Minds.” September 29. Accessed April 9, 2016. https://www.rbcinsight.com/CM/Share/ResearchViewer/ ?SSS_7D7D7C7E6FA6D5A9AC94E47A9F4475DB.
Middle East Monitor. 2015. “US Plans to Establish Military Base in Kurdistan.” February 10. Accessed April 9, 2016. https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/news/americas/16887-us-plans-to-establish-military-base-in-kurdistan.
Middle East Oil Review. 2013. “Turkish Firm to Explore and Develop Hydrocarbons in Kurdistan Region of Iraq.” May 16. Accessed April 5, 2016. http://www.oilreviewmiddle east.com/exploration-production/turkish-firm-to-explore-and-develop-hydrocarbons-in-kurdistan-region-of-iraq.
Milliyet. 2010. “Çalık 15 Milyar TL’lik Teşvik Belgesi Aldı.” May 18. Accessed April 3, 2016. http://www.milliyet.com.tr/calik-15-milyar-tl-lik-tesvik-belgesi-aldi/ekonomi/ ekonomidetay/18.05.2010/1239460/default.htm. [Calik Received 15 Billion TL State Subsidy].
Munyar, Vahap. 2012. “Koç’un Gelmesi Bizim İçin Önemli, İstanbul’dan Daha Güvenli Erbil’e Her Sektörden Yatırımcı Bekleriz.” Hurriyet. May 6. Accessed April 1, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/koc-un-gelmesi-bizim-icin-onemli-istanbul-dan-daha-guvenli-erbil-e-her-sektorden-yatirimci-bekleriz-20496566. [Arrival of KOC is Significant For Us, We Expect Investors to Erbil which is safer than Istanbul].
NRT. 2015. “Iraq to Take Turkey to Court Over Oil Sold to Israel.” November. Accessed April 6, 2016. http://www.nrttv.com/en/Details.aspx?Jimare=3952.
OECD. 2013. “Turkey: The Corporate Governance Framework and Practices Relations Supervision and Enforcement.” In Supervision and Enforcement in Corporate Governance. OECD Publishing. 69-98.
Oguzlu, Tarik H. 2001. “The Turkomans of Iraq As A Factor in Turkish Foreign Policy: Socio-Political and Demographic Perspectives.” Dış Politika Enstitüsü-Foreign Policy Institute. Ankara. 1-45.
O’Bryne, David. 2012. “Turkey’s Oil Diplomacy with Kurds.” Financial Times. July 30. Accessed March 16, 2016. http://blogs.ft.com/beyond-brics/2012/07/30/turkeys-oil-diplomacy-with-iraqs-kurds/.
Ozcan, Mesut. 2009. “Turkish Foreign Policy Towards Iraq in 2009.” Perceptions 15 (3-4): 113-132.
Payne, Julia. 2014. “Exclusive: Kurdish Oil Finds New Buyers in Europe Despite Baghdad Threats.” Reuters. June 11. Accessed April 8, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-kurdistan-oil-idUSKBN0EM1OK20140611.
Payne, Julia, and Lin Nouehed. 2014. “Iraqi Kurds Link Kirkuk its Own Oil Pipeline, Plan More Exports.” Reuters. June 17. Accessed April 8, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/ article/iraq-kurdistan-exports-idUSL5N0OY2PI20140617.
Phillips, David L. 2015. “Research Paper: ISIS-Turkey Links.” Columbia University’s Institute For The Study of Human Rights. Huffington Post. September 1. Accessed April 10, 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-l-phillips/research-paper-isis-turke_b_ 6128950.html.
Pipes, Daniel. 2014. “Turkish Support For ISIS.” The Washington Times. June 18. Accessed April 9, 2016. http://www.danielpipes.org/14486/turkey-isis.
Range Energy Resources. 2010. “Kurdistan Exploration Opportunity Overview.” January 3. Accessed April 10, 2016. http://www.rangeenergyresources.com/_resources/Range_ Pres_v02Jan10-3.pdf.
—. 2015. “Shewashan-2 Development Well Spudded Under Khalakan Field Development Plan.” October 26. Accessed April 11, 2016. http://www.rangeenergyresources.com/ index.php?&content_id=149.
Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2015. “Son Gelişmeler Çerçevesinde Irak’ta Bulunan veya Irak’a Seyahat Etmeyi Öngören Türk Vatandaşlarına Yönelik Seyahat ve Güvenlik Duyurusu.” December 9. Accessed April 6, 2016. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/ irak_ta-bulunan-veya-irak_a-seyahat-etmeyi-ongoren-turk-vatandaslarina-yonelik-seyahat-ve-guvenlik-duyurusu_-9-aralik-2015.tr.mfa. [Regarding the Latest Developments in Iraq, Travel and Security Warning For The Turkish Citizens Living in Iraq or Travelling to Iraq].
Reuters. 2014. “Iraq Files Arbitration Request Against Turkey Over Kurdish Oil.” May 23. Accessed April 12, 2016. http://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews/idAFL6N0O93 VP20140523.
—. 2013. “Iraqi Kurdistan Gives Turkish Company Six Oil Exploration Blocks.” June 18. Accessed April 4, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/turkey-kurdistan-oil-idUSL5N0 EU44120130618.
—. 2015. “Iraqi Kurdistan Says PKK Attack on Pipeline Cost It $501 Mln.” August 18. Accessed April 4, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/iraq-kurds-oil-idUSL5N10T3SF 20150818.
—. 2013. “Iraq-Turkey Pipeline Bombed: Officials.” August 16. Accessed March 22, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-iraq-oil-pipeline-idUSBRE97F0YD20130816.
—. 2014. “Oil Smuggling Financing Islamic State’s New Caliphate.” July 23. Accessed April 13, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-iraq-security-oil-idUSKBN0FS0BP20140 723.
—. 2015. “PKK Attacks Turkey’s Halted Shah Deniz Gas Pipeline.” August 4. Accessed April 7, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-turkey-pipeline-id USKCN0Q90Y120150804.
—. 2013. “Turkey Joins with Exxon, Iraqi Kurds in Oil Exploration.” May 14. Accessed April 1, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/turkey-iraq-exploration-idUSL6N0DV47 O20130514.
—. 2015. “UAE’s Dana Gas Says Kurdistan Group Has Claims of More Than $11 bln.” December 8. Accessed April 6, 2016. http://af.reuters.com/article/energyOilNews/ idAFL8N13X3CD20151208.
RT. 2015. “Putin: ISIS Financed From 40 Countries, Including G-20 Countries.” November 16. Accessed April 13, 2016. https://www.rt.com/news/322305-isis-financed-40-countries/.
Rudaw. 2016. “PKK Official Says Group Opposes KRG-Turkey Natural Gas Agreement.” February 18. Accessed April 8, 2016. http://rudaw.net/english/kurdistan/180220161.
—. 2016. “Turkey Provides Kurdistan Region with $200 Million Emergency Fund.” March 11. Accessed April 9, 2016. http://rudaw.net/english/business/11032016.
Sabah. 1997. “Bu Kadarına Da Pes.” November 15. Accessed April 3, 2016. http://arsiv.sabah.com.tr/1997/11/15/rix.html. [That’s Enough].
Saglam, Erdal. 2013. “Devletin Yeni Enerji Devi.” Hurriyet. September 15. Accessed April 6, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/devletin-yeni-enerji-devi-2471756. [State’s New Energy Giant].
Sanger, David E., and Julie Hirschfeld Davis. 2014. “Struggling to Starve ISIS of Oil Revenue, US Seeks Assistance From Turkey.” The New York Times. September 13. Accessed April 9, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/14/world/middleeast/ struggling-to-starve-isis-of-oil-revenue-us-seeks-assistance-from-turkey.html?_r=0.
Seal, S. 2014. “Iraqi Kurdistan Clearly Stated It Will Continue Oil Selling Through Turkey.” Iraq Directory. May 28. Accessed April 11, 2016. http://www.iraqdirectory.com/en/ 2014/05/28/27232/iraqi-kurdistan-clearly-stated-it-will-continue-oil-selling-through-turkey.aspx.
Sheppard, David, John Reed, and Anjli Raad. 2015. “Israel Turns to Kurds For Three-Quarters of Its Oil Supplies.” Financial Times. August 24. Accessed April 8, 2016. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/150f00cc-472c-11e5-af2f-4d6e0e5eda22.html#axzz4I5ff0adl.
Solomon, Erica, Robin Kwong, and Steven Bernard. 2016. “Inside ISIS Inc.: The Journey of a Barrel of Oil.” Financial Times. February 29. Accessed April 10, 2016. http://ig.ft.com/sites/2015/isis-oil/.
Sputnik. 2014. “Russia Seeks UN Condemnation of Syrian Oil Sale by Terrorist Groups.” July 1. Accessed April 8, 2016. http://sputniknews.com/voiceofrussia/news/ 2014_07_01/Russia-seeks-UN-condemnation-of-Syrian-oil-sale-by-terrorist-groups-8771/.
Stacey, Kiran, and David Sheppard. 2016. “Genel Shares Plunge After Oilfield Downgrade.” Financial Times. February 29. Accessed February 29, 2016. http://www.ft.com/intl/ cms/s/0/7736ffbc-ded4-11e5-b072-006d8d362ba3.html#axzz43ljNUPJT.
T24. 2015. “Davutoğlu’nun Kızı, Ülker’in Torunu Özokur’dan Boşandı.” May 13. Accessed April 4, 2016. http://t24.com.tr/haber/davutoglunun-kizi-ulkerin-torunu-ozokurdan-bosandi,296508, [Daughter of Davutoglu Divorced From Ozokur, Who is Grandson of Ulker].
Tanis, Tolga. 2015. POTUS ve Beyfendi. March. Dogan Publishing. [POTUS and Gentleman].
The Oil and Gas Year. 2009. “The Who is Who of the Global Energy Industry, Kurdistan Regional of Iraq 2009.”
Tomas, Nuria, and Ana Villellas. 2009. “The Kurdistan Autonomous Region: Risks and Challenges For Peace.” Quaderns de Construccio de Pa. July 8. Accessed March 21, 2016. http://escolapau.uab.cat/img/qcp/kurdistan_risks_peace.pdf.
UB-Holding. 2016. “Iraq Oil and Trading.” Accessed April 6, 2016. http://www.ubholding.com/sectors/energy-oil-trading/.
Varol, Tugce. 2012. “Suriye’nin Kuzeyi mi, Kuzey Suriye mi? “ 21. Yüzyıl Türkiye Enstitüsü. August 17. Accessed March 21, 2016. http://www.21yyte.org/tr/arastirma/enerji-ve-enerji-guvenligi-arastirmalari-merkezi/2012/08/17/6713/suriyenin-kuzeyi-mi-kuzey-suriye-mi. [Is it Northern Syria or North of Syria? 21st Century Turkey Institute].
Vatan. 2012. “Türk Şirketinden Çok Stratejik Bir Satın Alma.” August 21. Accessed March 18, 2016. http://haber.gazetevatan.com/turk-sirketinden-cok-stratejik-bir-satinalma/ 475770/2/Haber. [Turkish Company’s Highly Strategic Purchasing].
Voice of Russia. 2014. “ISIL Militants Export Oil From Field in North of Iraq.” July 5. Accessed April 8, 2016. http://voiceofrussia.com/news/2014_07_05/ISIL-militants-export-oil-from-field-in-north-of-Iraq-3132/.
Wearden, Graeme. 2011. “Tony Hayward in Line For Multimillion Windfall After Iraq Oil Deal.” The Guardian. September 7. Accessed March 24, 2016. http://www.guardian. co.uk/business/2011/sep/07/tony-hayward-windfall-kurdistan.
Western Zagros. 2016. “Kurdistan and Northern Iraq operator Activity Map.” July 28. Accessed August 10, 2016. http://www.westernzagros.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/ 160728_operator_activity_EXTERNAL.pdf.
—. 2014. “Kurdistan and Northern Iraq Operator Activity Map.” November 14. Accessed April 5, 2016. http://www.westernzagros.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/140512_ operator_activity_EXTERNAL.pdf.
Yalcin, Soner. 2015. “Damat Bakan’ın Dayı Oğlu.” Sozcu. December 8. Accessed April 6, 2016. http://www.sozcu.com.tr/2015/yazarlar/soner-yalcin/damat-bakanin-dayi-oglu-1003754/. [Son-in-Law, Minister’s Cousin].
Yavasoglu, Salim. 2014. “İsyancı Örgütler İsrail’e Çalışıyor.” Yenicag. March 26. Accessed April 4, 2016. http://www.yenicaggazetesi.com.tr/isyanci-orgutler-israile-calisiyor-96065h.htm. [Rebellious Organizations Working For Israel].
YeniSafak. 2014. “Iraq: ISIL Selling Oil From Seized Territories For Weapon.” July 2. Accessed April 7, 2016. http://english.yenisafak.com/news/iraq-isil-selling-oil-from-seized-territories-for-weapon-03.07.2014-2306.
—. 2015. “Kurdish Oil: The Truth Behind Aydin Dogan’s HDP Project.” September 5. Accessed April 10, 2015. http://www.yenisafak.com/en/news/kurdish-oil-the-truth-behind-aydin-dogans-hdp-project-2267493.
Yilmaz, Guler. 2014. “Opposition MP Says ISIS is Selling Oil in Turkey.” Al-Monitor. June 13. Accessed April 9, 2016. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/tr/business/2014/06/ turkey-syria-isis-selling-smuggled-oil.html#.
Yilmaz, Serpil. 2013. “Enerji de Ezber Bozan Gelişmeler-1.” HaberTurk. February 1. Accessed April 5, 2016. http://www.haberturk.com/yazarlar/serpil-yilmaz-2155/816357-enerjide-ezber-bozan-gelismeler-1. [Paradigm-Shifting Innovation in Energy 1].
Zaiter, Haifa. 2012. “Is Iraq’s Alliance with Russia a Regional Game Changer?” Al-Monitor. October 12. Accessed March 22, 2016. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/politics/2012/ 10/is-iraq-and-russias-new-alliance-a-regional-game-changer.html.
Zaman, Amberin. 2013. “Can Iraqi Kurds Bank on Turkey?” Al-Monitor. June 19. Accessed April 4, 2016. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/06/zaman-iraqi-kurds-turkey-mosul-kirkuk-isis-krg-barzani.html.
Zebari, Abdel Hamid. 2013. “Erbil Sends Forces to Outskirts of Kirkuk, Enraging Bagdad.” Al-Monitor. April 29. Accessed March 22, 2016. http://www.al-monitor.com/
pulse/originals/2013/04/kurdish-forces-in-kirkuk-enrage-baghdad.html.

Chapter 4:
AA. 2013. “Mavi Hat Davasında Karar.” November 22. Accessed April 15, 2016. http://aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/mavi-hat-davasinda-karar/202449. [Verdict For The Case of Blue Line. Anadolu Agency].
Aksam. 2013. “Azeri Eniştenin Altını Havalimanını Karıştırdı.” January 6. Accessed April 17, 2016. http://www.aksam.com.tr/guncel/azeri-enistenin-altini-havalimanini-karistirdi--158403h/haber-158403. [Azeri Brother-in-law’s Gold Stirred up Trouble in the Airport].
Aktif Haber. 2010. “2 Milyar Dolar Ceza Ödeyeceğiz.” September 23. Accessed April 15, 2016. http://www.aktifhaber.com/2-milyar-dolar-ceza-odeyecegiz-331768h.htm. [Turkey Will Pay Fine of 2 Billion USD. Active News].
Al-Arabiya. 2016. “Arbitration Court Orders Iran to Discount Gas Exports to Turkey.” February 2. Accessed 18 April, 2016. http://english.alarabiya.net/en/business/energy/ 2016/02/02/Arbitration-court-orders-Iran-to-discount-gas-exports-to-Turkey.html.
Aljazeera. 2016. “Iran Now Has $100 Billion of Overseas Assets Unfrozen Under Nuke Deal.” February 1. Accessed February 1, 2016. http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/ 2016/2/1/iran-100-billion-in-overseas-assets-unfrozen-under-nuclear-deal.html.
BBC. 2016. “Iran Billionaire Babak Zanjani Sentenced to Death.” March 6. Accessed March 6, 2016. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-35739377.
BBC Turkce. 2009. “Türkiye-İran Ticaretini Arttırma Sözü.” October 28. Accessed April 14, 2016. http://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler/2009/10/091028_turkey_iran.shtml. [Turkey and Iran Deal to Increase Trade].
Bilgin, Fevzi. 2014. “Turkey Brief: Corruption Scandal and Ensuing Political Crisis.” Rethink Institute, January 3.
Bilici, Abdulhamit. 1996. “İran Eliyle Türkmen Gazı.” Aksiyon. August 17. Accessed April 14, 2016. http://www.aksiyon.com.tr/dunya/iran-eliyle-turkmen-gazi_501698. [Turkman Gas With the Help of Iran. Action].
BP Statistical Review of World Energy. 2016. Accessed August 1, 2016. https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/pdf/energy-economics/statistical-review-2016/bp-statistical-review-of-world-energy-2016-full-report.pdf.
Business HT. 2016. “İran, Türkiye’ye Tahkim Cezasını Nasıl Ödeyecek?” February 13. Accessed April 15, 2016. http://www.businessht.com.tr/guncel/haber/1195000-iran-turkiyeye-tahkim-cezasini-nasil-odeyecek. [How Iran Will Pay The Arbitration Compensation?].
Coskun, Humeyra. 2014. “Turkish Prime Minister Targeted in Second Audio Tape.” Reuters. February 26. Accessed April 26, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-erdogan-idUSBREA1P0ZK20140226.
Coskun, Orhan. 2005. “Turkey Prepares For Arbitration on Iran Gas Price.” Hurriyet Daily News. April 3. Accessed April 14, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-prepares-for-arbitration-on-iran-gas-price.aspx?pageID=438&n=turkey-prepares-for-arbitration-on-iran-gas-price-2005-03-04.
Daily Mail. 2016. “Iran Threatens to Bomb Turkey if US or Israel Attacks Its Nuclear Installations.” November 27. Accessed April 15, 2011. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/ article-2066959/Iran-threatens-bomb-Turkey-U-S-Israel-attack-nuclear-installations.html.
Dilek, Olcay. 2005. “Doğalgazda Rota İran’dan Rusya’ya Çevrilecek.” Sabah. April 20. Accessed April 18, 2016. http://arsiv.sabah.com.tr/2005/04/20/eko115.html. [Shifting Route in Natural Gas From Russia to Iran].
Dundar, Can. 2015. “Bakanlar Yolsuzluğa Yol Verdi... Karım Bile Bilmiyordu.” Cumhuriyet. January 25. Accessed April 18, 2016. http://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/turkiye/ 196689/Bakanlar_yolsuzluga_yol_verdi..._Karim_bile_bilmiyordu.html. [Ministers Gave Way to Corruption… Even My Wife Did Not Know].
DW. 2010. “Güvenlik Konseyi İran’a Yaptırım Kararları Aldı.” June 9. Accessed April 17, 2016. http://www.dw.com/tr/güvenlik-konseyi-irana-yaptırımları-kabul-etti/a-5667458. [Security Council Agreed on Sanctions Against Iran].
EIA. 2015. “Under Sanctions, Iran’s Crude Oil Exports Have Nearly Halved in Three Years.” June 24. Accessed April 14, 2016. https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail. cfm?id=21792.
Ekinci, Arzu Celalifer. 2008. “İran-Türkiye Enerji İşbirliği.” USAK. November. [Energy Cooperation of Iran and Turkey].
Ekinci, Ibrahim. 2014. “Cumhuriyet Tarihinin En Büyük İkinci Teşviğini Alan Turang’ın Perde Arkası.” Dunya. February 10. Accessed April 17, 2016. http://www.dunya.com/ sektorler/enerji/cumhuriyet-tarihinin-en-buyuk-ikinci-tesvigini-alan-turangin-perde-haberi-237344. [Backstage of Turang Who Got the Second Biggest Subsidy in History of Republic. World].
EPDK. 2016. “Doğal Gaz Piyasası Sektör Raporu 2015.” http://www.epdk.org.tr/TR/ Dokumanlar/Dogalgaz/YayinlarRaporlar/Yillik. [Natural Gas Market 2014 Sector Report. EMRA - Energy Market Regulatory Authority].
—. 2016. “Petrol Piyasası Sektör Raporları.” http://www.epdk.gov.tr/TR/Dokumanlar/ Petrol/YayinlarRaporlar/Aylik. [Petroleum Market Sector Reports. EMRA - Energy Market Regulatory Authority].
Flanagan, Stephen J. 2013. “The Turkey-Russia-Iran Nexus: Eurasian Power Dynamics.” The Washington Quarterly 36 (1): 163-178.
Gordon, Micheal R., and David E. Sanger. 2015. “Deal Reached on Iran Nuclear Program; Limits on Fuel Would Lessen With Time.” The New York Times. July 14. Accessed April 17, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/15/world/middleeast/iran-nuclear-deal-is-reached-after-long-negotiations.html.
Habibi, Nader. 2012. “Turkey and Iran: Growing Economic Relations Despite Western Sanctions.” Brandeis University. Crown Center for Middle East Studies, May.
Hacioglu, Nerdun. 2010. “İstanbul’dan Moskova’ya 4 Bavul Dolar ve Euro.” Hurriyet. December 21. Accessed April 16, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/istanbul-dan-moskova-ya-4-bavul-dolar-ve-euro-16583179. [4 Suitcases of Dollars and Euros From Istanbul to Moscow].
Hill, Fiona. 2004. “Caspian Conundrum: Pipelines and Energy Networks.” In The Future of Turkish Foreign Policy, by Lenore G. Martin and Dmitris Keridis, 211-242. MIT Press.
Hurriyet Daily News. 2016. “Turkey Wins Gas Price Row Against Iran in Court.” February 2. Accessed April 15, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-wins-gas-price-row-against-iran-in-court.aspx?pageID=238&nID=94643&NewsCatID=348.
—. 2011. “Turks to Install NATO Radar.” September 2. Accessed April 17, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/default.aspx?pageid=438&n=turks-to-install-nato-radar-2011-09-02.
Hurriyet. 2015. “Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan’dan İran’a Doğalgaz Sitemi.” April 7. Accessed April 18, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/cumhurbaskani-erdogandan-irana-dogalgaz-sitemi-28665145. [Reproach of Natural Gas From President Erdogan to Iran].
IHA. 2008. “İran, Türkiye’ye Doğalgazı Tamamen Kesti.” January 7. Accessed April 15, 2016. http://www.iha.com.tr/haber-iran-turkiyeye-dogalgazi-tamamen-kesti-8761/. [Iran Totally Cut the Flow of Gas to Turkey. Ihlas News Agency].
Indictment of United States District Court Southern District of New York, United States Attorney Preet Bharara. 2016. 15 CRIM 867. March 21. Accessed March 22, 2016. https://www.justice.gov/opa/file/834146/download.
Iran Focus. 2008. “Iran, Turkey Signs Gas Deal.” November 18. Accessed April 22, 2016. http://www.iranfocus.com/en/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=16697:iran-turkey-sign-gas-deal&catid=4&Itemid=109.
IRNA. 2015. “Iran-Iraq Sign 6 Year Deal.” November 12. Accessed April 18, 2016. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/81836203/.
Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2012. “US-Israel Arrow Completes Successful Test.” February 12. Accessed April 18, 2016. http://mfa.gov.il/MFA/PressRoom/2012/Pages/ Arrow_successful_test_10-Feb-2012.aspx.
Kalehsar, Omid Shokri. 2015. “Energy Factor in Iran Turkey Relations.” Energy & Environment 26 (5): 777-287.
Kandemir, Asli. 2013. “Exclusive: Turkey to Iran Gold Trade Wiped out by New US Sanction.” Reuters. February 15. Accessed April 15, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/ article/us-iran-turkey-sanctions-idUSBRE91E0IN20130215.
Karakoc, Abdullah. 2009. “Turkey’s Relations With Iran and the United States: A Shift in Alignment?” March. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School.
Kaya, Karen. 2012. “Turkey-Iran Relations After The Arab Spring.” Foreign Military Service of the US Army. September 2. http://fmso.leavenworth.army.mil/documents/Turkey-Iran.pdf.
Kazman, Kenneth. 2016. “Iran Sanctions.” CRS Report 7-5700. RS20871. May 18.
Kinnander, Elin. 2010. “The Turkish-Iranian Gas Relationship: Politically Successful, Commercially Problematic.” Oxford Energy Institute. NG 38. January.
Kohen, Sami. 2008. “Türkiye Arabulucu Olabilir mi?” Milliyet. November 15. Accessed April 16, 2016. http://www.milliyet.com.tr/abd-iran-hattinda---/sami-kohen/dunya/ dunyayazardetay/15.11.2008/1016395/default.htm. [Can Turkey be Mediator?].
Korcan, Ufuk. 2012. “İran’a Giden Altınlarda Hindistan’ın da Parası Var.” Vatan. November 24. Accessed April 16, 2016. http://www.gazetevatan.com/ufuk-korcan-498526-yazar-yazisi-iran-a-giden-altinlarda-hindistan-in-da-parasi-var/. [The Gold Goes to Iran is also India’s Money].
Kredo, Adam. 2013. “Unsanctioned Investments – US Institutions Hold Shares of Turkish Bank Engaged in Gold-for-oil Trades.” The Washington Free Beacon. February 19. Accessed April 15, 2016. http://freebeacon.com/national-security/unsanctioned-investments/.
MEES. 2012. “Cyprus-Lebanon, Cyprus-Israel Offshore Delimitation.” October 1. Accessed April 18, 2016. http://www.mees.com/en/articles/6015-cyprus-lebanon-cyprus-israel-ofshore-delimitation.
Milliyet. 2010. “İran Anlaşmaları Erdoğan’ın Arkadaşlarına Yarıyor.” November 30. http://www.milliyet.com.tr/iran-anlasmalari-erdogan-in-arkadaslarina-yariyor/guncel/gundemdetay/01.12.2010/1320612/default.htm. [Deals With Iran Benefit PM Erdogan’s Friends].
Milliyet. 2012. “Yıldız: İran’a Gaz Karşılığı Patates de Verebiliriz.” December 6. Accessed April 15, 2016. http://www.milliyet.com.tr/yildiz-iran-a-gaz-karsiligi-patates-de-verebiliriz-/ekonomi/ekonomidetay/06.12.2012/1637852/default.htm. [Yildiz: We Can Barter Potatoes to Iran in Exchange of Gas].
Minin, Dmitry. 2013. “The Geopolitics of Gas and the Syrian Crisis: Syrian ‘Opposition’ Armed to Thwart Construction of Iran-Iraq-Syria Gas Pipeline.” Global Research. May 31. Accessed April 18, 2016. http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-geopolitics-of-gas-and-the-syrian-crisis-syrian-opposition-armed-to-thwart-construction-of-iran-iraq-syria-gas-pipeline/5337452.
Muller, Hendrik. 2014. “Turkey’s December 17 Process: A Timeline of the Graft Investigation and the Government’s Response.” Central Asia-Caucasus Institute - Silk Road Studies Paper.
Nuland, Victoria. 2012. “Daily Press Briefing.” The United States Department of State. November 28. Accessed April 17, 2016. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/dpb/ 2012/11/201168.htm#TURKEY.
NY Daily News. 2013. “Turkey Police Find Shoeboxes Stuffed with $4,5 Million Cash in Bank Chief’s Home: Report.” December 18. Accessed April 22, 2016. http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/turkey-police-find-shoeboxes-stuffed-4-5-million-cash-bank-chief-home-report-article-1.1552272.
O’Byrne, David. 2013. “TANAP Tender: The Gas Pipeline to Europe, Eventually.” Financial Times. August 6. Accessed April 24, 2016. http://blogs.ft.com/beyond-brics/2013/08/06/ tanap-tender-the-gas-pipeline-to-europe-eventually/.
Okumus, Olgu. 2013. “Some Reasons to Materialize Iran, Iraq, and Syria’s Gas Pipeline.” Naturalgas Europe. February 11. Accessed April 18, 2016. http://www.naturalgaseurope. com/iran-iraq-and-syria-gas-pipeline.
—. 2014. “Why is Turkey Buying More Gas Than It Needs From Iran?” Al-Monitor. February 28. Accessed April 19, 2016. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/pt/contents/ articles/originals/2014/02/turkey-iran-gas-import-consumption-erdogan-price.html.
Olson, Robert. 2004. Turkish-Iran Relations 1979-2004 Revolution, Ideology, War, Coups and Geopolitics. California: Mazda Publishers.
Ozcan, Nihat Ali, and Ozgur Ozdamar. 2010. “Uneasy Neighbors: Turkish-Iranian Relations Since the 1979 Islamic Revolution.” Middle East Policy Council. 17 (3). http://www.mepc.org/journal/middle-east-policy-archives/uneasy-neighbors?print.
Patronlar Dunyasi. 2010. “Şok! İran’a 1.3 Milyar Dolar Ceza Ödendi.” May 4. Accessed April 15, 2016. http://www.patronlardunyasi.com/haber/Sok-Iran-a-1-3-milyar-dolar-ceza-odendi-/83134. [Shock! 1.3 Billion USD Fine Paid to Iran. World of Bosses].
—. 2015. “İran’ın Pahalı Gazından Milyarlarca Dolarlık Zarar.” June 3. Accessed April 15, 2016. http://m.patronlardunyasi.com/haber/Iran-in-pahali-gazindan-milyarlarca-dolarlik-zarar/169494. [Billions USD Loss From Iranian Expensive Gas. World of Bosses].
Press Conference of President of CHP (Republican People’s Party – Main Opposition Party). 2014. June 23. Accessed April 19, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=zeLDRIgCqWg.
Rafizadeh, Majid. 2015. “Iran, US, Obama, P5+1: Nuclear Deal, Win Win Deal?” Huffington Post. July 14. Accessed April 24, 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/majid-rafizadeh/iran-us-obama-p51-nuclear_b_7797534.html.
Sabah. 2004. “İran, Türkiye’ye Doğalgazı Kesti.” December 21. Accessed April 14, 2016. http://arsiv.sabah.com.tr/2004/12/21/eko120.html. [Iran Cut the Gas Flowing to Turkey].
—. 2009. “İran’la Doğal Gaz Anlaşması.” October 29. Accessed April 17, 2016. http://www.sabah.com.tr/ekonomi/2009/10/29/iranla_dogalgaz_anlasmasi. [Natural Gas Deal With Iran].
Sariaslan, Fatma. 2007. “2000’li Yıllarda Türkiye-İran Ekonomik İlişkileri.” Akademik Orta Dogu. 15: 65-92. [The Economic Relations Between Turkey and Iran in the 2000s. Academic Middle East].
Shiriyev, Zaur. 2014. “Options For Delivering Iranian Gas to Europe Via Turkey.” CCEE Policy Brief. May.
Siyaset Café. 2015. “Türkiye’deki İranlı Şirket Sayısı Patladı.” March 19. Accessed April 14, 2016. http://www.siyasetcafe.com/Ekonomi-Haberleri/10932-turkiyedeki-iranli-sirket-sayisi-patladi. [Number of Iranian Companies Boomed in Turkey. Cafe Politics].
Sozcu. 2016. “Rıza Sarraf Tüm Mal Varlığını Satıyor.” March 10. Accessed April 18, 2016. http://www.sozcu.com.tr/2016/gundem/riza-sarraf-icin-flas-iddia-1130832/. [Riza Sarraf Sells All His Assets].
Talbott, Valeria. 2013. “Turkey and Iran: Resetting Relations?” ISPI. No.224. December 4.
Tanchum, Micha’el. 2015. “A Post-Sanctions Iran and the Eurasian Energy Architecture.” Atlantic Council. September 5.
The Daily Star Lebanon. 2011. “Syria Announces Discovery of New Gas Field Near Homs.” August 17. Accessed April 18, 2016. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/Business/Middle-East/2011/Aug-17/Syria-announces-discovery-of-new-gas-field-near-Homs.ashx#axzz2aWohw1Qd.
The Guardian. 2011. “Turkey to Site NATO Missile Shield Radar in its South-East.” September 14. Accessed April 17, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/ sep/14/turkey-nato-missile-shield-radar.
The United States Department of Justice. 2016. “Turkish National Arrested for Conspiring to Evade US Sanctions Against Iran, Money Laundering and Bank Fraud.” March 21. Accessed March 22, 2016. https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/turkish-national-arrested-conspiring-evade-us-sanctions-against-iran-money-laundering-and.
The World Bank. 2016. “Iran – Overview.” April 1. Accessed April 26, 2016. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/iran/overview.
Trans Adriatic Pipeline. 2016. “TAP at a Glance.” Accessed April 22, 2016. http://www.tap-ag.com/the-pipeline.
TUIK. 2016. Accessed October 2, 2016. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/Start.do;jsessionid=2mh KXGlWx5Zhq8z0Hy3b2STngpJH6DthCQGLsv4gMcb2DCDSZpCh!-1519628609. [Turkish Statistical Institute].
Turang Transit. Accessed April 21, 2016. http://en.turangtransit.com.tr.
Turkiye Cumhuriyeti Dısisleri Bakanligi. 2010. “17 Mayıs 2010 Tarihli Türkiye, İran ve Brezilya Dışişleri Bakanları Ortak Deklarasyonu.” May 17. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/17-mayis-2010-tarihli-turkiye_-iran-brezilya-disisleri-bakanlari-ortak-deklarasyonu.tr.mfa. [Joint Declaration of Turkey, Iran, and Brazil on May 17, 2010. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs].
Turkiye Gazetesi. 2014. “Ankara’dan Yeni Hamle! Gazda %32 İndirim İstedik.” March 13. Accessed April 14, 2016. http://www.turkiyegazetesi.com.tr/ekonomi/140743.aspx. [New Move of Ankara! Requested 32% Discount of Gas Price. Turkey Newspaper].
Uludag, Nihat. 2011. “Bir Valizde 30 Milyon TL.” HaberTurk. April 10. Accessed April 17, 2016. http://www.haberturk.com/yasam/haber/619318-bir-valizde-30-milyon-tl. [30 Million TL in a Suitcase].
UPI. 2012. “US Brushes Off Iran-Iraq-Syria Gas Line.” November 20. Accessed April 18, 2016. http://www.upi.com/Business_News/Energy-Resources/2012/11/20/US-brushes-off-Iran-Iraq-Syria-gas-line/UPI-36621353414380/.
Vatan. 2012. “Türkiye Bir Karar Vermelidir.” March 29. Accessed April 15, 2016. http://www.gazetevatan.com/-turkiye-bir-karar-vermelidir---439902-gundem/. [Turkey Should Decide].
YNet News. 2011. “Iran: NATO Radar in Turkey Serves to Protect Israel.” May 10. Accessed April 15, 2016. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4131330,00.html.
Zahra-Malik, Mehreen. 2016. “Iran’s Rouhani Says Can Provide Pakistan Gas Through Pipeline Within Months.” Reuters. March 26. Accessed March 26, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-pakistan-iran-pipeline-idUSKCN0WS0LA.

Chapter 5:
Agaoglu, Ali. 2013. “G. Kıbrıs: İşaret Fişeği.” Vatan. March 17. Accessed April 25, 2016. http://www.gazetevatan.com/ali-agaoglu-522747-yazar-yazisi-g--kibris--isaret-fisegi-/. [Cyprus: Signal Flare].
Agayev, Zulfugar. 2011. “Azerbaijan May Delay Gas to Syria On Unrest, APA Says.” Bloomberg. May 23. Accessed May 7, 2016. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-05-23/azerbaijan-may-delay-gas-deliveries-to-syria-on-unrest-apa-says.html.
Ahmed, Nafeez. 2014. “IDF’s Gaza Assault is to Control Palestinian Gas, Avert Israeli Energy Crisis.” The Guardian. July 9. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://www.theguardian. com/environment/earth-insight/2014/jul/09/israel-war-gaza-palestine-natural-gas-energy-crisis.
Ahren, Raphael. 2010. “Lapid Quoted Bogus Saudi Pro-Israel Statement As Fact.” The Times of Israel. September 10. Accessed May 5, 2016. http://www.timesofisrael.com/lapid-quoted-bogus-saudi-pro-israel-statement-as-fact/.
Akgun, Mensur, and Sabiha Senyuzel Gundogdu. 2014. “Mısır-Türkiye İlişkilerinde Daha İyi Bir Geleceğe Doğru.” TESEV. January. http://tesev.org.tr/wpcontent/uploads/2015/ 11/M%C4%B1s%C4%B1rTurkiye_Iliskilerinde_Daha_Iyi_Bir_Gelecege_Dogru.pdf. [Towards a Better Future in Egypt-Turkey Relations. TESEV].
Akhundov, A. 2011. “Syrian Section of Kilis-Aleppo Gas Pipeline Nearly Complete.” Trend Agency News. January 25. Accessed May 6, 2016. http://www.downstreamtoday.com/ News/ArticlePrint.aspx?aid=25434.
Al-Araby. 2015. “Raqqa’s Rockefellers: How Islamic State Oil Flow to Israel.” November 26. Accessed May 8, 2016. http://www.alaraby.co.uk/english/features/2015/11/26/raqqas-rockefellers-how-islamic-state-oil-flows-to-israel/#sthash.CeUfsSCe.dpuf.
Alic, Jen. 2013. “Cypriot Bailout Linked to Gas Potential.” Oil Price. March 21. Accessed April 28, 2016. http://oilprice.com/Energy/Natural-Gas/Cypriot-Bailout-Linked-to-Gas-Potential.html.
Al-Jazeera. 2012. “Cyprus Asks EU For Financial Bailout.” June 25. Accessed April 22, 2016. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/europe/2012/06/201262517189248721.html.
—. 2011. “Timeline: Egypt’s Revolution.” February 14. Accessed May 6, 2016. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/01/201112515334871490.html.
Alray. 2014. “Government Rebukes PA Agreeing to buy Natural Gas From Israel.” January 6. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://alray.ps/en/index.php?act=post&id=2887#.V-FyDWX MyZw.
Ambellos, Shepard. 2013. “Syrian ‘Oil Positions’ – Murdoch&Rothschild Posses Christal Ball.” Intellihub. August 30. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://intellihub.com/2013/08/30/ syrian-oil-positions-murdoch-rothschild-possess-crystal-ball/.
AWD News. 2016. “Rome’s Police Spokesman: Saudi Embassy Helped Erdogan’s Son to Escape the Police Custody; Using a Forged Saudi Passport and Disguised as an Arab Diplomat.” March 7. Accessed March 7, 2016. http://awdnews.com/top-news/rome’s-police-spokesman-saudi-embassy-helped-erdoğan’s-son-to-escape-the-police-custody-using-a-forged-saudi-passport-and-disguised-as-an-arab-diplomat.
Ayhan, Veysel. 2009. “A New Period in Turkey-Syria Relation: High Level Strategic Cooperation Council.” ORSAM-Ortadogu Analiz 1 (11): 26-34.
Azer News. 2015. “SOCAR Can Complete DESFA Privatization in 1H 2016.” December 10. Accessed May 1, 2016. http://www.azernews.az/oil_and_gas/90694.html.
Barkat, Amiram. 2013. “Turkish Co Proposes Leviathan Pipeline.” Globes. September 12. Accessed May 3, 2016. http://www.globes.co.il/serveen/globes/docview.asp?did=1000 879065.
Baron, Lior, and Merav Ankori. 2009. “Israeli Firms in Turkey Border Mine Clearing Bids.” Globes. February 6. Accessed May 6, 2016. http://www.globes.co.il/en/article-1000454876.
Baseren, Sertac. 2008. “Doğu Akdeniz Sorunu ve KKTC’ne Etkileri.” Baskent University. Panel. January. [Conflict of Eastern Mediterranean and Its Impact on TRNC].
BBC. 2006. “Italy Police ‘Break Terror Cell.” October 2. Accessed May 5, 2016. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5399894.stm.
Berber, Mehmet Ali. 2015. “Qatar Ready to Provide in any Amount of Gas Turkey Needs.” Daily Sabah. December 4. Accessed May 8, 2016. http://www.dailysabah.com/energy/ 2015/12/05/qatar-ready-to-provide-in-any-amount-of-gas-turkey-needs.
Blanchard, Christopher M., Carlo E. Humud, and Mary Beth D. Nikitin. 2014. “Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and US Response.” Congressional Research Service. RL 33487. September 17.
BOTAS. 2016. “Doğal Gaz ve Petrol Boru Hatları.”“Accessed May 9, 2016. http://www.botas.gov.tr/images/maps/DgHpbhT_full.png. [Natural Gas and Oil Pipelines].
BP Statistical Review of World Energy. 2016. June. Accessed June 21, 2016. https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/pdf/energy-economics/statistical-review-2016/bp-statistical-review-of-world-energy-2016-full-report.pdf.
Buluc, Ahmet Zeki. 2008. “Doğu Akdeniz’de Son Gelişmeler, KKTC ve Türkiye.” BİLAY Çalışma Konferansları - Mülkiyeliler Birliği. June 18. [Latest Developments in Eastern Mediterranean, TRNC and Turkey. BILAY Workshop Conferences].
Burgess, James. 2013. “Israel to Invest in navy to Protect Giant Natural Gas Fields.” Oil Price. April 1. Accessed May 3, 2016. http://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Israel-to-Invest-in-Navy-to-Protect-Giant-Natural-Gas-Fields.html.
Caglar, Baris. 2012. “Turkey’s Syrian Policy: A Neo-Classical Realist Outlook.” ORSAM-Ortadogu Analiz (4): 39-52.
Canbolat, Recep. 2016. “Ahmet Burak Erdoğan’a Ait M/V SAKARYA İsimli Kuruyük Gemisi Rusya’da 5 Gün Alıkondu.” Deniz Haber. March 18. Accessed March 18, 2016. http://www.denizhaber.com.tr/ahmet-burak-erdogana-ait-mv-sakarya-isimli-kuruyuk-gemisi-rusyada-5-gun-alikondu-haber-67131.htm. [Ahmet Burak Erdogan’s M/V Sakarya Bulk Carrier Detained in Russia for Five Days. Sea News].
—. 2015. “Bilal Erdoğan’ın Yemi Gemileri M/T Armada Fair ile M/T Yardımcı 81, Sessiz Sedasız Denize İndirildi.” Deniz Haber. September 15. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://www.denizhaber.com.tr/bilal-erdoganin-yeni-gemileri-mt-armada-fair-ile-mt-yardimci-81-sessiz-sedasiz-d-haber-63927.htm. [Bilal’s New Ships of M/T Armada Fair and M/T Yardimci 81 Quietly Launched to Sea. Sea News].
Canpolat, Recep. 2015. “Alman Basınından Bilal Erdoğan’a Ağır Suçlama.” Deniz Haber. December 2. Accessed May 5, 2016. http://www.denizhaber.com.tr/alman-basinindan-bilal-erdogana-agir-suclama-haber-65228.htm. [Serious Accusations from German Media to Bilal Erdogan].
Chandler, Adam. 2015. “Report: Israel Strikes Targets in Syria...Again.” The Atlantic. November 11. Accessed May 5, 2016. http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/ 2015/11/report-israel-strikes-target-in-syria/415446/.
Chulov, Martin. 2016. “Iraqi Kurdistan President: Time Has Come to Redraw Middle East Boundaries.” The Guardian. January 22. Accessed May 8, 2016. https://www.the guardian.com/world/2016/jan/22/kurdish-independence-closer-than-ever-says-massoud-barzani.
Cohen, Hedy. 2015. “Leviathan Partners and BG Close to $30B Egypt Gas Deal.” Globes. December 17. Accessed May 5, 2016. http://www.globes.co.il/en/article-leviathan-partners-and-bg-close-to-egypt-gas-deal-1001091350.
—. 2016. “Shell’s Shareholders Have Approved Buying BG, Probably Ending the Leviathan Partner’s Hopes of Selling Gas to Egypt.” Globes. January 27. Accessed January 27, 2016. http://www.globes.co.il/en/article-shells-bg-buy-could-end-leviathan-egyptian-deal-1001098715.
Coles, Isabel. 2016. “Iraqi Kurdish Leader Calls For Non-Binding Independence Referendum.” Reuters. February 2. Accessed May 8, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/ article/us-iraq-kurds-idUSKCN0VB2EY.
Day, Micheal. 2016. “Bilal Erdogan: Italy Named Turkish President’s Son in Money Laundering Investigation Allegedly Connected to Political Corruption.” Independent. February 17. Accessed February 17, 2016. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/ europe/bilal-erdogan-italy-investigates-turkish-presidents-son-over-money-laundering-allegedly-connected-to-a6879871.html.
Demetriades, Panicos. 2012. “Cyprus Financial Crisis: The Framework for an Economic Recovery Within the Eurozone.” Central Bank of Cyprus. December 11. Accessed April 22, 2016. http://www.centralbank.gov.cy/nqcontent.cfm?a_id=13457&lang=en.
Deniz Haber Ajansi. 2015. “Deniz Haber Ajansı, Alman Basının İddialarını Belgelerle Çürüttü.” Accessed May 5, 2016. http://denizhaber.tv/v/1BmMbVwnh9F. [Sea News Agency Falsified German Media’s Claims with Documents. Sea News Agency].
Domain Big Data. Accessed September 21, 2016. http://domainbigdata.com/hotmail.com/ email-id/4nZOg-R5gfjICjiAQwFMpuL-ZAXqnA4Q62osMzjgyBo.
Durden, Tyler. 2015. “Israel Oil Trade Full Frontal: ‘Raqqa’s Rockefellers’, Bilal Erdogan, KRG Crude, And the Israeli Connection.” Zero Hedge. November 29. Accessed May 5, 2016. http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2015-11-28/isis-oil-trade-full-frontal-raqqas-rockefellers-bilal-erdogan-krg-crude-and-israel-c.
Ekathimerini. 2013. “Cyprus Finance Minister Sarris on His Way Out.” March 19. Accessed April 22, 2016. http://www.ekathimerini.com/149466/article/ekathimerini/news/cyprus-finance-minister-sarris-on-his-way-out-update.
Ekurd Daily. 2016. “Iraqi Kurdistan Begins Work to Extend a Pipeline to Transport Kirkuk Gas to Turkey: Source.” January 8. Accessed January 8, 2016. http://ekurd.net/work-kirkuk-gas-pipeline-turkey-2016-01-08.
Ener English. 2013. “Turkey Ready to Push For Permanent Partition of Cyprus.” March 28. Accessed April 23, 2016. http://www.enetenglish.gr/?i=news.en.article&id=455.
Enerji Gunlugu. 2015. “Kürt Gazını Getirecek Boru Hattı İhaleye Çıktı.” December 28. Accessed May 9, 2016. http://enerjigunlugu.net/kurt-gazini-getirecek-boru-hatti-ihaleye-cikti_16615.html#.VpbRV4T4F4s. [Tender Started for the Pipeline Carries Kurdish Gas].
ENI. 2013. “ENI Awarded Three Offshore Exploration Blocks in the Republic of Cyprus.” January 24. Accessed May 2, 2016. http://www.eni.com/en_IT/media/press-releases/2013/01/2013-01-24-Eni-Cipro.shtml.
Entous, Adam, and Joe Parkinson. 2013. “Turkey’s Spymaster Plots Own Course in Syria.” Wall Street Journal. October 10. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://www.wsj.com/articles/ SB10001424052702303643304579107373585228330.
EPDK. 2015. “Doğal Gaz Piyasası Sektör Raporu 2015.” http://www.epdk.org.tr/TR/ Dokumanlar/Dogalgaz/YayinlarRaporlar/Yillik. [Natural Gas Market 2014 Sector Report. EMRA - Energy Market Regulatory Authority].
Eran, Oded, Dan Vardi, and Itamar Cohen. 2014. “Political Feasibility of Israeli Natural Gas Exports to Turkey.” INSS – Memorandum. November. 144.
Erdil, Merve. 2013. “Ada’da Çözüm Olmadan İsrail Gazını Unutun.” Hurriyet. October 16. Accessed May 3, 2016. http://hurarsiv.hurriyet.com.tr/goster/ShowNew.aspx?id= 24918579. [Forget Israel Gas Without a Solution on the Island].
—. 2013. “Devlere Geri Adım Attıran Mektup.” Hurriyet. February 13. Accessed April 27, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/devlere-geri-adim-attiran-mektup-22584087. [Letter Forced Giants to Pull Back].
—. 2014. “Kürt Petrolü İsrail’de Depolanıyor.” Hurriyet. November 4. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/kurt-petrolu-israil-de-depolaniyor-27502161. [Kurdish Oil Stored in Israel].
Ergan, Ugur. 2015. “Türkiye, Mısır’a 2 Yıl Sonra İlk Resmi Temasını Gerçekleştirdi.” Hurriyet. November 9. Accessed May 6, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/turkiye-misirla-2-yil-sonra-ilk-resmi-temasini-gerceklestirdi-40011994. [Turkey’s Official Visit to Egypt After Two Years].
EUD. 2013. “Kürt Gazı Cari Açığı 5 Milyar Düşürecek.” December 13. Accessed May 8, 2016. http://www.eud.org.tr/TR/Genel/BelgeGoster.aspx?F6E10F8892433CFF71BE64 510F6C8BC98D588401D144147C. [Kurdish Gas Will Decrease Budget Deficit 5 Billion].
Ferziger, Jonathan and Nadeem Hamid. 2014. “Maliki Resigns as Prime Minister to Make Way For Abadi.” Bloomberg. August 15. Accessed May 8, 2016. http://www. bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-08-14/iraq-s-maliki-resigns-agrees-to-back-nominee-iraqiya-tv-says.
Gercek Gundem. 2008. “Ahmet Çalık İsrail Yolunda.” November 8. Accessed May 3, 2016. http://arsiv.gercekgundem.com/?p=160940. [Ahmet Calik on the way to Israel].
Globes. 2013. “Turkey Co Proposes Leviathan Pipeline.” September 12. Accessed May 3, 2016. http://www.globes.co.il/en/article-1000879065.
Gold News. 2016. “BG Signs Block 12 Deal.” January 28. Accessed May 3, 2016. http://www.goldnews.com.cy/en/economy/bg-group-signs-block-12-deal.
Gulenc, Erhan. 2005. “Doğalgaz İhalesini Kazanan Kolin, Limak ve Türkerler İnşaat İddialı.” Yeni Asir. February 13. Accessed May 9, 2016. http://ya2005.yeniasir.com.tr/ 02/13/index.php3?bolum=gunluk&kat=ana&sayfa=ilks1. [Tender Winners of Kolin, Limak and Turkerler are Assertive].
Gundem Kibris. 2012. “Halk Eğitim Merkezlerindeki Öğretmenler Maaş Alamadı.” November 17. Accessed April 27, 2016. http://www.gundemkibris.com/halk-egitim-merkezlerindeki-ogretmenler-maas-alamadi-44534h.htm. [Teachers in the Public Education Centers Not Received Salaries].
Gurgen, Murat. 2011. “5 Soruda Akdeniz Krizi.” Haber Turk. September 21. Accessed April 27, 2016. http://www.haberturk.com/dunya/haber/671515-bes-soruda-akdeniz-krizi. [Mediterranean Crisis in 5 Questions].
Haber Turk. 2012. “Kuzey Suriye Değil, Suriye’nin Kuzeyi.” August 12. Accessed May 6, 2016. http://www.haberturk.com/polemik/haber/767454-kuzey-suriye-degil-suriyenin-kuzeyi. [Not Northern Syria, Syria’s North].
Hafezi, Parisa. 2016. “Iran Deploys Russian-Made S-300 Missiles at Its Fordow Nuclear Site: TV.” Reuters. August 29. Accessed August 29, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-iran-missiles-fordow-idUSKCN1140YD.
Henderson, Simon. 2012. “Energy Discoveries in the Eastern Mediterranean: Source or Cooperation For Fuel For Tension? The Case of Israel.” GMF Policy Brief. June.
Howarth, Nigel. 2011. “Natural Gas Find Offshore Cyprus Worth Tens of Billions.” Cyprus Property News. December 29. Accessed April 27, 2016. http://www.news.cyprus-property-buyers.com/2011/12/29/natural-gas-find-offshore-cyprus-worth-tens-of-billions/id=0010252.
Hurriyet Daily News. 2004. “Erdogan Honored With Medal of Courage of AJC.” January 28. Accessed May 6, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/erdogan-honored-with-medal-of-courage-by-ajc.aspx?pageID=438&n=erdogan-honored-with-medal-of-courage-by-ajc-2004-01-28.
—. 2016. “Greek Cypriot Side Launches New Round of Gas Exploration.” March 25. Accessed March 25, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/greek-cypriot-side-launches--new-round-of-gas-exploration-.aspx?pageID=238&nID=96936&NewsCat ID=348.
—. 2013. “Turkey Admits Export of Rifles to Syria For Sports.” December 17. Accessed May 6, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-admits-export-of-rifles-to-syria-for-sports.aspx?pageID=238&nID=59712&NewsCatID=338.
—. 2015. “Turkey to Raise Gas Storage Capacity by 4 bcm: Minister.” October 16. Accessed May 9, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-to-raise-gas-storage-capacity-by-4-bcm-minister.aspx?pageID=238&nID=89963&NewsCatID=348.
—. 2016. “Turkey, Israel Reach Deal to Normalize Ties: Israeli Official.” June 26. Accessed June 26, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-israel-reach-deal-to-normalize-ties-israeli-official.aspx?PageID=238&NID=100938&NewsCatID=510.
Hurriyet. 2016. “Başbakan'ın Oğlu Armatör Oldu.” March 20. Accessed May 4, 2007. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/basbakanin-oglu-armator-oldu-6161808. [PM’s Son Became Ship Owner].
—. 2012. “Erdoğan’dan Önemli Mesajlar.” September 5. Accessed May 6, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/erdogandan-onemli-mesajlar-21386210. [Important Messages From Erdogan].
—. 2002. “Erdogan: AKP’nin Kıbrıs Politikası Farklı.” December 17. Accessed April
27, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/erdogan-akpnin-kibris-politikasi-farkli-116210. [Erdogan: AKP’s Cyprus Policy is Different].
Hydocarbons-Technology. 2016. “Arab Gas Pipeline (AGP), Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt.” Last modified in 2016. http://www.hydrocarbons-technology.com/projects/arab-gas-pipeline-agp/.
Inat, Kemal. 2005. “Türkiye’nin Kıbrıs Politikasının Dönüşümü.” Bilgi. 11 (2): 43-65. [Transformation of Turkey’s Cyprus Policy. Information. 11 (2): 43-65].
Jenkins, Brian Micheal. 2014. “The Dynamics of Syria’s Civil War.” RAND. PE-115.
Jones, Sophia, and Ryan Grim. 2014. “Turkey Would Support Iraqi Kurds’ Bid For Self-Rule, Spokesman Says in Historic Remark.” Huffington Post. June 17. Accessed May 8, 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/06/17/turkey-kurdistan_n_5504309.html.
Kart, Emine. 2015. “Israel’s Top Diplomat Signing Turkey’s New Foreign Minister’s Praises.” Hurriyet Daily News. September 2. Accessed May 8, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/israels-top-diplomat-singing-turkeys-new-fms-praises.aspx?PageID=238&NID=87858&NewsCatID=352.
Lakshmi, Aiswarya. 2016. “Cyprus LNG Terminal Non-Starter?” Marine Link. April 21. Accessed April 21, 2016. http://www.marinelink.com/news/nonstarter-terminal408479.
Loga, Ross. 2016. “Shock Claim: Leaks Show Turkish Government is Turning a Blind Eye to ISIS Operations.” Express. May 14. Accessed May 14, 2016. http://www.express.co.uk/ news/world/670307/Turkish-government-turning-blind-eye-ISIS.
Mackey, Peg, Lin Nouihed, and Julia Payne. 2014. “Iraq Says Syria Was Spillover Hinders Oilfields, Pipelines.” Reuters. January 28. Accessed May 8, 2016. http://www.reuters.c om/article/2014/01/28/us-iraq-oil-production-idUSBREA0R0QG20140128.
Milliyet. 2015. “Rus Gazına Alternatif Kürt Gazı Geliyor.” November 27. Accessed May 9, 2016. http://www.milliyet.com.tr/rus-gazina-alternatif-kurt-gazi/ekonomi/detay/2154575/ default.htm. [Kurdish Gas is coming as an Alternative to Russian Gas].
Moussa, Helmi. 2014. “Russia Preparing to Develop Gazza Gas Field.” Al-Monitor. January 24. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/tr/business/2014/01/russia-palestine-offshore-gas-field-gaza.html#.
Munyar, Vahap. 2016. “HDP’lilere Dokunulmazlığı Kaldırma Mesajı: Anayasal Suç.” Hurriyet. January 1. Accessed January 1, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/
hdplilere-dokunulmazligi-kaldirma-mesaji-anayasal-suc-40034646. [Message of Lifting Immunities to HPD Deputies: Constitutional Crime].
Murray, Craig. 2013. “Israel Has Granted Oil Exploration Rights Inside Syria, in the Occupied Golan Heights.” Global Research. August 26. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://www.globalresearch.ca/israel-has-granted-oil-exploration-rights-inside-syria-in-the-occupied-golan-heights/5346959.
Muslim Press. Accessed May 5, 2016. http://muslimpress.com.
NTV. 2012. “Davutoğlu, Esad’a Ömür Biçti.” August 24. Accessed May 6, 2016. http://www.ntv.com.tr/turkiye/davutoglu-esada-omur-bicti,Nsez_e7zmEO7uz5O9Pv6hw. [Davutoglu Gives Assad to Live].
Offshore Technology. 2012. “Focus on Palestine: Offshore Gas Projects in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.” October 4. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://www.offshore-technology.com/features/featurepalestine-offshore-gas-projects-mediterranean-sea.
Pala, Esat. 2003. “AB'ye Endeksli Kıbrıs Politikası.” Hurriyet. December 11. Accessed April 27, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/abye-endeksli-kibris-politikasi-189141. [Cyprus Policy Dependent on Cyprus].
Palti-Guzman, Leslie. 2016. “Gas Under Pressure: The United States is Ready to Export LNG, But Does the World Want It?” Foreign Affairs. January 8. Accessed May 8, 2016. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/united-states/2016-01-08/gas-under-pressure.
Parker, Ned. 2014. “Iraqi PM Maliki Says Saudi, Qatar Openly Funding Violence in Anbar.” Reuters. March 9. Accessed May 7, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/09/us-iraq-saudi-qatar-idUSBREA2806S20140309.
Peker, Emre, and Liam Moloney. 2013. “ENI Faces Clashes With Turkey Over Energy Work Off Cyprus.” The Wall Street Journal. March 27. Accessed April 27, 2016. http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324000704578386263469270732.
Peker, Emre, and Stelios Orphnides. 2011. “Erdogan’s Gunboats Challenge Cyprus Gas Search in Mediterranean.” Bloomberg. October 9. Accessed April 27, 2016. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2011-10-09/erdogan-s-gunboats-challenge-cyprus-gas-search-in-mediterranean.
Peker, Emre, Sarah Kent, and Joe Parkinson. 2014. “Kurdish Oil Gambit Hits Troubled Waters.” Wall Street Journal. July 21. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://www.wsj.com/ articles/in-challenge-to-iraq-kurds-pin-future-on-stealth-oil-sales-1405996352.
Pileggi, Tamar. 2015. “Israel Approves Natural Gas Exports to Jordan.” Times of Israel. April 3. Accessed May 8, 2016. http://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-approves-natural-gas-exports-to-jordan/.
Pinar, Ovgu. 2015. “Bilal Erdoğan İtalyan Basınına Konuştu: Türkiye’de Dikkatim Dağılıyor.” BBC. December 8. Accessed May 5, 2016. http://www.bbc.com/turkce/ haberler/2015/12/151208_bilal_erdogan_corriere. [Bilal Erdogan Spoke to Italian Media: I am Distracted in Turkey].
Platts. 2013. “Azerbaijan’s SOCAR Signs Deal to Buy 66% of Greece’s Gas Grid Operator DESFA.” December 23. Accessed May 1, 2016. http://www.platts.com/latest-news/natural-gas/moscow/azerbaijans-socar-signs-deal-to-buy-66-of-greeces-26569771.
—. 2013. “BG Group in Secret Talks to Develop Gaza-Marine Gas Field: Report.” March 14. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://www.platts.com/latest-news/natural-gas/jerusalem/update-bg-group-in-secret-talks-to-develop-gaza-8231800.
—. 2015. “Israel’s Leviathan Gas Output Delayed Two Years to 2020.” June 22. Accessed May 5, 2016. http://www.platts.com/latest-news/natural-gas/jerusalem/israels-leviathan-gas-output-delayed-two-years-26127795.
Pokrovskaya, Ekaterina. 2015. “Dispute Between Baghdad and Kurdistan Holds Back Iraqi Oil Potential.” Oil Price. July 16. Accessed May 9, 2016. http://oilprice.com/Energy/ Crude-Oil/Dispute-Between-Baghdad-and-Kurdistan-Holds-Back-Iraqi-Oil-Potential9153.html.
Pope, Hugh. 2013. “Israel’s Plan to Bring Cyprus and Turkey Together.” Ekathimerini. September 18. Accessed May 3, 2016. http://www.ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/_w_articles_ wsite3_1_18/09/2013_519229.
Radikal. 2007. “Erdoğan’ın Damadı İsrail’le Kulisten Sonra mı Çalık’a Müdür Oldu.” July 10. Accessed May 2, 2016. http://www.radikal.com.tr/haber.php?haberno=226510. [Erdogan’s Son-in-law Appointed as CEO of Calik after Lobbying with Israel?].
Rapoza, Kenneth. 2013. “Russian Oligarchs Lose Friend in Cyprus Banks.” Forbes. March 17. Accessed April 28, 2016. http://www.forbes.com/sites/kenrapoza/2013/03/17/russian-oligarchs-lose-friend-in-cyprus-banks/#3215e6022efd.
Ratcliffe, Verity. 2016. “Aphrodite in Doubt as New Acreage Turns Heads.” Interfax Energy. July 22. Accessed July 22, 2016. http://interfaxenergy.com/gasdaily/article/21209/ aphrodite-uncertain-as-new-acreage-turns-heads.
Ravid, Barak. 2016. “Erdogan: We Must Admit That Turkey Needs a Country Like Israel.” Haaretz. January 2. Accessed January 2, 2016. http://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-1.695041.
—. 2015. “In Secret Meeting, Israel and Turkey Renew Reconciliation Talks.” Haaretz. June 22. Accessed May 5, 2016. http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/.premium-1.662476.
Reed, John, and Guy Chazan. 2013. “Gaza Strip Gas Project Poised For Approval.” Financial Times. October 9. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/13474ef2-3027-11e3-80a4-00144feab7de.html#axzz375a8FuAm.
Registry of Companies Malta Online System. Accessed May 5, 2016. https://registry.mfsa. com.mt.
Republic of Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources. 2009. “Strategic Plan 2010-2014.” Accessed May 7, 2016. http://www.sp.gov.tr/upload/xSPStratejikPlan/ files/mDCwi+EnerjiveTabiiKaynaklarBakanligiSP1014.pdf.
Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2016. “No.74, 25 March 2016, Press Release Regarding the Third International Tender or Off-shore Hydrocarbon Exploration by the Greek Cypriot Administration.” March 25. Accessed March 25, 2016. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/no_-74_-25-march-2016_-press-release-regarding-the-third-international-tender-for-off_shore-hydrocarbon-exploration-by-the-greek-cypriot-administration.en.mfa.
Reuters. 2013. “Cyprus Signs MOU for LNG Terminal Talks With Noble, Avner, Delek.” June 26. Accessed May 2, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/cyprus-lng-terminal-idUSL5N0F20DS20130626.
Sheppard, David, John Reed, and Anjili Raval. 2015. “Israel Turns to Kurds for Three-Quarters of Its Oil Supplies.” Financial Times. August 23. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/150f00cc-472c-11e5-af2f4d6e0e5eda22.html#axzz3z FVUzRVZ.
Shiryaevskaya, Anna. 2015. “Qatar LNG Exports Shrink From Record As Australia, US Expand.” Bloomberg. April 7. Accessed May 8, 2016. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/ articles/2015-04-07/qatar-lng-exports-shrink-from-record-as-australia-u-s-expand.
Sozcu. 2014. “İsrail Uçaklarının Yakıtı Türkiye’den.” July 18. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://www.sozcu.com.tr/2014/gundem/israilin-ucaklarinin-yakiti-turkiyeden-559074/. [Jet Fuels of Israel From Turkey].
Sputnik. 2015. “Russia to Provide Evidence of Turkish Involvement in Daesh Oil Trade.” December 12. Accessed May 5, 2016. https://sputniknews.com/military/20151202/ 1031113310/russia-defense-syria-daesh-turky.html.
Stratfor. 2011. “Turkey, Cyprus: Rising Energy Tensions in the Eastern Mediterranean.” September 28. Accessed April 27, 2016. https://www.stratfor.com/analysis/turkey-cyprus-rising-energy-tensions-eastern-mediterranean.
T24. 2015. “Bilal Erdoğan’ın 190 Milyon Liralık Gemi Filosuna 4’üncüsü de Eklendi.” April 11. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://t24.com.tr/haber/bilal-erdoganin-190-milyon-liralik-gemi-filosuna-4uncusu-de-eklendi,293230. [Fourth Ship Added to Bilal’s 190 Million TL Worth Fleet].
Tastekin, Fehmi. 2015. “Aleppo’s Businessmen Blame Turks For Damaged Factories, Looted Equipment.” Al-Monitor. August 19. Accessed May 6, 2016. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2015/08/turkey-syria-sued-for-looting-aleppo-industry.html#.
The Algemeiner. 2016. “Russia Reportedly Shows Renewed Interest in Israeli Natural Gas.” April 25. Accessed May 6, 2016. https://www.algemeiner.com/2016/04/25/russia-reportedly-shows-renewed-interest-in-israeli-natural-gas/.
The Jerusalem Post. 2016. “Netanyahu, Putin Tweaks Military Coordination as Syria Conditions Change.” April 21. Accessed May 6, 2016. http://www.jpost.com/Israel-News/Politics-And-Diplomacy/Netanyahu-to-Putin-Golan-Heights-is-a-red-line-must-remain-a-part-of-Israel-451947.
—. 2016. “Report: Turkey Demands Weapons From Israel as Put of Normalization Effort.” March 2. Accessed March 2, 2016. http://www.jpost.com/Israel-News/Politics-And-Diplomacy/Report-Turkey-demands-weapons-from-Israel-as-part-of-normalization-effort-446626.
The Local. 2016. “Deal With Mafia Not My Son, Erdogan Tells Italian Judges.” August 3. Accessed August 3, 2016. http://www.thelocal.it/20160803/deal-with-mafia-not-my-son-erdogan-tells-italian-judges.
The National. 2014. “Map: ISIL Presence in Iraq.” June 12. Accessed May 8, 2016. http://www.thenational.ae/world/middle-east/map-isil-presence-in-iraq.
Times of Israel. 2015. “Israel Lukewarm to Erdogan Overture: Ball is in Turkey’s Court.” December 14. Accessed May 10, 2016. http://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-lukewarm-to-erdogan-overture-ball-is-in-turkeys-court/.
TRT Turk. 2015. “Türkiye’nin LNG Kapasitesi %30 Artacak.” December 4. Accessed May 9, 2016. http://www.trtturk.com/haber/turkiyenin-lng-kapasitesi-yuzde-30-artacak-166076. html. [Turkey’s LNG Capacity Will Increase 30%].
—. 2012. “Yıldız: Irak-Suriye Enerji Koridoru Söz Konusu Değil.” August 13. Accessed May 6, 2016. http://www.trtturk.com/haber/yildiz-irak-suriye-enerji-koridoru-soz-konusu-degil-7751.html. [Yildiz: Iraq-Syria Energy Corridor Not Possible].
TUIK. 2016. Accessed October 2, 2016. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/Start.do;jsessionid=2mh KXGlWx5Zhq8z0Hy3b2STngpJH6DthCQGLsv4gMcb2DCDSZpCh!-1519628609. [Turkish Statistical Institute].
Unker, Pelin. 2014. “Bilal’in Gemileri Şirketten.” Cumhuriyet. December 6. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://213.143.255.187:8080/haber/turkiye/156555/Bilal_in_gemileri_sirketten. html. [Bilal’s Ships are from Company. Republic].
UPI. 2013. “Turkey’s Samsun-Ceyhan Oil Pipeline Shelved.” April 13. Accessed April 29, 2016. http://www.upi.com/Turkeys-Samsun-Ceyhan-oil-pipeline-shelved/242813667 11120/.
Varol, Tugce. 2013. “İran-Irak-Suriye Doğalgaz Boru Hattı Dengeleri Değiştirir mi?” 21st Century Turkey Institute. August 2. Accessed May 8, 2016. http://www.21yyte.org/tr/ arastirma/enerji-ve-enerji-guvenligi-arastirmalari-merkezi/2013/08/02/7139/iran-irak-suriye-dogalgaz-boru-hatti-dengeleri-degistirir-mi. [Will Iran-Iraq-Syria Natural Gas Pipeline Alter the Balances?].
—. 2015. “İsrail-Türkiye Boru Hattı 2020’ye Hazır Olacak mı?” 21st Century Turkey Institute. January 23. Accessed May 8, 2016. http://www.21yyte.org/tr/arastirma/enerji-ve-enerji-guvenligi-arastirmalari-merkezi/2015/01/23/7997/israil-turkiye-boru-hatti-2020ye-hazir-olacak-mi. [Will Israel-Turkey Natural Gas Pipeline be Ready in 2020?].
Vatan. 2008. “İşte Hükümet Desteğinin Belgesi.” September 11. Accessed May 3, 2016. http://www.gazetevatan.com/iste-hukumet-desteginin-belgesi-198204-gundem/. [Here is the Document of Government’s Support].
Waterfield, Bruno. 2013. “Eurozone Offers Cyprus the Exit – Our Way or the Highway.” The Telegraph. March 24. Accessed April 25, 2016. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/ financialcrisis/9950744/Eurozone-offers-Cyprus-the-exit-our-way-or-the-highway.html.
Website Informer. Accessed May 5, 2016. http://website.informer.com/awdnews.com.
Winstanley, Asa. 2014. “How Egypt Became an Israeli Gas Colony.” Middle East Eye. June 9. Accessed May 6, 2016. http://www.middleeasteye.net/news/how-egypt-became-israeli-gas-colony-529170325.
Xinhuanet. 2011. “Turkey Signs Continental Shelf Agreement With Northern Cyprus.” September 22. Accessed April 27, 2016. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/ world/2011-09/22/c_131152485.htm.
Ya Libnan. 2013. “Cyprus, Lebanon Agree to Boost Oil, Gas Cooperation.” January 10. Accessed May 2, 2016. http://yalibnan.com/2013/01/10/cyprus-lebanon-agree-to-boost-oil-gas-cooperation/.
Yetkin, Murat. 2006. “Yüzyılın Projesi.” Radikal. December 15. Accessed May 2, 2016. http://www.radikal.com.tr/haber.php?haberno=207427. [Project of the Century].
Zalel, Ya’acov. 2016. “Russia Interested in Turkey-Israel Gas Relations.” Natural Gas Europe. February 19. Accessed May 6, 2016. http://www.naturalgaseurope.com/russia-raises-reservations-about-israel-turkey-gas-deals-28265.
Zatel, Ya’acov. 2016. “Feature Story: Russian Interest to Dictate Israel-Turkey Deals.” Natural Gas Europe. March 17. Accessed March 17, 2016. http://www.naturalgaseurope. com/russian-gas-interests-to-dictate-israel-tukey-gas-deals-28675.
Zeiger, Asher. 2013. “Israel, Greece, Cyprus Sign Energy and Water Deal.” Times of Israel. August 8. Accessed April 24, 2016. http://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-greece-cyprus-sign-energy-and-water-deal/.

Chpter 6:
Alimukhamedov, Farkhad, and Akcay Engin. 2013. “Redefining the Contemporary Relations Between Turkey and Uzbekistan.” Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi – Dumlupinar University Journal of Social Sciences. (36): 235-242.
Astana Times. 2016. “Russian, Kazakh Leaders Discuss Crisis in Turkish-Russian Relations.” February 9. Accessed May 24, 2016. http://astanatimes.com/2016/02/russian-kazakh-leaders-discuss-crisis-in-turkish-russian-relations/.
BOTAS. “Natural Gas Purchase and Export Agreements.” Accessed May 25, 2016. http://www.botas.gov.tr.
BP Statistical Review of World Energy. 2016. June. Accessed June 21, 2016. https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/pdf/energy-economics/statistical-review-2016/bp-statistical-review-of-world-energy-2016-full-report.pdf.
Cagaptay, Soner. 2014. “Will President Erdogan Run Turkey?” The Washington Institute. August 11. Accessed May 26, 2016. http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/will-president-erdogan-run-turkey.
Calik Enerji. Accessed May 26, 2016. http://eng.calikenerji.com/Pages/ProjelerToplu.aspx#*.
Caspian Energy News. 2015. “Joint Declaration Between Azerbaijan, Turkey and Turkmenistan Adopted in Antalya.” August 31. Accessed May 25, 2016. http://www. caspianenergy.net/en/oil-and-gas/25718-joint-declaration-between-azerbaijan-turkey-and-turkmenistan-adopted-in-antalya.
Companies House. “Doyen Capital LLP.” Accessed May 25, 2016. https://beta.companies house.gov.uk/company/OC365654/officers.
Daily Sabah. 2014. “FM to Visit Uzbekistan to Usher in New Area of Bilateral Relations.” July 10. Accessed May 27, 2016. http://www.dailysabah.com/politics/2014/07/10/fm-to-visit-uzbekistan-to-usher-in-new-era-of-bilateral-relations.
Daly, John. 2013. “Proposed Kazakh-Indian Pipeline a Long Shot of Best.” Oil Price. May 14. Accessed May 22, 2016. http://oilprice.com/Geopolitics/Asia/Proposed-Kazakh-Indian-Pipeline-a-Long-Shot-at-Best.html.
Doyen Group. Accessed May 25, 2016. http://www.doyen-group.com.
Duff, Alex. 2013. “Neymar Investing Hedge-Fund Doyen Said Backed by Kazak Family.” Bloomberg. July 2. Accessed May 25, 2016. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/ 2013-07-02/neymar-investing-hedge-fund-doyen-said-backed-by-kazakh-family.
EIA. 2015. “Kazakhstan.” January 14. Accessed May 22, 2016. https://www.eia.gov/beta/ international/analysis_includes/countries_long/Kazakhstan/kazakhstan.pdf.
—. 2016. “Turkmenistan.” June. Accessed June 21, 2016. https://www.eia.gov/ beta/international/analysis.cfm?iso=TKM.
Energy Business Review. 2009. “Calik with Initec Plans to Construct Eur336 M Gas-Based Power Plant in Uzbekistan.” August 26. Accessed May 26, 2016. http://www.energy-business-review.com/news/calik_with_initec_plans_to_construct_eur336m_gasbased_ power_plant_in_uzbekistan_090826.
EPDK. 2016. “Petrol Piyasası Sektör Raporu 2015.” Accessed July 21, 2016. http://www.epdk.org.tr/TR/Dokumanlar/Petrol/YayinlarRaporlar/Yillik [Petroleum Market Sector Report 2015. EMRA - Energy Market Regulatory Authority].
Eurasia Review. 2012. “Turkmenistan Energy profile: Some of World’s Largest Gas Reserves – Analysis.” January 26. Accessed May 25, 2016. http://www.eurasiareview.com/ 26012012-turkmenistan-energy-profile-some-of-worlds-largest-gas-reserves-analysis/.
Eurasianet. 2015. “Kazakhstan Treads Diplomatic Tightrope in Turkey-Russia Row.” November 25. Accessed November 25, 2016. http://www.eurasianet.org/node/76286.
Gurt, Marat. 2014. “Turkmenistan Inks Deal With Turkey to Supply Gas to TANAP Pipeline.” Reuters. November 7. Accessed May 25, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/ article/turkmenistan-turkey-tanap-idUSL6N0SX2QK20141107.
Hacioglu, Nerdun. 2015. “Kazak Cumhurbaşkanı Nazarbayev’den Flaş Açıklamalar.” Hurriyet. November 30. Accessed May 24, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/kazak-cumhurbaskani-nazarbayevden-flas-cagri-40020731. [Flash Statements from Kazakh President Nazarbayev].
Hurriyet Daily News. 2002. “TPAO Crisis Between Turkey and Kazakhstan Countries.” October 23. Accessed May 23, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/tpao-crisis-between-turkey-and-kazakhstan-continues.aspx?pageID=438&n=tpao-crisis-between-turkey-and-kazakhstan-continues-2002-10-23.
—. 2013. “Turkish PM Erdogan to Putin: Take Us to Shanghai.” November 22. Accessed May 23, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-pm-erdogan-to-putin-take-us-to-shanghai.aspx?pageID=238&nID=58348&NewsCatID=359.
Hurriyet Daily News. 2015. “Turkey, Kazakhstan Aim to Increase Trade Volume to $10 Billion.” April 16. Accessed May 24, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-kazakhstan-aim-to-increase-trade-volume-to-10-billion.aspx?pageID=238&nID=81158 &NewsCatID=345.
Hurriyet. 1999. “6 Milyar Dolarlık İmza.” November 19. Accessed May 25, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/6-milyar-dolarlik-imza-39114240. [6 Billion USD Worth Signature].
Jumayev, Attokur. 2013. “С какой целью приехал Эрдоган?” Inosmi. April 11. Accessed May 4, 2016. http://inosmi.ru/sngbaltia/20130411/207963812.html. [For What Purpose Erdogan Arrived?].
Juraev, Shairbek. 2009. “The Logic of Kyrgyzstan’s Base Policy.” PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo. September. http://www.ponarseurasia.org/sites/default/files/policy-memos-pdf/pepm_072.pdf.
KazMunaiGaz. 2014. “Transport Infrastructure.” Accessed May 22, 2016. http://www.kmg.
kz/en/manufacturing/gas/infrastructure/.
Melik, İlknur. 2014. “Avrasya Birliğine Doğru Türkiye.” Sabah. 26 May. Accesses June 7, 2016. http://www.sabah.com.tr/ekonomi/2014/05/26/avrasya-birligine-dogru-turkiye. [Turkey Towards The Eurasian Union].
Natural Gas Asia. 2015. “Kazakhstan Ready to Export Gas to India Using TAPI Pipeline.” November 26. Accessed May 22, 2016. http://www.naturalgasasia.com/kazakhstan-ready-to-export-gas-to-india-using-tapi-pipeline-17093.
Natural Gas Europe. 2014. “TPAO Transfers Its Shares in KazakhTurkMunay JV to Kazakhstan.” August 7. Accessed May 23, 2016. http://www.naturalgaseurope.com/ tpao-transfers-kazakhturkmunay-shares-kazakhstan.
Natural Gas World. 2016. “Turkmenistan to Bring Galkynysh Output to 95 BN M3/YR.” January 27. Accessed May 24, 2016. http://www.naturalgaseurope.com/turkmenistan-to-bring-galkynysh-output-to-95bn-m/yr-27830.
News.Am. 2015. “Kyrgyzstan President Urges Turkey to Apologize for Downing Russia Warplane.” December 24. Accessed May 26, 2016. http://news.am/eng/news/ 303768.html.
Nursha, Askar. 2015. “EEU and CSTO Summits in Moscow: Another Six Months For Consideration.” IWEP – Institute of World Economy and Politics. December 25. Accessed May 24, 2016. http://iwep.kz/en/kommentariy-eksperta/2015-12-25/eeu-and-csto-summits-in-moscow-another-six-months-for-consideration.
Pet Holding. “Tarihçe.” Accessed May 23, 2016. http://www.petholding.com.tr/tarihce3.html. [History].
Pyragy, Matymguly. 2011. “WikiLeaks: Ahmet Çalık Says Turkmen President Tools of Russians.” New Eurasia. June 8. Accessed May 25, 2016. https://www.neweurasia.net/ business-and-economics/wikileaks-ahmet-calik-says-turkmen-president-tool-of-russians/.
Reuters. 2016. “Russia’s Gazprom Ceases Purchases of Turkmen Gas – RIA Cites Turkmengaz.” January 4. Accessed May 25, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/ russia-gazprom-turkmenistan-idUSL8N14O1QX20160104.
RFERL. 2012. “Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan Trade Accusations Over Disputed Oil Field.” June 19. Accessed May 25, 2016. http://www.rferl.org/a/turkmenistan-azerbaijan-trade-accusations-over-disputed-oil-field/24618957.html.
Russo, Pippo. 2014. “A Mystery Called Doyen Part-1.” Calciomercato. May 15. Accessed May 25, 2015. http://www.calciomercato.com/en/news/pippo-russo-a-mistery-called-doyen-part-1-860150.
—. 2014. “A Mystery Called Doyen Part-2.” Calciomercato. May 25. Accessed May 25, 2016. http://www.calciomercato.com/en/news/pippo-russo-a-mistery-called-doyen-part-2-777452.
Solovyov, Dmitry. 2013. “China Asserts Clout in Central Asia with Huge Turkmen Gas Project.” Reuters. September 4. Accessed May 24, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/ article/us-gas-turkmenistan-galkynysh-idUSBRE9830MN20130904.
T.C. Ekonomi Bakanlığı. “Türk Firmalarının Taraf Olduğu Uluslararası Tahkim Davaları.” Accessed May 23, 2016. http://www.ekonomi.gov.tr/portal/ content/conn/UCM/path/ Contribution%20Folders/web/Yatırım/Yurtdışına%20Yatırım/02.Uluslararası%20Yatırım%20Anlaşmazlıklarının%20Çözümü%20(Tahkim)/03.Türk%20Firmalarının%20Taraf%20Olduğu%20Uluslararası%20Tahkim%20Davaları.html. [International Arbitration Cases that Turkish Companies Are Party. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Economy].
TASS. 2014. “Gazprom Signs Agreement on Purchase of 100% Kyrgyzstan Shares for $1.” April 10. Accessed May 26, 2016. http://tass.ru/en/economy/727206.
Tekfen Construction. “Turkmenistan – Galkynysh Gas Field Development Project.” Accessed May 24, 2016. http://www.tekfeninsaat.com.tr/pipeline_project_detail.asp?id=22.
Tengri News. 2013. “Kazakhstan’s President Suggests Granting Turkey Admission into the Customs Union.” October 25. Accessed May 23, 2016. https://en.tengrinews.kz/ politics_sub/Kazakhstans-President-suggests-granting-Turkey-admission-23559/.
—. 2014. “Nazarbayev Invites Turkey to Join Eurasian Economic Union.” June 6. Accessed May 23, 2016. http://asbarez.com/123844/nazarbayev-invites-turkey-to-join-eurasian-economic-union/.
Trend News Agency. 2010. “Kazakh President Hosts Dinner In Honor of Turkish Counterpart.” May 26. Accessed May 23, 2016. http://en.trend.az/casia/ kazakhstan/1694280.html.
—. 2013. “Turkey Wants Turkmen Gas in TANAP.” March 20. Accessed May 25, 2016. http://en.trend.az/world/turkey/2131617.html.
Tseretelli, Mamuka. 2008 March. “Economic and Energy Security: Connecting Europe and the Black Sea-Caspian Region.” Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program, Silk Road Paper.
TUIK. 2016. Accessed May 26, 2016. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/Start.do;jsessionid=2 mhKXGlWx5Zhq8z0Hy3b2STngpJH6DthCQGLsv4gMcb2DCDSZpCh!-1519628609. [Turkish Statistical Institute].
Uzhalqharakati. 2014. “Atambayev’den Balkon Konuşması.” August 11. Accessed May 26, 2016. http://www.uzxalqharakati.com/tr/arsivler/1207. [Atambayev’s Balcony Speech].
Varol, Tugce. 2013. “Eurasian Union: A Utopia, a Dream or a Coming Reality?” Eurasian Journal of Business and Economics 6 (12): 43-62.
WikiLeaks. 2012. “Re: Insight Request Turkey-Russia.” March 19. Accessed May 25, 2016. https://wikileaks.org/gifiles/docs/15/1566802_re-insight-request-turkey-russia-.html.
Witte, Michele. 2015. “Kazakh President Urges Russia and Turkey to Move Towards Reconciliation.” Astana Times. November 30. Accessed May 24, 2016. http://astanatimes.com/2015/11/kazakh-president-urges-russia-and-turkey-to-move-toward-reconciliation/.
World Bank. 2016. “Kazakhstan.” Accessed May 22, 2016. http://data.worldbank.org/ country/kazakhstan.

Chapter 7:
BBC. 2016. “Türkiye’de Ham Petrol İthalatındaki Tarihi Rekor.” February 2. Accessed June 14, 2016. http://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler/2016/02/160202_turkiye_hampetrol_ rekoru. [Historic Record of Turkey’s Crude Oil Import].
Bennhold, Katrin. 2009. “Leader of Turkey and Israel Clash at Davos Panel.” The New York Times. January 29. Accessed July 15, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/30/ world/europe/30clash.html?_r=0.
Bianet. 2013. “Kurdish People Desire to Live Autonomously, Kisanak Says.” February 11. Accessed July 2, 2016. http://bianet.org/english/print/144259-kurdish-people-desire-to-live-autonomously-kisanak-says.
BOTAS. 2016. “BOTAS Sector Report 2015.” Accessed June 25, 2016. http://www.botas. gov.tr/docs/raporlar/tur/sektorap_2015.pdf.
Daily Sabah. 2016. “International Court of Arbitration Dismisses Businessman Cem Uzan’s $2,5bn Lawsuit Against Turkey.” April 21. Accessed June 14, 2016. http://www.daily sabah.com/investigations/2016/04/21/international-court-of-arbitration-dismisses-businessman-cem-uzans-25bn-lawsuit-against-turkey.
EPDK. 2016. “Petrol Piyasası Sektör Raporu 2015.” http://www.epdk.org.tr/TR/Dokumanlar/ Petrol/YayinlarRaporlar/Yillik [Petroleum Market Sector Report 2015. EMRA - Energy Market Regulatory Authority].
—. “Yıllık Petrol Piyasası Sektör Raporları.” http://www.epdk.org.tr/TR/Dokumanlar/ Petrol/YayinlarRaporlar/Yillik [Annual Oil Sector Reports. EMRA - Energy Market Regulatory Authority].
Gursoy, Begum. 2009. “No ‘One Minute’ to Çalık for Israel Project.” Hurriyet. April 3. Accessed May 28, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/no-one-minute-to-calik-for-israel-project-11352267.
Hurriyet. 2008. “Turkey-Israel Agree to Start Works on Pipeline Project.” July 17. Accessed May 28, 2016. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/turkey-israel-agree-to-start-works-on-pipeline-project-9460948.
IRNA. 2016. “Major Goals of Davutoglu’s Iran Visit.” March 6. Accessed July 2, 2016. http://www8.irna.ir/en/News/81991443/.
Natural Gas World. 2014. “Options For Delivering Iranian Gas to Europe Via Turkey.” June 16. Accessed July 20, 2016. http://www.naturalgasworld.com/iranian-gas-to-europe-via-turkey.
PIGM. 2016. “Map of Oil Exploration and Operation in Turkey.” Accessed July 1, 2016. http://www.pigm.gov.tr/images/haritalar/Kara_Bolgesi_Ruhsat_Haritasi.pdf [PIGM – The General Directorate of Petroleum Affairs].
—. 2016. “Map of Oil Wells Density.” Accessed July 1, 2016. http://www.pigm.gov.tr/ images/haritalar/Kuyu_Yogunluk_Haritasi.pdf. [PIGM – The General Directorate of Petroleum Affairs].
Republic of Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources. 2016. “Action Report of Year 2015.” February 29. Accessed March 14, 2016. http://www.enerji.gov.tr/File/?path= ROOT%2f1%2fDocuments%2fFaaliyet%20Raporu%2f2015.pdf.
—. 2016. “Budget Presentation of the Year 2016.” February 9. Accessed July 1, 2016. http://www.enerji.gov.tr/File/?path=ROOT%2F1%2FDocuments%2FBütçe+Konuşması%2FETKB+2016+Yılı+Bütçe+Sunuş+Metni.pdf.
—. 2016. “Dünya ve Ülkemiz Enerji ve Tabi Kaynaklar Görünümü.” 11. July 1. [The Outlook of Our Country's and World's Energy and Natural Resources].
—. 2009. “Strategic Plan 2010-2014.” Accessed May 28, 2016. http://www.sp.gov.tr/upload/ xSPStratejikPlan/files/mDCwi+EnerjiveTabiiKaynaklarBakanligiSP1014.pdf.
—. 2015. “Strategic Plan 2015-2019.” February 17. Accessed July 4, 2016. http://www.enerji.gov.tr/File/?path=ROOT%2f1%2fDocuments%2fStrategic%20Plan%2fStrategicPlan2015-2019.pdf.
Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources. 2016. “Action Report of 2015.” February 29. Accessed May 25, 2016. http://www.enerji.gov.tr/tr-TR/Faaliyet-Raporlari/Faaliyet-Raporlari.
Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2009. “Turkey’s Energy Strategy.” January. Accessed July 22, 2016. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/data/DISPOLITIKA/Enerji Politikasi/ Turkey's%20Energy%20Strategy%20(Ocak%202009).pdf.
Socor, Vladimir. 2009. “Gazprom, Turkey Revive and Reconfigure Blue Stream Two.” Eurasian Daily Monitor. http://www.jamestown.org/programs/edm/single/?tx_ttnews%5 Btt_news%5D=35394&cHash=0bcbb43df4#.VucY5cf4F4s. 6 (154).
Sonmez, Mustafa. 2016. “Global Energy Plunge Not Producing Lower Prices in Turkey.” Hurriyet Daily News. February 8. Accessed July 2, 2016. http://www.hurriyetdailynews. com/global-energy-plunge-not-producing-lower-prices-in-turkey.aspx?pageID=238&n ID=94857&NewsCatID=348.
Turkyilmaz, Oguz. 2015. “Enerji Politikaları Artan Bağımlılık Çıkmazında.” Türkiye’nin Enerji Görünümü Raporu. TMMOB. (200): 2-20. [Increasing Dependency Dilemma of Energy Politics. Report of Turkey’s Energy Outlook. TMMOB - The Union of Chamber of Turkish Engineers and Architects].
Yazar, Yusuf. 2010. “Türkiye’nin Enerjideki Durumu ve Geleceği.” SETA Analiz. December. [Turkey’s Position in Energy and Its Future. SETA Analysis].

This book is written for academics, students, professionals and politicians. Book is also useful material for energy business people who are interested investing Turkey or Middle East.

You have not viewed any product yet.