Energy Conversion Systems: An Overview

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Saurabh Mani Tripathi¹, PhD
Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban², PhD

¹Department of Electrical Engineering, Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology, India
²Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Esbjerg, Denmark

Series: Energy Science, Engineering and Technology
BISAC: SCI024000

This edited book is intended to serve as a resource for engineers, scientists and specialists engaged in becoming familiarized with green energy conversion for a clean atmosphere with an adaption of ‘more-renewable’ for power generation. The book is comprised of nine original chapters dealing with state-of-the-design exercises on power conversion/storage technologies. It highlights the critical features of energy technology for green engineering for the future. This edited volume is an extensive collection of state-of-the-art studies on the subject.

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Foreword
Acknowledgment
List of Reviewers

1. CONVERTER TECHNOLOGIES FOR PV SYSTEMS:
A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW
Mehdi Niroomand and Fatemeh Nasr Esfahani

Abstract
Photovoltaic Modules
PV Model and Equations
PV Curves
Partial Shading
Standards and Requirements for PV Systems
General Structure of PV Systems
Block Diagram of a PV System
Basic Control Functions in PV Systems
Multifunctional PV Systems
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
Grid Synchronization
Protections
Classification of PV Structures
Leakage Current in PV Systems
Common-mode (CM) Resonant Circuit and Leakage Current Issues
AC-Module Inverters
String / Multi-string PV Inverters
Central PV Inverters
Commercial PV Inverters
Output Filters in PV Inverters
Recent Advances on Grid-Connected PV Inverters
Advances in DC–AC Converters for PV Systems
Advances in DC–DC Converters for PV Systems
Advances in Power Semiconductors for PV Systems
Conclusions
References

2. CONTROL STRUCTURES OF GRID-TIED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS
Mehdi Niroomand and Fatemeh Nasr Esfahani

Abstract
Introduction
PV Panels
General Structure of PV Systems
Basic Control functions in PV Systems
General Control configuration of PV Systems
Outer control loop
Inner control loop
Commonly Employed Periodic Controllers
Resonant controllers
Repetitive controllers
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
Inner-loop control for input voltage of a boost converter
Grid synchronization
Smart / Multifunctional PV Inverters
Flexible Power Controllability
Reactive Power Control
Frequency Regulation
Harmonic Compensation
Fault-Ride-Through (FRT) Capability
Reactive Power Injection
Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-phase PV Systems
Constant average active power control (const.-P)
Constant active current control (const.-Id)
Constant peak current control (const.–Igmax)
Current Reference Generation for Three-phase PV Systems
Instantaneous active-reactive control (IARC)
Positive- and negative-sequence control (PNSC)
Average active-reactive control (AARC)
Balanced positive-sequence control (BPSC)
Performance comparison of the IARC, PNSC, AARC
and BPSC strategies
Flexible Active Power Control of PV Systems
Some Issues Regarding Grid-Integration of PV Systems
Grid overvoltage during PV peak-power generation period
Grid voltage fluctuation because of intermittency of PV energy
Limited-frequency regulation capability
Possible Solutions for Flexible Power Control of PV Systems
Integrating energy storage systems
Installing flexible loads
Modifying the control algorithm of the power converters
Flexible Active Power Control Methods
Power limiting control (PLC)
Power reserve control (PRC)
Power reserve control under partial shading conditions
Power ramp-rate control (PRRC)
Conclusions
References

3. DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF SOLAR TRACKING PV SYSTEMS
Shashwati Ray, Abhishek Kumar Tripathi and Gourav Shankar

Abstract
Introduction
Solar Tracking System
Mechanical Design
Determination of Tilt Angle θ of Solar Panel
Mechanical Design of Tilted Single Axis Tracker
Mechanical Design of Azimuth-Altitude Dual Axis Tracker
Electrical Design
Tracking Controller Circuit
Components
Determination of tilt angle of LDR sensor
Working of tilted single axis tracker
Working of azimuth-altitude dual axis tracker
Performance Measurements
Torque measurement
Power calculations
Conclusions
References

4. HYBRID PV-WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM
Hocine Belmili, Ahmed Medjber and Ridha Chikh

Abstract
Introduction
Hybrid Energy Systems
Classification of Hybrid Systems
Operating Regime
Hybrid System Content
Principal Compounds of Hybrid System
Hybrid Energy system: Principle of operation
Photovoltaic system
Photovoltaic Generator Modeling
Influence of the Parallel / Serial Connection on I(V) and P(V) Characteristics
Influence of Irradiation
Influence of Temperature
Influence of the Series / Parallel Resistance on the Characteristic I(V), P(V)
Wind Turbine Modeling
Law and Limit of Betz
Mechanical Energy Production
Model of Multiplier
Main Shaft Model
Storage of Energy
Battery Modeling
Model Description
Capacity Model
Model of Losses as a Gasification Current
State of Charge Model (SOC)
Voltage Model
Battery in charge
Battery in discharge
DC-bus Modeling
Methods of Sizing the PV-Wind Hybrid System
The Yearly Monthly Overage Sizing Method
The Most Unfavorable Month Method
Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) Method
Cost of the System
Determination of the Optimal Torque (Npv, Nb) without Wind Power
Determination of the Optimal Torque (Npv, Nb) with Presence of the Wind Power
Conclusions
References

5. A REVIEW ON WIND FARM RELIABILITY WITH HYBRID CABLE CONNECTION
Vasundhara Mahajan, Atul Kumar Yadav, Doma Pranav,
Ankireddy Aravind Reddy, Soumya Mudgal and Lalit Tak

Abstract
Introduction
Hybrid Connection of Cables
Analysis on Different Models of Wind Farms
Jason wake model
Cost model
Energy yields model
Cable Structure and Wind Farms
Regular wind farms
Irregular wind farms
Modelling Approach
Modeling of WTs
Theory for the Wind Profile
Optimum Sizing of Electrical Cables
Static Rated Sizing
Dynamic Load Cycle Profile
Dynamic Full Time Series
Network Optimisation Analysis
Economic Optimization
Levelised production cost (LPC)
Minimum spanning tree (MST)
Reliability Analysis of Wind Farm
Cable Reliability
Subsea Cables and Prediction of Damage and Life Expectancy
Estimating Cable Sliding Distance
Estimating Cable Sourcing Depth
Wear Rate Estimation
Abrasion wear rate
Corrosion wear rate
Estimating Cable Life Time
Conclusions
References

6. HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS: A COMPREHENSIVE INSIGHT
Anuradha Tomar and Ayush Mittal

Abstract
Introduction
History
Fundamentals of FC
Types of Fuel Cells
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) FCs
Alkaline FCs
Phosphoric Acid (PA) FCs
Molten Carbonate (MC) FCs
Solid Oxide (SO) FCs
Direct Methanol (DM) FCs
Reversible FCs (RFCs)
Summary of FCs
Applications
ALSTOM’s CoradiaiLint
Conclusions
References

7. ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW
Arvind Pratap, Prabhkar Tiwari, Bindeshwar Singh, Sumit Tiwari
and S. N. Singh

Abstract
Introduction
Types of Energy Storage Systems
Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) Systems
Advantages / disadvantages of electrical machine employed in FES system
Applications of FES system
Compressed-Air Energy Storage Systems (CAES)
Various CAES technologies
Applications of CAES
Battery Energy Storage (BES) Systems
Different BES technologies
Some other types of BESS
Flow Battery Energy Storage (FBES) System
Super-Capacitors Energy Storage
Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES)
Thermal Energy Storage (TES) System
Pumped Hydroelectric Storage (PHS) Systems
Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
Hot Stone Energy Storage System
Applications of Energy Storage Systems (ESS)
Conclusions
References

8. INTRODUCTION TO HYDROELECTRIC POWER GENERATION
Mahamad Nabab Alam

Abstract
Introduction
Hydroelectric Power Generation
Overview of a Hydropower Plant
Major Components
Dam and reservoir
Penstock
Turbine
Generator
Transformer
Draft tube
Surge tank
Hydroelectric Power Equation
Hydroelectric Power Potential
Theoretical potential
Technical potential
Economical potential
Types of Hydraulic Turbines
Determination of the Number of Units
Operating Principle
Types of Hydropower Plants
Types based on Technological Aspects
Storage hydropower
Run-of-river schemes
Pumped storage plant
Types based on Head
Types based on Capacity
Types based on Purpose
Types based on Hydrological Aspects
Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydropower Scheme
Advantages
Disadvantages
Hydroelectric Power Generation
Hydroelectric Energy Generation
Hydroelectric Power Capacity
Conclusions
References

9. ENERGY FROM WASTE: A CASE STUDY OF THE ENERGY PRODUCTION ESTIMATIVE FROM BIOGAS AT THE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT IN ITAJUBÁ, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL
Alexandre Calixto Figueiredo, Bruno de Nadai Nascimento,
Diogo Marujo, Denisson Queiroz Oliveira and Francisco Martins Portelinha Júnior

Abstract
Introduction
Energy From Waste
Methodology to Estimate the Energy Produced by Sewage Effluent
How to Measure the Biogas Production
Estimation of Daily Energy Production
The Case Study: The energy production in the STS
Scenario #1 – A Local Supply in the STS
Scenario #2 – A Global Supply in the Itajubá SSS
Conclusions
References

Index

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