Endometrial Cancer: Current Epidemiology, Detection and Management

Samir A. Farghaly, M.D., Ph.D. (Editor)
Joan and Sanford I. Weill Medical College/ The Graduate School of Medical Sciences, and The New York Presbyterian Hospital- Weill Cornell Medical Center, Cornell University, New York, NY- USA

Series: Cancer Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatments
BISAC: MED062000

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Endometrial cancer is the most common cancer of the female reproductive system, with more than 49,500 United States women that are diagnosed with the disease each year. It tends to develop after menopause, when a woman is between the ages of 50 and 60. It is the sixth most common cancer in women worldwide (fourteenth most common cancer overall), with 320,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012, and it is the 13th most common cause of death from cancer with nearly 86,000 deaths worldwide. Endometrial cancer occurs when cells of the endometrium undergo a transformation and begin to grow and multiply without the control mechanisms that normally limit their growth. As the cells grow and multiply, they form the cancerous lesion. Cancerous tumors may encroach on and invade neighboring organs or lymph nodes, or they may enter the bloodstream and spread to the bones or distant organs, such as the lungs.

This process is called metastasis. Metastatic tumors are the most aggressive and serious of all tumors. Two main types of endometrial cancers exist. Nearly all endometrial cancers are endometrial adenocarcinomas, as they originate from glandular (secreting) tissue. The other type of endometrial cancer, uterine sarcomas, originates in the connective tissue or muscle of the uterus. A subtype of endometrial adenocarcinomas, adenosquamous carcinoma, includes squamous cells (that is, the type of cells found on the surface of the skin and cervix). Other subtypes of endometrial adenocarcinomas are papillary serous adenocarcinomas and clear cell carcinomas.

Multidisciplinary teams of experts including specialists in medical oncology, gynecologic oncology, radiology, urology, radiotherapy, and surgery are essential to utilize sophisticated imaging and laboratory tests, to confirm the diagnosis and identify the characteristics of the tumor. They all work together to determine the best treatment approach for the patient. Recent progress in the development of new surgical techniques has transformed the treatment of uterine cancer, resulting in greater surgical precision and fewer complications. In addition, targeted adjuvant therapy has become useful in improving the oncologic outcome of patients with this disease.

Preface

Chapter 1 - Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer (pp. 1-14)
Anjum Memon, MBBS, D.Phil. and Priyamvada Paudyal, BSc, Msc, Ph.D. (Division of Primary Care and Public Health, Brighton and Sussex Medical School & Brighton & Hove City Council, Mayfield House, University of Brighton Falmer, Brighton, United Kingdom)

Chapter 2 - Endometrial Cancer and Its Precursor Lesions: Histopathologic and Molecular Aspects (pp. 15-36)
Quratulain Ahmed, M.D., Sudeshna Bandyopadhyay, M.D. and Rouba Ali-Fehmi, M.D. (Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, US)

Chapter 3 - Molecular Pathologic Aspects of Endometrial Cancer: An Update (pp. 37-64)
Paulette Mhawech-Fauceglia, M.D., Elham Pakzamir, M.D., Helena Hwang and Yvonne G. Lin, M.D. (Department of Pathology at University of Southern California/Keck School of Medicine- Los Angeles, CA, US and others)

Chapter 4 - Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma: Histology, Precursors and Molecular Alterations (pp. 65-86)
Helena Hwang, Kara Duncan and Paulette Mhawech-Fauceglia, M.D. (Department of Pathology at University of Texas at Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas-TX, US and others)

Chapter 5 - Hereditary Endometrial Cancer (pp. 67-96)
Agnieszka Rychlik, M.D., Gizelle Steinberg, M.D., Alicia Hernandez, M.D., Ph.D., Maria D. Diestro, M.D., Ph.D., Javier De Santiago, M.D., Ph.D. and Ignacio Zapardiel, M.D., Ph.D. (Gynaecologic Oncology Unit. La Paz University Hospital. Madrid, Spain)

Chapter 6 - Lynch Syndrome and Endometrial Cancer (pp. 97-110)
Carmen Guillén-Ponce, Ph.D., M.D. and Maria-José Molina-Garrido, Ph.D., M.D. (Medical Oncology Department. Ramón y Cajal University Hospital. Madrid, and Medical Oncology Department. Virgen de la Luz Hospital. Cuenca. Spain)

Chapter 7 - Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Endometrial Cancer (pp. 111-122)
Helena Robova and Lukas Rob, M.D., Ph.D. (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2nd Medical Faculty Charles University Prague, Czech Republic)

Chapter 8 - Lymphatic Mapping for Endometrial Cancer (pp. 123-138)
Valerio Mais, M.D., Ph.D. (Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Cagliari Medical School, Italy)

Chapter 9 - Detection of Sentinel Lymph Node in Endometrial Cancer (pp. 139-162)
Sambor Sawicki, M.D., Ph.D. and Dariusz Wydra, M.D., Ph.D. (Department of Gynecology, Gynecologic Endocrinology and Gynecologic Oncology, Medical University of Gdañsk, Poland)

Chapter 10 - Strategies for Treating Patients with Endometrial Cancer (pp. 163-188)
Samir A. Farghaly, M.D., Ph.D. (Joan and Sanford I. Weill Medical College/ The Graduate School of Medical Sciences , and The New York Presbyterian Hospital- Weill Cornell Medical Center, Cornell University, New York, NY- US)

Chapter 11 - Surgical Modalities for Treating Patients with Endometrial Cancer (pp. 189-206)
Samir A. Farghaly, M.D., PhD (Joan and Sanford I. Weill Medical College/ The Graduate School of Medical Sciences , and The New York Presbyterian Hospital- Weill Cornell Medical Center, Cornell University, New York, NY- US)

Chapter 12 - Management of Advanced Stage Endometrial Cancer (pp. 207-228)
Akiko Morimoto, M.D., Yutaka Ueda, M.D., Ph.D., Takayuki Enomoto, M.D., Ph.D., Tomomi Egawa-Takata, M.D., Ph.D., Shinya Matsuzaki, M.D., Eiji Kobayashi, M.D.,
Toshihiro Kimura, M.D., Ph.D., Kiyoshi Yoshino, M.D., Ph.D., Masami Fujita, M.D., Ph.D. and Tadashi Kimura, M.D., Ph.D. (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Niigata University Medical School, Japan)

Chapter 13 - Clinical Trials Evidence for Efficacy of Postoperative Chemotherapy for Early Endometrial Cancer (pp. 229-246)
Nick Johnson, Ph.D., DM, MRCOG, FRCS (Gynaecological Oncology Consultant, Royal United Hospital, Combe Park, Bath, UK)

Chapter 14 - Medical Treatment of Endometrial Cancer (pp. 247-294)
Antonella Venturino, M.D., Giuseppe Colloca, M.D. and Gianfranco Carfagna, M.D. (Division of Medical Oncology, “G. Borea" Hospital, Sanremo, Imperia, and Division of Pathology, “G. Borea" Hospital, Sanremo, Imperia, Italy)

Chapter 15 - Chemotherapeutic Agents for Patients with Endometrial Cancer (pp. 295-320)
Siriwan Tangjitgamol, M.D. and John Kavanagh, M.D. (Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Department of obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok, and International Oncology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok, Thailand)

Chapter 16 - Novel Therapeutic Agents for Treatment of Endometrial Cancer (pp. 321-338)
Kouji Banno, M.D., Miho Iida, M.D., Samir A. Farghaly, M.D., Ph.D., Kiyoko Umene, M.D., Iori Kisu, M.D. and Daisuke Aoki, M.D. (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan and others)

Chapter 17 - Targeted Therapies for Endometrial Cancer (pp. 339-352)
Selen Dogan, Nasuh Utku Dogan and Kubra Boynukalin (Akdeniz University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Antalya , and Anatolioa IVF and Women Health Center, Ankara, Turkey)

Chapter 18 - ErbB Targeted Therapy in Endometrial Cancer (pp. 353-370)
Georgios Androutsopoulos, M.D., Georgios Adonakis, M.D. and Georgios Decavalas, M.D. (Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Patras, Medical School, Rion, Greece)

Chapter 19 - Radiotherapy Treatment for Endometrial Cancer (pp. 371-386)
G. Eminowicz, FRCR, MSc and M. McCormack, FRCR, Ph.D. (Department of Oncology, University College Hospital, London, United Kingdom)

Index

“Endometrial cancer is a neoplasia that continues to increase in developed countries with also high socio-economic and healthcare standards. Although it does not have a high mortality rate compared to other female neoplasias, its development nonetheless continues to pose a threat to women’s life. A textbook that discusses this topic can be a practical aid in the correct first diagnosis and approach that will inevitably have an impact on the progression of the neoplasia. The textbook presented by the Author includes all of the knowledge insights of endometrial cancer appropriate to those dedicated to gynaecological oncology. The topics covered are linked with the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of endometrial cancer. Furthermore, as can be deduced from the contents of each chapter, all the aspects of this neoplasia have been considered and treated with a didactic approach, which can be handy to both the experts and to those beginning their training in gynaecologic oncology.” - European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology, Am International Journal; Vol. XXXVI, no. 6, 2015

International Journal of Latest Trends in Finance and Economic Sciences - Reviewed by Manuel Alberto M. Ferreira, Lisbon University Institute ISCTE-IUL, BRU-IUL, ISTAR-IUL Portugal

Audience: Gynecologists, gynecologic oncologists, surgical oncologists, medical oncologists , medical scientists in the field of gynecological cancers, molecular biologists, radiotherapists, cancer epidemiologists, and M.D. and PhD candidates

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