Encyclopedia of Geology (12 Volume Set)

Enrique Walker (Editor)
Darrell Gomez (Editor)

Series: Geology and Mineralogy Research Developments
BISAC: SCI031000

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The Encyclopedia of Geology organizes researchers from around the world in geology and related disciplines and maintains an up-to-date reference work for readers worldwide.
(Imprint: Nova)

Volume 1

Preface

Chapter 1. The Sedimentary Basins of the Northern Campania Tyrrhenian Margin (Southern Italy): Geologic Evolution and Advances in Seismic Stratigraphy
(Gemma Aiello, PhD, Institute of Marine and Coastal Environment, National Research Council of Italy, Naples, Italy)

Chapter 2. XRF Analysis Applied to the Batateira River Formation (Araripe Sedimentary Basin, Ceará State, Brazil)
(Gabrielle Roveratti and Daniel Marcos Bonotto, Claretiano Faculdade, Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brasil, and others)

Chapter 3. Formation of Pull-Apart Basins, Cretaceous Volcano-Sedimentary Sequence, Hydrocarbon Pools and Sub-Volcanic Exploration: Case Studies from Peninsular India and Adjoining Indian Ocean
(K. S. Misra and Anshuman Misra, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, India, and others)

Chapter 4. Quantification of the 1999 Vulcanian Explosions at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan from Broadband Seismic Records
(Vyacheslav M. Zobin, Takeshi Tameguri and Masato Iguchi, Observatorio Vulcanológico, Universidad de Colima, Colima, México, and others)

Chapter 5. Observation of Vulcanian Explosions with Seismic and Acoustic Data at Popocatépet Volcano, Mexico
(Arámbula-Mendoza, Valdés-González, Varley, Juárez-García, Alonso-Rivera and Hernández-Joffre, Observatorio Vulcanológico, Colima, Colima, México, and others)

Chapter 6. Experience of the Detection of Ash Plume and Estimation of its Height using local Seismicity for Kamchatkan Volcanoes During 2003-2011 (Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia)
(Senyukov S. L., Droznina S. Ya. and Kozhevnikova T. Yu., Kamchatkan Branch of Geophysical Survey RAS, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia)

Chapter 7. Volcano Monitoring and Early Warning on Mt. Etna, Sicily based on Volcanic Tremor: Methods and Technical Aspects
(M. D’Agostino, G. Di Grazia, F. Ferrari, H. Langer, A. Messina, D. Reitano and S. Spampinato, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma, Catania, Italy, and others)

Chapter 8. From the Standard Strombolian Activity to the Volcanic Crises at Stromboli (Italy): An Overview of the Seismic Signatures
(G. Buccheri, E. De Lauro, S. De Martino, M. Falanga and M. Palo, Salerno University, Dept. Industrial Engineering, Ponte Don Melillo, Fisciano, Italy)

Chapter 9. Volcanic Hazard Assessment of Puracé Volcano, Columbia, based on Statistical Survival Analysis of the Historical Eruption Record: A Tutorial
(Yvonne Dziermaand Christian-Albrechts, Universität Kiel, German)

Chapter 10. Resolution of Different-scale Deformation Data Measured at Volcanoes and its Importance for Eruption Monitoring: Volcán de Colima, México
(Vyacheslav M. Zobin, Juan José Ramírez, Hydyn Santiago, Eliseo Alatorre, Carlos Navarro and Mauricio Bretón, Observatorio Vulcanológico, Universidad de Colima, Colima, México)

Chapter 11. The 2007-2012 Lava Dome Growth in the Crater of Volcán de Colima, México, Derived from Video Monitoring System
(Mauricio Bretón-González, Arnoldo Campos, Zoraida León, Imelda Plascencia and Juan José Ramírez, Observatorio Vulcanológico, Universidad de Colima, Colima, México)

Chapter 12. Seismic Signals Associated with Geothermal Activity within Volcanic Environment
(Vyacheslav M. Zobin, Observatorio Vulcanológico, Universidad de Colima, Colima, México)

Chapter 13. Geochemistry of Lower Pliocene to Holocene Formations of Doñana National Park (SW Spain)
(M. Pozo, M. I. Carretero, F. Ruiz, M. Olías, M. Abad, J. Rodríguez Vidal, L. M. Cáceres, M. I. Prudêncio, M. I. Dias, E. Font, A. M. Muñoz, T. Izquierdo and A. Toscano, Departamento de Geología y Geoquímica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain, and other)

Chapter 14. Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Pliocene Clay Deposits from West Portugal: Provenance Signals?
(Álvaro Oliveira, Pedro A. Dinis and Fernando T. Rocha, Laboratório do INETI de S. Mamede Infesta, Porto, Portugal, and others)

Chapter 15. Geochemistry of the Built Environment: Alteration Products of Stony Materials
(Carlos Alves, Centro de Investigação Geológica, Ordenamento e Valorização de Recursos, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga, Portugal)

Chapter 16. Generation of High-K Granites at the Archaean – Proterozoic Boundary
(Shukrani Manya, Department of Geology, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania)

Chapter 17. Biomineralization by Cave Dwelling Microorganisms
(A. Z. Miller, A. Dionísio, V. Jurado, S. Cuezva, S. Sanchez-Moral, J.C. Cañaveras and C. Saiz-Jimenez, Centro de Petrologia e Geoquímica, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisboa, Portugal, and others)

Chapter 18. Advances of Applied Geochemistry in China
(Xie Xuejing, Cheng Zhizhong, Yao Wensheng, Cheng Hangxin and Sun Zhongjun, Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, China)

Chapter 19. Geochemistry of Clays of Surficial Materials from the Paleozoic and Cenozoic of Reguengos de Monsaraz Region, Ossa Morena Zone
(M. Isabel Dias, ITN/IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Sacavém, Portugal)

Volume 2

Chapter 20. Concept of Sustained Ordering and ATP-Related Mechanism of Life Origin
(E. M. Galimov, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 21. Molecules and Life
(L. A. Gribov and V. I. Baranov, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 22. Prebiotic Evolution of Macromolecules. World of Peptides
(S. D. Varfolomeev, O. V. Demina, A. A. Khodonov, A. V. Laptev, E. N. Nikolaev, and A. S. Kononikhin, Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 23. Computer Simulation of the Evolution of the Genetic Code
(V. A. Dementiev, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 24. Photochemistry of Coenzymes as a Field of Evolution Studies
(M. S. Kritsky, T. A. Telegina, T. A. Lyudnkova, M. P. Kolesnikov, Yu. L. Vechtomova, O. A. Dashina, and E. A. Sviridov, Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 25. Computational Study of Possible Mechanisms of Adenine Synthesis
(I. V. Mikhura, V. F. Payulin, N. V. Bovin and A. A. Formanovsky, Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow State University, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 26. Insulation and Concentration of Adenosine Triphosphate under Prebiotic Conditions: Hypothesis and Experimental Data
(A. A. Chinarev, S. B. Tsygankova, I. V. Kubrakova and N. V. Bovin, Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 27. Synthesis of Adenine under Pulsed Discharge in the Gas Phase
(V. M. Lupatov, V. P. Strizhov and O. O. Naida, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 28. Peculiarities Associated with the Biogenic Formation of Mineral Phosphorous Compounds by Microorganisms at Different Stages of their Evolution
(I. S. Kulaev, T. V. Kulakovskaya, V. M. Vagabov, L. P. Lichko, N. A. Andreeva, L. V. Trilisenko, and L. P. Ryazanova, Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 29. Role of Impact Processes in the Abiogenic Synthesis of Organic Compounds at the Early Stages of Earth Formation
(M. V. Gerasimov and E. N. Safonova, Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 30. Prebiotic Synthesis of Biologically Significant Compounds under the Action of Cosmic Energy Sources
(E. A. Kuzicheva, N. B. Gontareva and M. B. Simakov, Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 31. Luminescence Detection and Study of Tightly Bound Stacking Aggregates of Nitrogen Bases of Nucleic Acids, Nucleosides, and Nucleotides in Water and on the Quartz Surface as Candidates for the First Genetic Templates
(V. L. Rapoport, V. M. Malkin, N. A. Bykov and V. V. Goryuchko, Fock Research Institute of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia)

Chapter 32. Chemical Intermediates in the Photomodels of ATP Synthesis
(O. S. Nedelina, O. N. Brzhevskaya, E. N. Degtyarev, A. S. Zubkov, V. I. Artyukhov and L. A. Chernozatonskii, Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 33. Optical and Photoelectrochemical Properties of Natural Photosynthetic Pigments and Porphyrins: Role of Hydrogen Peroxide
(I. A. Nagovitsyn, G. K. Chudinova, V. V. Savranskii,G. V. Sin’ko and G. G. Komissarov, Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 34. Mutual Transformations of О2 and Н2О2 upon Irradiation of Air-Saturated Suspensions Chlorophyll/Silica/Water
(A. V. Lobanov, Yu. A. Safina, O. V. Nevrova and G. G. Komissarov, Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia, and others)

Chapter 35. Photocatalytic Properties of Porphyrins in Dependence on the Nature of the Central Metal Atom
(V. A. Ilatovskii, G. A. Ptitsyn and G. G. Komissarov, Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 36. Current Status of the Problem of the Origin of the Earth–Moon System
(E. M. Galimov, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 37. From the Protosolar Cloud to the Planetary System: A Model for the Evolution of the Gas-Dust Disk
(M. Ya. Marov, A. V. Kolesnichenko, A. B. Makalkin,V. A. Dorofeeva, I. N. Ziglina and A. V. Chernov, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 38. Some Models for the Protoplanetary Disk of the Sun at the Initial Stage of its Evolution
(A. V. Zabrodin, E. A. Zabrodina, M. S. Legkostupov,K. V. Manukovskii and L. A. Pliner, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 39. Development of Algorithms for Computing the Collisional Dynamics of Gravitating Particles to Simulate the Formation of the Earth-Moon System through the Gravitational Collapse of a Dust Cloud
(A. A. Le-Zakharov and A. M. Krivtsov, Institute for Problems of Machine Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Volume 3

Chapter 40. Development of the Theory of the Origin and Early Evolution of the Earth
(V. V. Adushkin, A. V. Vityazev and G. V. Pechernikova, Institute for Dynamics of Geospheres, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 41. Bulk Composition and Core Sizes of the Moon
(O. L. Kuskov and V. A. Kronrod, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 42. Impulsive Heating of Gas-Dust Nebular Condensates as a Mechanism for the Conjugate Formation of Silicate Chondrules and Metal
(A. A. Ariskin, O. I. Yakovlev, K. A. Bychkov, G. S. Barmina and G. S. Nikolaev, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 43. Degassing of the Earth's Mantle and Metal Core Formation: Results of Experimental Modeling
(А. А. Kadik, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 44. Formation of the Primordial Sialic Material of the Earth: Possible Mechanisms and Sources
(S. A. Silantyev, E. V. Bibikova and A. A. Ariskin, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 45. Role of Salt Composition (K/Na) of Aqueous Environments in Biological Evolution
(Yu. V. Natochin, B. N. Ryzhenko and E. M. Galimov, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 46. Survivability of Bacteria and Phages Exposed to Short Heating, UV Radiation, and Electron Flows
(Yu. I. Zetser, Yu. N. Kiselev, Yu. V. Poklad, O. P. Popova, V. A. Rybakov, R. A. Dmitrieva, T. V. Doskina and A. E. Nedachin, Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia, and others)

Chapter 47. Role of Hydrogen and Metals in the Formation and Evolution of Metabolic Systems
(M. A. Fedonkin, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia, and others)

Chapter 48. Nanobiota of the World Ocean: Its Role in Modern Ecosystems and Possibilities of Reconstructing Ancient Ecosystems
(A. L. Vereshchaka, Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences,d Moskva, Russia, and others)

Chapter 49. Evolution and Development of Marine Biota in the Paleozoic as Affected by Abiotic Factors
(M. S. Barash, Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia, and others)

Chapter 50. Relicts and “Living Fossils” as Witnesses of the Modern Oceanic Fauna Formation
(O. N. Zezina, Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia, and others)

Chapter 51. Accumulation of Carbonaceous and Phosphate Deposits in the Phanerozoic in Relation with Intensity of Volcanism
(G. N. Baturin, Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia, and others)

Chapter 52. Global Climate Change and its Possible Relation to the Variations in Solar Activity
(V. А. Alexeev, A. I. Ivliev, L. F. Semenova and A. V. Fisenko, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia, and others)

Chapter 53. Cause-and-Effect Relationships and Factors of Global Biospheric Transformations in the Phanerozoic
(M. A. Akhmetiev, G. N. Aleksandrova, V. N. Beniamovski, V. S. Vishnevskaya, Yu. O. Gavrilov, A. B. Herman, N. I. Zaporozhets, T. M. Kodrul, M. G. Moiseeva, S. V. Naugolnykh, T. V. Oreshkina, K. A. Pechnikova, N. M. Chumakov and E. A. Shcherbinina, Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia, and others)

Chapter 54. Lakhanda Microbiota, Upper Riphean of Siberia: Paleoecology and Taphonomy
(V. N. Podkovyrov, Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 55. New Morphotypes from the Lakhanda Microbiota of the Upper Riphean of Siberia
(T. N. Hermann, Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Chapter 56. The Vendian Microfossil Assemblages of Eastern Siberia and their Biostratigraphic Potential
(E. Yu. Golubkova and E. G. Raevskaya, Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Russia)

Volume 4

Chapter 57. Mechanistic Analysis of Reactions of Cyclic Ylide-Like Carbene Analogues Containing Germanium and Other Heavier Group 14 Elements
(Ming-Der Su, Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan)

Chapter 58. Characterization of Ge Epitaxial Film on Si (100) Substrate Using a Three-Step Growth Approach
(Y. H. Tan and C. S. Tan, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)

Chapter 59. Metal-Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Germanium and Microstructural Characteristics
(Zhiwen Chen, Chan-Hung Shek, C. M. Lawrence Wu snd Joseph K. L. Lai, Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China, and others)

Chapter 60. Synthesis, Structure and Optical Properties of Germanium and Silicon Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Oxide Layers
(Takeo Oku, Department of Materials Science, University of Shiga Prefecture,
Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga, Japan)

Chapter 61. X-Ray Crystal Optics Based on Germanium Single Crystals
(D. Korytár, P. Vagovič, C. Ferrari and P. Šiffalovič, Institute of Electrical Engineering, SAS, Bratislava, Slovakia, and others)

Chapter 62. Effect of Oxidation Step on the Properties of Germanium-Containing Catalysts for Naphtha Reforming
(Maria do Carmo Rangel, Karla C. S. Conceição, Javier Mario Grau, Carlos L. Pieck, Vanina A. Mazzieri, Jose L. G. Fierro and Luciene S. Carvalho, GECCAT Grupo de Estudos em Cinética e Catálise, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Federação, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 63. Types of Petroleum Reservoirs in Carbonate Sediments of the Russia Basins
(Vitaly G. Kuznetsov, Gubkin’s Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow, Russia)

Chapter 64. Physical Redistribution of Calcium Carbonate in a Soil Pore System: An Experiment Using Soil Micromorphology and Image Analysis
(Laura Gargiulo, Giacomo Mele and Fabio Terribile, Instituto per i Sistemi Agricoli e Forestali del Mediterraneo, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Ercolano, Italy, and others)

Chapter 65. Functional Polymers Based on Carbonates Obtained from CO2
(Bungo Ochiai and Takeshi Endo, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata, Japan, and others)

Chapter 66. Alternative Procedures for the Synthesis of Linear Carbonates from Alcohols and Carbon Dioxide
(Felipe Bustamante, Oscar Arbeláez, Oscar Arbeláez and Aída Luz Villa, Environmental Catalysis Research Group, Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia)

Chapter 67. Biomineralization: An Inspiration from Nature for the Synthesis of Advanced Materials
(Nonni Soraya Sambudi and Prakash C. Sahoo, Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Greece, and others)

Chapter 68. The Application of an in Vitro Method for Mineral Bioaccessibility Estimation in the Nutritional Optimization of Special Food Formulas
(M. G. Galán and S. R. Drago, Instituto de Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina, and others)

Chapter 69. Monazite Mineral Processing
(Sanjay Agarwal, HongIn Kim, K H Park and Jin Young Lee, Metal Extraction & Recycling Division, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, India, and others)

Chapter 70. Hydrometallurgical Processing Technology for Recovery of the Light Rare Earth Metals: Scandium (III) and Neodmium (III) from Primary and Secondary Sources
(Pankaj Kumar Parhi, Saroj Sekhar Behera, Suprava Das, Braja Mohan Murmu and Raghabendra Samantaray, School of Applied Sciences and School of Chemical Technology, School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, India)

Chapter 71. The Metal Headframe as an Example of Ore-Extraction Technology: Structural Analysis through Computer-Aided Engineering Techniques with Autodesk Inventor Professional
(José Ignacio Rojas-Sola, Fernando Ramón Palomeque-Ruiz and Eduardo de la Morena-de la Fuente, Department of Engineering Graphics, Design and Projects, University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain)

Chapter 72. Processing Technology for Treatment of Primary and Secondary Source Bearing Base Metals: Comprehensive Hydrometallurgical Approach on Recovery of Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn)
(Pankaj Kumar Parhi, Saroj Sekhar Behera, Ranjan Kumar Mohapatrb and Debadutta Das, School of Applied Sciences & School of Chemical Technology, School of
Biotechnology, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, India, and others)

Volume 5

Chapter 73. Sandstone Minerals as Indicators of Helium Residence Time in a Rock: Ground Water System
(M. Gannibal and I. Tolstikhin, Geological Institute, Kola Scientific Centre, RAS, Apatity, Russia, and others)

Chapter 74. Water Imbibition into Sandstones: Influence of Flow Rate on Water Distribution and Acoustic Response
(Sofia Lopes, Maxim Lebedev and Tobias M. Müller, Curtin University, Department of Exploration Geophysics, Australia and others)

Chapter 75. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Dry and Fluid-Saturated Sandstones at High Temperatures and High Pressures: Review of the Experimental Methods and Modeling
(Zumrud Z. Abdulagatova,Ilmutdin M. Abdulagatov and Aziz I. Abdulagatov, Institute of Physics of the Dagestan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Makhachkala, Dagestan, Russia, and others)

Chapter 76. Diagenetic Chlorite: Example of an Intra Sandstone Reservoir Seal - From Palaeocene Tyr Member Sandstone, Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea
(A. M. Kazerouni, H. Friis and J. P. V. Hansen, Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark, and others)

Chapter 77. The Effect of Burial on Clay Mineral Diagenesis and Quartz Cementation in Mudstones: Examples from the Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea
(A. M. Kazerouni, H. Friis, J. P. V. Hansen and O. B. Nielsen, Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark, and others)

Chapter 78. Do Twinned Nuclei Promote Growth of K-Feldspar in Granitic Liquids?
(R. H. Vernon, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and ARC National Key Centre for GEMOC, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia)

Chapter 79. Unimpeded Growth of K-Feldspar Megacrysts in Granitic Liquids
(R. H. Vernon, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and ARC National Key Centre for GEMOC, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia)

Chapter 80. Multiple Growth Twinning of K-Feldspar in Hypersolvus Granite
(R. H. Vernon and S. P. Turner, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and ARC National Key Centre for GEMOC, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia)

Chapter 81. Crystallization Conditions of Feldspars in Basement Rocks in Bangladesh
(Ismail Hossain and Toshiaki Tsunogae, Department of Geology and Mining, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh, and others)

Chapter 82. Patterns of Phosphorus Enrichment in Alkali Feldspars: Bohemian Massif, Central European Hercynides
(Miloš René, Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic)

Chapter 83. Laboratory Beneficiation and Industrial Evaluation of Jordanian Feldspar
(Mousa Gougazeh, Natural Resources and Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tafila Technical University, Tafila, Jordan)

Volume 6

Chapter 84. Conflict Minerals: Stakeholder Options for Responsible Sourcing Are Expanding, but More Information on Smelters Is Needed

Chapter 85. SEC Conflict Minerals Rule: Information on Responsible Sourcing and Companies Affected

Chapter 86. Revisiting Mountain Areas
(António Bento-Gonçalves, António Vieira, Paula Alexandra Malta, Luís da Vinha, Luciano Lourenço and Adélia Nunes, Center for Studies in Geography and Spatial Planning, Geography Department, Institute of Social Sciences, University of Minho, Portugal, and others)

Chapter 87. The Use of Remote Sensing for Analyzing Geology, Topography and Environmental Changes in Mountains
(Lubos Matejicek, Jaroslav Tonika and Marek Biskupic, Institute for Environmental Studies, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Natural Science)

Chapter 88. Sierra Nevada Range, the Biodiversity Legacy of the Southernmost European Glaciated Mountain
(Juan Carlos Linares, Ana Isabel García-Cervigón Morales, María Luisa Dugo-Díaz, Daniel Garcilaso, Víctor Lechuga, María del Carmen Blanes, Benjamín Viñegla, Dpto. Sistemas Físicos, Químicos y Naturales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Spain, and others)

Chapter 89. Climate or Topography: Topography of Mountains as Basis of Modern Glacier Variations, Exemplified by 6500 up to 8000 m High Summits in High Asia - Evidences of Holocene and History as well as Current Glacial Stages
(Matthias Kuhle , Geography and High Mountain Geomorphology, Geographical Institute, University of Göttingen, Germany)

Chapter 90. Mountain Ecosystems of Greater Caucasus under Global Warming: Predictive Landscape-Ecological Modeling
(Erland G. Kolomyts, Institute of Ecology of the Volga River Basin, Russian Academy of Sciences, Togliatti, Russia)

Chapter 91. Environmental Concerns of Portuguese Mountains: A Case Study in the Central Mountains
(Luciano Lourenço, Adélia N. Nunes, António Bento-Gonçalves and António Vieira, Centro de Estudos em Geografia e Ordenamento do Território, Departamento de Geografia da Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal)

Chapter 92. Environmental Concerns, Vulnerability of a Subsistence System and Traditional Ecological Knowledge in the High Atlas of Morocco
(Bernadette Montanari, Centre for Biocultural Diversity, University of Kent, England)

Chapter 93. Ecology and Environmental Issues of Aquatic Invertebrates in High Mountain Rivers of Northern Chile
(Ingrid E. Alvial, Catalina Verdugo, Daniel H. Tapia and Francisco A. Squeo, Center for Advanced Studies in Arid Zones, Raúl Bitrán, Colina El Pino, La Serena, Chile)

Chapter 94. Density of Lianas Following the Topo-Sequence in the Mountainous Rainforest of Kahuzi-Biega National Park
(Masumbuko Ndabaga Céphas, Habiyaremye Muhashy and Meerts Pierre, Université Officielle de Bukavu, Conog, and others)

Chapter 95. Persistent Organic Pollutants in a Multimedia Environment of a High Altitude Prairie in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
(Yong-Liang Yang, Jing Pan, Nan Gai, Guo-Hui Lu, Shu Chen, Xiao-Hua Zhu
National Research Center of Geoanalysis, Beijing, China)

Chapter 96. Physiological Processes during Respiratory Acclimatization to Low Inspired Oxygen
(Christopher B. Wolff, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London Hospital Medical and Dental School, Anaesthetics Laboratory, London, UK)

Chapter 97. Oxygen Delivery at Sea Level and High Altitude: Altitude, Anaemia and Anaesthesia
(Christopher B. Wolff, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London Hospital Medical and Dental School, Anaesthetics Laboratory, London, UK)

Chapter 98. Realising Design Projects in the Mountains of Australia: A Repositioned Problem-Solving Approach
(Beau B. Beza. Environment, Planning and Sustainability Discipline, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia)

Volume 7

Chapter 99. Calcium Orthophosphates: Occurrence, Properties and Major Applications
(Sergey V. Dorozhkin, Kudrinskaja, Moscow, Russia)

Chapter 100. Nanocrystalline Apatites: Synthesis, Physical-Chemical and Thermodynamic Characterization
(Michele Iafisco, José Manuel Delgad-López and Christophe Drouet, National Research Council, Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, Faenza, Italy, and others)

Chapter 101. Behind Apatite Formation: An Attempt at Conceptualizing Nature
(Marianthi Manda-Guiba, Ioanna Stasinopoulou and Dimitris Christofilos, Physics Division, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, GR, Thessaloniki, Greece)

Chapter 102. Distribution of Carbonate Ions in Biological Apatite and Excess Fluorine in Francolite
(Michael E. Fleet, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada)

Chapter 103. Diagnosis of Apatite Deposits in Skin Calcified Tissues: Biomedical Applications of Vibrational Spectroscopy
(Shan-Yang Lin, Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Technology, Yuanpei University, Hsin Chu, Taiwan, Republic of China)

Chapter 104. The Dissolution Mechanism of Calcium Apatites in Acids
(Sergey V. Dorozhkin, Kudrinskaja, Moscow, Russia)

Chapter 105. High-Temperature In Situ XRD Investigations of Apatites. Structural Interpretation of Thermal Deformations
(Evgeny N. Bulanov and Alexander V. Knyazev, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Russia)

Chapter 106. Nanocrystalline Apatites Functionalized with Monoclonal Antibodies for Targeted Cancer Therapies
(Maria Prat, Francesca Oltolina, Luca Gregoletto, José Manuel Delgado-López, Jaime Gómez-Morales, Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università del Piemonte Orientale “A. Avogadro”, Novara, Italy, and others)
Chapter 107. Biocompatible Apatite Nanoparticles: A Versatile Tool for Cellular Delivery of Genes, siRNAs, Drugs and Proteins
(Sharif Hossain, Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury, Nihad Adnan and Toshihiro Akaike, Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Japan, and others)

Chapter 108. Apatite Enrichment of Hydrogel Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration
(Timothy E.L. Douglas, Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials (PBM) Group, Gent, Belgium)

Chapter 109. Functionalized Apatite Nanocrystals for Biomedical Applications
(Luis M. Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Polymeric Nanomaterials and Biomaterials, Institute of Polymer Science and Technology, Spanish Research Council)

Chapter 110. Apatite As Biomaterial in Hard Tissue Engineering: An Overview
(Chieko Yamagata, Andrea D. Rodas, Olga Z. Higa, Agatha M. Misso, Fernando S. Silva and Signo T. Reis, Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 111. Hematite Nanotubes and Nanorings
(M. Gotić, T. Jurkin and G. Dražić, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička, Zagre, Croatia, and others)

Chapter 112. Reactions at the Hematite Surface with Fe(II) and Environmental Contaminants
(Philip Larese-Casanova, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, US)

Chapter 113. Nanostructured Hematite for Solar-Driven Hydrogen Generation
(B. Vaidhyanathan, S. Saremi-Yarahmadi, U. Wijayantha and A. A. Tahir)

Chapter 114. The Catalytic Properties of Sulfated Hematite in Toluene Disproportionation
(Maria do Carmo Rangel, Hadma Sousa Ferreira, Lílian Sacramento Costa, Saulo de Tarso Figueiredo Grecco, Antônia Santana Oliveira, Sérgio Gustavo Marchetti, Patricio Reyes and Marcelo Oportus, GECCAT Grupo de Estudos em Cinética e Catálise, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitário de Ondina, Federação, Salvador, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 115. Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Property of Nanostructured Hematite
(Xuemei Zhou, Wanying Lei and Gang Liu, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, China)

Volume 8

Chapter 116. Hydrothermal Crystal Growth from SiO2 - GeO2 Solid Solution for Piezoelectric Applications
(Mythili Prakasam and Alain Largeteau, CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, Pessac, France)

Chapter 117. Reduction of Anti-Tumor Immunity Caused by Asbestos Exposure
(Naoko Kumagai-Takei, Yasumitsu Nishimura, Hidenori Matsuzaki, Suni Lee, Kei Yoshitome, Shoko Yamamoto, Tamayo Hatayama, Megumi Maeda and Takemi Otsuki, Department of Hygiene, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan, and others)

Chapter 118. Estimating Impacts of Asbestos-Related Malignant Mesothelioma: Quantification of Life Expectancy Lost and Lifetime Healthcare Expenditures in Taiwan
(Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn Lee, Ken Takahashi, Yu-Yin Chang and Jung-Der Wang, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli, Taiwan, and others)

Chapter 119. Asbestos in Argentina: Mineralogical and Morphological Characterization. Environmental impact
(Lescano Leticia, Marfil Silvina, Sfragulla Jorge, Bonalumi Aldo, Locati Francisco and Maiza Pedro, Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan, Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and others)

Chapter 120. Asbestos-Related Pleuritis and Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)-Associated Vasculitis
(Yoshinori Kinoshita, Ayako Hara, Takao Ogawa, Misa Song, Keita Hosoi and Kyongyob Min, Respiratory Division of Internal Medicine, Itami-City Hospital, Japan, and others)

Chapter 121. Protective Policies against Asbestos Disaster in Japan
(Hiroyuki Mori and Shinjiro Minami, Ritsumeikan University, Iwakura-cho Ibaraki, Osaka, Japan)

Chapter 122. Epidemiological Patterns of Environmental Asbestos-Related Disease
(Francine Baumann, ERIM, University of New Caledonia, Noumea, New Caledonia)

Chapter 123. Asbestos-Containing Floor Tile and Mastic: A Discussion of Exposure and Regulatory Issues
(JH Lange and Luca Cegolon, Envirosafe Training and Consultants, Pittsburgh, PA, US, and others)

Chapter 124. Putative Role of Asbestos Exposure in the Development of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma
(Giovanni Brandi, Simona Tavolari, Guido Biasco, Stefano Mattioli, Francesco Saverio Violante and Andrea Farioli, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy, and others)

Chapter 125. U.S. Geological Survey: Background, Appropriations, and Issues for Congress
(Pervaze A. Sheikh and Peter Folger, Specialist in Natural Resources Policy, and others)

Chapter 126. Facing Tomorrow’s Challenges: U.S. Geological Science in the Decade 2007-2017

Chapter 127. Landsat: Overview and Issues for Congress
(Peter Folger, Specialist in Energy and Natural Resources Policy)

Chapter 128. Budget Oversight Hearing Memorandum on ''Examining the Spending Priorities and Mission of the U.S. Geological Survey in the President’s FY 2016 Budget Proposal''

Chapter 129. Statement of Dr. Suzette Kimball, Acting Director, U.S. Geological Survey. Hearing on ''Examining the Spending Priorities and Mission of the U.S. Geological Survey in the President’s FY 2016 Budget Proposal''

Chapter 130. Changes in Phytoavailable Concentrations in a Mine Soil Following the Application of Technosols and Biochar with Brassica juncea L.
(Rubén Forjána, Alfonso Rodríguez-Vila, Rafael Silva Guedes and Emma F. Covelo, Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, Faculty of Biology, University of Vigo, Lagoas, Marcosende, Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain, and others)

Chapter 131. The Effects of Switchgrass-Derived Biochar on Bioenergy Crop Yield, Plant Composition, and Soil Properties
(Charles W. Edmunds, Amy Johnson, Pyoungchung Kim, Arnold M. Saxton, Mark Radosevich, Timothy G. Rials and Nicole Labbé, Center for Renewable CarbonUniversity of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, US, and others)

Chapter 132. Physical-Chemical Properties of Sawdust Biochar
(Yijun Zhao, Dongdong Feng, Zhibo Zhang, Shaozeng Sun and Yaning Zhang, School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China)

Volume 9

Chapter 133. Mesozoic Dolomite Aquifers in the Northwest of the Arabian Plate
(Wolfgang Wagner, Hohenzollernstr, Hannover, Germany)

Chapter 134. Characteristics and Applications of some Dolomitic Rocks from Argentina
(S. Marfil, L. Lescano, F. Locati and P. Maiza, Geology Department, San Juan, Bahía Blanca, Argentina, and others)

Chapter 135. Aquatic Reactivity of Dolomite: Surface Speciation and Metal Hydration Control
(Oleg S. Pokrovsky and Jacques Schott, Geoscience and Environment Toulouse, Belin, Toulouse, France)

Chapter 136. Formation of Dolomite Analogues at Ambient Conditions
(C.M. Pina and C. Pimentel, Departamento de Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Geociencias, Madrid, Spain)

Chapter 137. Synthesis of Ca and Mg Carbonates Including Protodolomite from Aqueous Solutions: The Influence of Chemical Affinity, Mg/Ca, pH, pCO2 and Temperature and Application to Natural Environments
(O. S. Pokrovsky, Toulouse, France)

Chapter 138. Manganese and Copper Oxide Catalysts Deposited on Dolomite Substrate for Groundwater Purification
(A. I. Ivanets, T. F. Kuznetsova and E. A. Voronets, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus)

Chapter 139. Genesis, Structure and Modern Methods of Dolomite Processing
(Y. I. Ryabkov, L. Y. Nazarova and A. B. Rinkevich, Institute of Chemistry, Komi Science Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation, and others)

Chapter 140. Clay and Clay-supported Materials for Clean Energy Storage Applications
(Nicholas M. Musyoka and Henrietta W. Langmi, HySA Infrastructure Centre of Competence, Materials Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa)

Chapter 141. Traditional and Modern uses of Bentonite Clay and Implications on the Environment
(Derrick S. Dlamini)

Chapter 142. Organo-Bentonite Adsorbents for Dyes and other Organic Pollutants in Water
(Susmita Sen Gupta and Krishna G Bhattacharyya, Department of Chemistry, B N College, Dhubri, Assam, India, and others)

Chapter 143. Bentonite and its Composites: Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Water
(Sadanand Pandey and Shivani B. Mishra, Department of Applied chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontien, Johannesburg, South Africa)

Chapter 144. Applications of Bentonite and its role as a base of Engineering Chemistry
(Tanvir Arfin, Environmental Materials Division, CSIR-National Environmental Engineering, India, and others)

Chapter 145. Utility of Bentonite Composite for Wastewater Treatment
(Rohit Bhatia, Bharti Arora, Jitender Gaur, Eun Ha Choi and Pankaj Attri, Department of Science and Life, Satyawati College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India, and others)

Chapter 146. Bentonite: A Versetile Clay
(Pradeep Pratap Singh and Ambika, Department of Chemistry, Swami Shraddhanand College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India, and others)

Volume 10

Chapter 147. In-Situ Investigation of the Melt Structures in Borate Crystal Growth Systems
(Songming Wan, Anhui Key Laboratory for Photonic Devices and Materials, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, P. R. China)

Chapter 148. Doped Organic Crystals with High Efficiency, Color-tunable Emission toward Laser Application
(Yang Zhao and Huan Wang, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing, P. R. China)

Chapter 149. Modeling Effects of Impurities on Crystal Growth
(Issam A. Khaddour, Pharmaceutical Faculty, AlAndalus University, AlKadmous, Syria)

Chapter 150. Single Crystal Growth by a Slow Evaporation Technique: Concept, Mechanisms and Applications
(Sahajkumar A. Gandhi, Physics Department, Bhavan’s Shri I. L. Pandya Arts–Science and Smt. J. M. Shah Commerce College, Sardar Patel University, Dakor, Gujarat, India)

Chapter 151. Targeted Synthesis of Metastable Compounds and Intergrowths: The Modulated Elemental Reactants Method
(Marco Esters and David C. Johnson, Department of Chemistry, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, US)

Chapter 152. Analysis for the Morphology Prediction of Materials from First Principles Calculations
(Marisa Carvalho de Oliveira, Thiago Marinho Duarte, Lourdes Gracia, Elson Longo and Juan Andres, Departmentof Analytical and Physical Chemistry, University Jaume I, Castelló, Spain, and others)

Chapter 153. Growth Behaviors of CaCO3 Polymorphs under Various Environmental Conditions
(Clifford Y. Tai, Meng-Chieh Lin, Su-Chun How, Yu-Hong Cheng, and Steven S. S. Wang, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan)

Chapter 154. Weak Nonlinear Three-Dimensional Convective Flow during the Solidification of Binary Alloys
(Dambaru Bhatta and Daniel N. Riahi, School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences
The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley Edinburg, Brownsville, Texas, US)

Chapter 155. Metal–Organic Frameworks: Design and Applications
(Yue Liang, Xia Zhang and Da-Bin Qin, Key Laboratory of Chemical Synthesis and Pollution Control of Sichuan Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong, P. R. China)

Chapter 156. Concept, Property and Applicability of Liquid Crystals
(Saswati Roy, Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, India)

Chapter 157. The Correlation of Density, Refractive Index and Dielectric Studies on Two Peculiar Liquid Crystals
(Debanjan Bhattacharjee and Ayon Bhattacharjee, National Institute of Technology Meghalaya, Shillong, India)

Chapter 158. X-Ray, Spectroscopic and Computational Studies of [N'-(2-Hydroxy-3-Methoxybenzylidene)-4-Methylbenzenesulfonohydrazide]Copper(ıı)
(Çiğdem Yüksektepe Atao, Nuray Şenyüz, Feyizan Güntepe, Murat Taş and Hümeyra Bati, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Cankiri Karatekin University, Uluyazi, Cankiri, Turkey, and others)

Chapter 159. Fenamate Crystals and Cocrystals: Structural and Thermodynamic Aspects
(German L. Perlovich and Artem O. Surov, Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences, G.A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry RAS, Ivanovo, Russia)

Volume 11

Chapter 160. Cluster Deposition and Implantation on/in Graphite
(Vladimir N. Popok, Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej, Aalborg, Denmark)

Chapter 161. Microstructural Factors which Govern the Oxidative Properties of Graphite
(Heinrich Badenhorst, Brian Rand and Walter W. Focke, SARChI Chair in Carbon Materials and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Lynwood Road, Pretoria, South Africa)

Chapter 162. Thermal Stability of Fully Lithiated Graphite
(Yoon-Soo Park and Sung-Man Lee, Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon Kangwon-Do, Republic of Korea)

Chapter 163. Ethylene-octene Copolymer/Graphite Composites: Electrical and Thermal Conductivities and Flame Resistance
(Petr Svoboda, Centre of Polymer Systems, Department of Polymer Engineering, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Zlin, Czech Republic)

Chapter 164. Nanoscale sp2→sp3 Conversion by Visible Light Irradiation in Graphite
(L. Radosinski, K. Nishioka, K. Nasu and D. Wojt, Wroclaw University of Technology, The Department of Chemistry, Group of Chemical and Biochemical Processes, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego, Wroclaw, Poland, and others)

Chapter 165. Application of Graphite Nanoparticles in Ultrafast Fiber Lasers
(Yung-Hsiang Lin and Gong-Ru Lin, Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taiwan)

Chapter 166. Graphite: Sailing in a Cost-Effective Electron Sea
(Gabriela da Cruz Mello, Edilson Moura Pinto, Eduardo Ariel Ponzio and Felipe Silva Semaan, Departamento de Química Analítica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro São João Batista, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 167. Graphite Powder and Related Material as the Principal Components of Carbon Paste Electrodes
(Ivan Švancara, Tomáš Mikysek, Matěj Stočes and Jiří Ludvík, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Pardubice, Czech Republic, and others)

Chapter 168. Structural Mimicry of Carbon Driven by Ultrashort Laser Pulses
(Sergey I. Kudryashov and Nikolay N. Melnik, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Chapter 169. Advances in Gasification of Nuclear Graphite: Chemical Reactions, Kinetics Model validation and analyses Results
(Mohamed S. El-Genk and Jean-Michel Tournier, Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, US, and others)

Chapter 170. Doping Strategies in Mixed Conducting Fluorites as Potential Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)
(Vanessa C. D. Graça, Francisco J. A. Loureiro and Duncan P. Fagg, Centre for Mechanical Technology and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal)

Chapter 171. The Jahn-Teller Effect in Elastic Moduli of Cubic Crystals: General Theory and Application to Strontium Fluorite Doped with Chromium Ions
(Nikita S. Averkiev, Isaac B. Bersuker, Vladimir V. Gudkov, Irina V. Zhevstovskikh, Maksim N. Sarychev, Sergei Zherlitsyn, Shadi Yasin, Gilman S. Shakurov, Vladimir A. Ulanov and Vladimir T. Surikov, A. F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia, and others)

Chapter 172. Nanostructured Solid Solutions of the Fluorite Type Crystal Structure
(S. Boskovic and B. Matovic, Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinča, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia)

Volume 12

Chapter 173. Imparting Functionality to Clays by Manipulating the Interlayer Chemistry
(Sudip Malik and Kausik Dana, Polymer Science Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation Science, Kolkata, India, and others)

Chapter 174. Effect of TMAOH on Synthesis of Zeolite LTA from Metakaolin Using Conventional Hydrothermal and Alkaline Fusion Methods
(Sazmal E. Arshad, K. S. Leong and Siti Z. Patuwan, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia)

Chapter 175. Study on Rheological Properties of Kaolin and Bentonite Slurry Solutions
(Sazmal E. Arshad, K. S. Leong and Siti Z. Patuwan, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia)

Chapter 176. Cordierite Ceramics: Clay Minerals Precursors and Nanocomposite Applications
(Marta Valášková and Gražyna Simha Martynková, Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic)

Chapter 177. Clay-Semiconductor Nanocomposites for Photocatalytic Applications
(N. V. S. Praneeth and Santanu Paria, Interfaces and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha, India)

Chapter 178. Removal of Nitrate from Water Using Clay and Clay Minerals
(Shishir K. Behera and A.Vinati, Department of Chemical Engineering, GMR Institute of Technology, Rajam, Srikakulam, India)

Chapter 179. Adsorptive Removal of Methylene Blue (MB) Dye at Kaolin Clay-Water Interface: Kinetics, Isotherm Modelling and Process Design
(Sara Dawood, Tanvi Gupta and Tushar K. Sen, Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Australia)

Chapter 180. Use of Metakaolin as a Supplementary Cementitous Material in Concrete
(Salim Barbhuiya, Department of Civil Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Australia)

Chapter 181. Geothermal Energy Systems, Technology, Geology, Greenhouse Gases and Environmental Pollution Control
(Abdeen Mustafa Omer, Energy Research Institute, Forest Road West, Nottingham, UK)

Chapter 182. Geothermal waters from composite clastic sedimentary reservoirs: geology, production, overexploitation, well cycling and leakage – A case study of the Mura Basin (SW Pannonian Basin)
(Polona Kralj, Geological Survey of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia, and others)

Chapter 183. Geophysical Approach for the Detection and Evaluation of Geothermal Energy Potential Stimulated from Geology and Tectonics in Cappadocia region (Central Turkey)
(Nafiz Maden, Department of Geophysics, Gümüşhane University, Gümüşhane, Turkey)

Chapter 184. The Use of Remote Sensing for Analyzing Geology, Topography and Environmental Changes in Mountains
(Lubos Matejicek, Jaroslav Tonika and Marek Biskupic, Institute for Environmental Studies, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Natural Science, Czech Republic)

Chapter 185. History-Radon-Geology Connections
(I. Burian, J. Merta and P. Otahal, National Institute for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Protection

Chapter 186. Fluorspar Deposits at Okorusu, North-Central Namibia: Economic Importance, History of Mining, and Geology
(Richard D. Hagni, Curators' Professor of Geology Emeritus, Department of Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri, US)

Chapter 187. Case-Based Curricula Materials for Contextualized and Interdisciplinary Biology and Geology Learning
(Clara Vasconcelos and Joana Faria, Earth Science Institute/Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Oporto, Portugal, and others)

Chapter 188. Geology Teaching: A Practical Fieldwork Activity for High Education
(Gina Pereira Correia, PhD, CITEUC, University of Coimbra’s Earth and Space Research Centre, Coimbra, Portugal)

Index

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