Encyclopedia of Dermatology (6 Volume Set)


Meghan Pratt (Editor)

Series: Dermatology – Laboratory and Clinical Research
BISAC: MED017000

This encyclopedia presents important research on dermatological advances. This six set volume includes discussions on the structure and composition of the dermis layer of the skin; the biosynthesis, functions and health benefits of melanin; the genetics, as well as the geographic variation and disorders, of skin pigmentation; the causes, diagnosis and treatment of alopecia, rosacea, candidiasis, cyanosis, psoriasis, and bullous pemphigoid; new research on skin aging; risk factors, protection practices and health effects of sun exposure; skin cancer prevention; the use of sunscreen; skin cancer prevention guidance for schools and youth; and the epidemiology, management and impact on muscle and joint functions of burns.
(Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Chapter 1
Cellular and Histological Changes in Dermis Aging
(C.M. Bernal-Mañas, C. Ferrer, E. Beltrán-Frutos, V. Seco-Rovira, L.M. Pastor, Department of Pathology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Cartagena, Murcia, Spain, and others)

Chapter 2
Non-invasive Methods in the Study of the Dermal Structure and Composition
(Jalil Bensaci, Georgios N. Stamatas, SkinCare R&D, Johnson & Johnson Santé Beauté France, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France)

Chapter 3
Dermal and Epidermal Interaction: A Critical Role for Skin Homeostasis
(Carla Abdo Brohem, Márcio Lorencini, Grupo Boticário, R&D Department, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brazil)

Chapter 4
Melanogenesis and Natural Hypopigmentation Agents
(H.M. Chiang, H.W. Chen, Y.H. Huang, S.Y. Chan, C.C. Chen, W.C. Wu, K.C. Wen, Department of Cosmeceutics, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan)

Chapter 5
Fungal Melanins: Biosynthesis and Biological Functions
(Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Joshua Daniel Nosanchuk, Rosely Maria Zancope-Oliveira, Laboratorio de Micologia, Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 6
The Coat Color Genes Regulate Eumelanin and Pheomelanin Synthesis in Melanocytes
(Tomohisa Hirobe, Radiation Risk Reduction Research Program, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba, Japan)

Chapter 7
The Role of Melanin Production in Gaeumannomyces graminis Infection of Cereal Plants
(Hanafy Fouly, Shelby Henning, Osman Radwan, Henry Wilkinson, Bruce Martin, Department of Entomology, Soil and Plant Sciences, Clemson University, South Carolina, USA, and others)

Chapter 8
Skin Anatomy and Physiology Research Developments in Melanocytes
(Naoki Oiso, Akira Kawada, Department of Dermatology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka, Japan)

Chapter 9
Optical Spectroscopy and Structural Properties of Synthetic and Natural Eumelanin
(Giuseppe Perna, Vito Capozzi, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Foggia, Foggia, Italy)

Chapter 10
Melanic Pigmentation in Ectothermic Vertebrates: Occurrence and Function
(Classius de Oliveira, Lilian Franco-Belussi, São Paulo State University – UNESP, IBILCE – São José do Rio Preto, Department of Biology, São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 11
Fairness in a Natural Way: Novel Polyherbal Ingredients Inhibiting Melanin Synthesis and Transfer)
(S. Gokulshankar, M.S. Ranjith, Babu, M.A. Deepa, B.K. Mohanty, G. Prabhakaran, Faculty of Medicine, AIMST University, Semeling, Malaysia, and others)

Chapter 12
The Melanocortin-1 Receptor: A Key Melanoma Risk Determinant and a Critical Regulator of the UV DNA Damage Repair Response
(Stuart G. Jarrett, Alexandra Amaro-Ortiz, Jason Tucker, John D’Orazio, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, The Markey Cancer Center, The Graduate Center for Toxicology and the Departments of Pediatrics and of Molecular and Biomedical Pharmacology, Lexington, KY, USA)

Chapter 13
MC1R, EDNRB, and Kit Signaling in Pigmentation Regulation and Related Disorders
(Javier Pino, Lidia Kos, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA)

Chapter 14
Multiple Genes and Diverse Hierarchical Pathways Affect Human Pigmentation
(C. Ganesh, Anita Damodaran, Martin R. Green, Sheila Rocha, Nicole Pauloski, Shilpa Vora, Unilever R&D Bangalore, India, and others)

Chapter 15
Acquired Skin Pigmentation
(Hideo Nakayama, Nakayama Dermatology Clinic, Kami-Ohsaki Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan)

Chapter 16
The Pro-Opiomelanocortin (POMC) and Melanocortin System in Regulation of Human Skin Pigmentation
(Han-En Tsai, Elsa C. Chan, Gregory J. Dusting, Guei-Sheung Liu, Institute of Biomedical Science, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, and others)

Chapter 17
Overview on the Melanocyte Precursor Migration from the Neural Crest
(Toyoko Akiyama, Ai Shinomiya, Department of Biology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Japan)

Chapter 18
Radiation Treatment and Alopecia: Past and Present Concerns
(Paula Boaventura, Dina Pereira, José Teixeira-Gomes, Paula Soares, IPATIMUP (Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology), Porto, Portugal, and others)

Chapter 19
Psychosocial Aspects in Alopecia Areata: Studies on Stress Involvement in Adults and Children
(Liana Manolache, Cetatea Histria Polyclinic, Bucharest, Romania)

Chapter 20
The Power of the Gene: The Origin and Impact of Genetic Disorders
(Naoki Oiso, Akira Kawada, Department of Dermatology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka, Japan)

Chapter 21
Alopecia Areata: Treatment Options
(Emina Kasumagiæ-Halilovic, Nermina Ovcina-Kurtovic, University Clinical Center, Department of Dermatovenerology, Bolnièka, Sarajevo, Bosna i Hercegovina)

Chapter 22
The Genetic Basis of Alopecia Areata
(F. Megiorni, M. Carlesimo, A. Pizzuti, A. Rossi, Department of Experimental Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy)

Chapter 23
Ocular Rosacea: Recent Advances in Pathogenesis and Therapy
(Alejandro Rodriguez-Garcia, Director of the Immunology & Uveitis Service, Senior Ophthalmic Research Coordinator, Instituto de Oftalmología y Ciencias Visuales, Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, TEC Salud. Tecnológico de Monterrey. México)

Chapter 24
Invasive Candidiasis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Treatment
(Mayra Cuéllar Cruz, Guillermo Quindós, Everardo López Romero, Departamento de Biología, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Campus Guanajuato, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, México, and others)

Chapter 25
<i>Candida parapsilosis</i> Complex
(D.V. Moris, M.S.C. Melhem, M.A. Martins, R.P. Mendes, Departamento de Doenças Tropicais e Diagnóstico por Imagem, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 26
Oral Candidiasis: Conventional and Alternative Treatment Options
(C.E. Vergani, P.V. Sanitá, E.G.O. Mima, A.C. Pavarina, A.L. Machado, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP, Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil)

Chapter 27
Candida spp. in Oral Cavity of Children with Immunodeficiencies
(Dorota Olczak-Kowalczyk, Maria Roszkowska-Blaim, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska, Maria Dąbkowska, Ewa Swoboda-Kopeć, Beta Pyrżak, Ewa Krasuska-Sławińska, Renata Górska, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Warsaw Medical University, Poland, and others)

Chapter 28
Oxidative Stress and the Development of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Candidiasis
(Maxwel Adriano Abegg, Mara Silveira Benfato, Institute of Science and Technology, Federal University of Amazonas, Itacoatiara, AM, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 29
Inhalation and Topical Steroid Therapy and Oral Candidiasis: A Brief Overview
(Arjuna N.B. Ellepola, H.M.H.N. Bandara, Hugh D. Smyth, Faculty of Dentistry, Health Sciences Center, Kuwait University, Kuwait, and others)

Chapter 30
Fluorescent Staining for the Diagnosis of Oral Erythematous Candidiasis
(Yoichi Nakagawa, Department of Clinical Pathophysiology, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, Tsurumi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Japan)

Chapter 31
Cyanosis: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
(Ramanathan K.R, National University of Singapore, Department of Cardiac Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, National University Heart Centre, National University Hospital, Singapore)

Chapter 32
Perinatal Cyanosis: Neuropsychological Functioning
(Ashlee R. Loughan, Robert Perna, Hana Perkey, NeuroBehavioral Associates, LLC., Augusta, Georgia, and others)

Chapter 33
Laryngomalacia: A Cause of Cyanosis in Pediatric Age
(Marco Berlucchi, Diego Barbieri, Daniela Tonni, Silvana Molinaro, Patrizia Bardini and Nader Nassif, Department of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy)

Chapter 34
The Visual Recognition of Cyanosis and the Influence of Lighting and Color Vision
(Stephen J. Dain, School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia)

Chapter 35
Keratinocytes in Psoriasis: Key Players in the Disease Process
(Inas Helwa, Meg Gullotto, Wendy B. Bollag, Charlie Norwood VA Medical Center, Augusta, GA, USA, and others)

Chapter 36
Types, Triggers and Treatment Strategies of Psoriasis
(Spyridoula Doukaki, Maria Rita Bongiorno, Department of Dermatology, University of Palermo, Italy)

Chapter 37
A New Strategy for the Treatment of Psoriasis—Keratin 17 (K17)-Targeting Therapy
(JiXin Gao, Gang Wang, Department of Dermatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China)

Chapter 38
Narrow-Band Ultraviolet Light B (UVB) and Psoralen Plus UVA Effect in the Circulating Levels of Biological Markers in Psoriasis
(Susana Coimbra, Alice Santos-Silva, Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular (IBMC), Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal, and others)

Chapter 39
Psoriasis Vulgaris Investigated by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance
(Kouichi Nakagawa, Daisuke Sawamura, Department of Radiological Life Sciences, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki University, Hon-Cyo, Hirosaki, Japan, and others)

Chapter 40
Psoriasis and Comorbidities
(Nayra Merino de Paz, Marina Rodríguez-Martín, Patricia Contreras Ferrer, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, and others)

Chapter 41
Nutrition and the Treatment of Psoriasis
(Emily de Golian, Maryam Afshar, Nancy Anderson, School of Medicine, Medical College of Georgia at Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA, USA, and others)

Chapter 42
Psoriasis and Cardiovascular Disease – Update
(Manisha R. Panchal, Helen Coope, Anton B. Alexandroff, John McKenna, Department of Dermatology, Sherwood Forest Hospitals, Kingsmill Hospital, UK, and others)

Chapter 43
Bullous Pemphigoid: An Overview
(Alexandre Carlos Gripp, Aline Bressan, Cândida Naira Lima e Lima-Santana, Daniele do Nascimento Pereira, Pedro Ernesto University Hospital – State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 44
Bullous Pemphigoid Due to Anti-TNFalpha
(Vincenzo Bettoli, Stefania Zauli, Michela Ricci, Annarosa Virgili, Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Dermatology, University of Ferrara, Arcispedale S. Anna, Ferrara – Italy)

Chapter 45
Desquamative Gingivitis as an Oral Manifestation of Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid: Diagnosis and Treatment
(Hiroyasu Endo, Terry D. Rees, Hideo Niwa, Kayo Kuyama, Hirotsugu Yamamoto, Takanori Ito, Department of Oral Diagnosis, Nihon University, School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Japan, and others)

Chapter 46
Associations between Bullous Pemphigoid and Internal Malignancies: A Literature Review
(Yuta Kurashige, Norihiro Ikoma, Tomotaka Mabuchi, Akira Ozawa, and Kenichi Iwashita, Department of Dermatology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan, and others)

Chapter 47
New Therapeutic Advances in the Management of Acne
(Vincenzo Bettoli, Stefania Zauli, and Annarosa Virgili, Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Dermatology, University of Ferrara, Arcispedale S. Anna, Ferrara, Italy)

Chapter 48
A Large-Scale European Observational Study to Describe the Management of Acne in Clinical Practice
(S. Seite, B. Dreno, La Roche-Posay Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Asnières Cedex, France, and others)

Chapter 49
Skin Aging
(Samira Yarak, Federal University of São Francisco Valley and Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil)

Chapter 50
A Procedure for the Assessment of Skin Aging
(Natsuko Kakudo, Satoshi Kushida, Nobuko Saito, Kenji Suzuki, Kenji Kusumoto, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan)

Chapter 51
Aged Skin and Strenuous Exercise: Can the Skin Handle the Heat?
(Stuart A. Best, Martin W. Thompson, Exercise Health and Performance Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, Australia)

Chapter 52
New Insights on the Regulation of Extracellular Matrix Proteins During Skin Aging
(Connie Lin, Michael Southall, The Johnson & Johnson Skin Research Center, Consumer Product Worldwide, A Unit of Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc., Skillman, New Jersey, USA)

Chapter 53
Improved Cell Metabolism and Strengthening of the Extracellular Matrix by Nicotinamide, and Copper for Anti-Skin Aging
(Neena Philips, Samuel Philips, Halyna Siomyk, Harit Parakandi, Hui Jia, Sesha Gopal, Hossam Shahin, School of Natural Sciences, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Teaneck, New Jersey, USA)

Chapter 54
Skin Morphology of Caucasian Women during Aging
(H. Zahouani, R. Vargiolu, C. Guinot, E. Tschachler, F. Morizot, University of Lyon, Laboratory of Tribology and Dynamic of Systems, Ecully, France, and others)

Chapter 55
Molecular Understanding of the Development of “Age Spots”
(Connie Lin, Miri Seiberg, The Johnson & Johnson Skin Research Center, Consumer Product Worldwide, a Unit of Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc., Skillman, NJ, USA, and others)

Chapter 56
Skin Rejuvenation: Ultrastructural Study
(Tokuya Omi, Shigeru Sato, Department of Dermatology, Queen’s Square Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan, and others)

Chapter 57
The Role of Sun Exposure in Skin Aging
(Raja Dahmane, Ruza Pandel, Polonca Trebse, Borut Poljsak, Laboratory for Oxidative Stress Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, and others)

Chapter 58
Photoprotection Practices
(Jacqueline Selph, Ritva Vyas, Meg Gerstenblith, University Hospitals/Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA)

Chapter 59
Risk Factors for Sun Exposure during Spring Break among College Students
(Marvin E. Langston, Stephanie G. Lashway, Leslie K. Dennis, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA)

Chapter 60
Sun Exposure and Protection Habits and Vitamin D Levels in Children and Adolescents with a History of Malignancy
(Yael Levy-Shraga, Dalit Modan-Moses, Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, The Edmond and Lily Safra Children’s Hospital, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Ramat-Gan, Israel)

Chapter 61
The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer: Facts for Consumers
(Surgeon General of the United States)

Chapter 62
The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer
(Meg Watson, Erin Garnett, Gery P. Guy, Jr., Dawn M. Holman)

Chapter 63
False and Misleading Health Information Provided to Teens by the Indoor Tanning Industry: Investigative Report
(U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce-Minority Staff)

Chapter 64
Metabolomic Assessment of Sunscreen Efficacy
(Manpreeet Randhawa, Michael D. Southall, Johnson and Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc., Skillman, NJ, USA)

Chapter 65
The History and Evolution of Sunscreen
(Mary Laschinger, Anna H. Chacon, University of Maryland Medical Center, Dept. of Dermatology, Baltimore, Maryland, USA)

Chapter 66
Psychology Behind the use of Sunscreens, Tanning and Skin Cancer Prevention
(Katlein França, Volunteer Faculty- Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology & Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA)

Chapter 67
The Role of Antioxidants in Sunscreens: The Case of Melatonin
(Ana Flo Sierra, Víctor Flo Sierra, Ana Cristina Calpena Campmany, and Beatriz Clares Naveros, Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology Department. Faculty of Pharmacy. University of Barcelona, Spain, and others)

Chapter 68
UV Filters, their Degradation Reactions and Eco-toxicological Effects
(Albano Joel M. Santos and Joaquim C. G. Esteves da Silva, Centro de Investigação em Química da Universidade do Porto (CIQ-UP), Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal)

Chapter 69
Assessment of Sunscreen Safety by Skin Permeation Studies: An Update
(Montenegro Lucia, Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy)

Chapter 70
UV Protection by Woolen Fabric Dyed with Natural Dyestuff
(Ana Sutlović, Anita Tarbuk, Ana Marija Grancarić, Đurđica Parac-Osterman, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Department of Textile Chemistry and Ecology, Zagreb, Croatia)

Chapter 71
Light Conversion for UV Protection by Textile Finishing and Care
(Tihana Dekanić, Anita Tarbuk, Tanja Pušić, Ana Marija Grancarić and Ivo Soljačić, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology,
Department of Textile Chemistry and Ecology, Zagreb, Croatia)

Chapter 72
The Potential of Mycosporine-like Amino Acids as UV-Sunscreens
(Rajesh P. Rastogi, Ravi R Sonani, Datta Madamwar, and Aran Incharoensakdi, BRD School of Biosciences, Vadtal Road, Satellite Campus, Sardar Patel University, Anand, Gujarat, India, and others)

Chapter 73
Guidelines for School Programs To Prevent Skin Cancer
(Karen Glanz, Mona Saraiya, Howell Wechsler)

Chapter 74
Shade Planning for America’s Schools
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Chapter 75
Sun Safety for America’s Youth Toolkit
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Chapter 76
Burn Diagnosis, Management, and Research
(Amy L. Strong, Kavitha Ranganathan, Eric T. Chang, Michael Sorkin, Shailesh Agarwal, Benjamin Levi, Center for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA, and others)

Chapter 77
Pediatric Burn in Bangladesh: A Tertiary Level Hospital Experience
(Kishore Kumar Das, M. Quamruzzaman, Syed Shamsuddin Ahmed, Burn Unit, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh, and others)

Chapter 78
Mulligan’s Mobilisations with Movement: A Manual Therapy Approach to the Treatment and Management of Hand Burn Injuries
(Natalia Montes Carrasco, Maria Jesús Trancón Bergas, Carmen Oreja Sánchez, Maria Virginia Vicente Blanco, Javier Nieto Blasco, Department of Rehabilitation, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain, and others)

Chapter 79
Epidemiological Characteristics of Burn Injuries
(Bishara Atiyeh, Michel Costagliola, Euro-Mediterranean Council for Burns and Fire Disasters Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon, and others)

Chapter 80
Current and Future Directions of Burn Resuscitation and Wound Management
(Jeanne Lee, Leslie Kobayashi, Raul Coimbra, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA)


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