Encyclopedia of Africa (11 Volume Set)


Arthur Barnett (Editor)
Nora R. Snyder (Editor)

Series: African Studies
BISAC: HIS001010

This 11 volume set is a compilation of important research on Africa. Some of the topics addressed include:

· education and income inequality
· energy development in sub-Saharan Africa
· climate change and remediation and adaption strategies
· apartheid and post-apartheid South Africa
· human rights issues
· oil and natural gas production and resulting security implications
· energy research
· public health, human rights and socio-economics
· political issues, resources and medicine
· economic engagement
· growth and opportunity, export, trade and investment

(Imprint: Nova)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Volume 1
Chapter 1. Fifty Years of African Liberation: Promises, Challenges and Failures
Chapter 2. Reexamining the Victory of the Battle of Adwa: A Pan-African and Post-Independence African Perspectives
Chapter 3. Half a Century of Pro-Democracy Uprisings in Africa’s Experience: From Sharpeville to Benghazi
Chapter 4. Liberia and Africa Since Decolonization, 1950s to 2012
Chapter 5. The Politics of Land Reform in Zimbabwe: Problems and Prospects
Chapter 6. The New South Africa and Africa: Almost Two Decades after Liberation
Chapter 7. Sudan: Peace, Development and the US Constituency for Africa
Chapter 8. African and African American Perspectives on Race and Human Rights Discourse
Chapter 9. The Historical and Strategic Significance of Africa in World Affairs
Chapter 10. The Civilization Approach to Analytical Orthodoxy: Solution for or Conveyer of Political Decay to Africa’s Post-Colonial Struggles in the 21st Century?
Chapter 11. Africa as the Hub of Mankind and its Civilizations
Chapter 12. The Civilizations of Africa
Chapter 13. Making the Case for Ethiopian Civilization
Chapter 14. The Civilization Index and African Civilization in the 21st Century
Chapter 15. The Impact of Religion on African Civilization in Light of the 21st Century
Chapter 16. Language and Education in African Civilization in the 21st Century
Chapter 17. Globalization and the Fate of African Traditional Institutions: The Case of the Bashingantahe Order in Burundi, in the 21st Century
Chapter 18. The Impact of Global Geopolitics on the Ethiopian Civilization, one of the Earliest in the World
Chapter 19. African Civilization and Infrastructure in the 21st Century
Chapter 20. The Impact of Agriculture on African Civilization in the 21st Century
Chapter 21. The African Governance Challenges in Global Economy and Society in the 21st Century, the Case of Ethiopia
Chapter 22. African Civilization versus Global Waves and Civilization in the 21st Century
Chapter 23. Where Is Africa Heading?
Volume 2
Chapter 24. A Historical Evolution of Mental Health Services in Botswana: Past and Present
Chapter 25. Mental Health Care, HIV, and AIDs in Botswana: Challenges and Opportunities
Chapter 26. Mental Health Care and Service in Ghana
Chapter 27. How Mental Health is Understood in Africa: The Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Kenya
Chapter 28. Delivery of Mental Health Services in Kenya
Chapter 29. Mental Health in Nigeria: Perspectives and Health Care Interventions among the Yorubas
Chapter 30. The 1994 Genocide in Rwanda: The effects on Children and Psycho-Social Intervention
Chapter 31. Mental Health Care in Hospitals in Rwanda
Chapter 32. Mental Health Services in South Africa
Chapter 33. Towards Understanding the Dilemmas in the Prevention of Mental Illness in Africa: Lessons from Uganda
Chapter 34. How Mental Health is understood in Africa: The Case of Zambia
Chapter 35. Fluorspar Deposits at Okorusu, North-Central Namibia: Economic Importance, History of Mining and Geology
Chapter 36. Disasters and Related Health Issues in Democratic Republic of Congo: Epidemiologic Profile and Perspectives for Efficient Health Care Delivery
Chapter 37. Between Wizards and Devils of the Forest on Development, Health and Diseases in Sierra Leone
Chapter 38. Fighting Female Vulnerability with Football: Challenging the Gender Effects of Poverty in the South African Context
Chapter 39. The Vulnerable Nature of Water Security in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) – A Country by Country Analysis
Chapter 40. Solid Waste Management and Environmental Justice in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo
Chapter 41. Malaria: An Environmental Health Issue with Tremendous Socioeconomic Impact on Households in Democratic Republic of Congo
Chapter 42. Rabies in Namibia, more than a Horrendous Disease: The Social, Environmental and Economic Challenges Faced
Chapter 43. Ebola and Rumours in Sierra Leone: Contextualising and Elucidating Perceptions of Ebola through Rumours
Chapter 44. The PEACE Model: A Sustainable Approach to Conflict Prevention and Resolution in Africa
Chapter 45. Education and Income Inequality in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Chapter 46. US Vote in African Development Bank
Chapter 47. The Energy – Development Nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa
Chapter 48. Which Demographic Quintile Benefits from Public Health Expenditure in Nigeria: A Marginal Benefit Analysis
Volume 3
Chapter 49. Indigenous Knowledge and Resilience to River Floods in West Africa
Chapter 50. Econometric Analysis of Farmers’ Climate Perception and Adaptation in Nigeria
Chapter 51. Farmers’ Perceptions and Adaptive Responses to Climate Change in the Guinea Savanna Zone, Nigeria
Chapter 52. Farming Adaptation in the Western Sudanese Savannah: Lessons Learnt and Challenges Ahead
Chapter 53. The Effects of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies on Shea-Parks Conservation in Northern Benin, West-Africa
Chapter 54. Implications of Subjective Probabilities during Extreme Weather Events Associated with Climate Change (SPEWEACCS) for Climate Risk Assessment and Farm Adaptation Choices: A Study of Ghanaian Farmers
Chapter 55. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Farmers’ Perceptions of Climate Change: Case of Maize Farming in Northern Benin (West Africa)
Chapter 56. Towards Inclusive Decision-Making for Climate Change Adaptation: A Household-Level Analysis in North Benin (West Africa)
Chapter 57. Combating Terrorism: State Department Can Improve Management of East Africa Program
Chapter 58. Combating Terrorism: U.S. Efforts in Northwest Africa Would Be Strengthened by Enhanced Program Management
Chapter 59. The September 2013 Terrorist Attack in Kenya: In Brief
Chapter 60. Nigeria’s Boko Haram: Frequently Asked Questions
Chapter 61. Powering Africa: Challenges of and U.S. Aid for Electrification in Africa
Chapter 62. Power Africa: Annual Report 2015
Chapter 63. Fact Sheet: Power Africa
Volume 4
Chapter 64. Power Africa: Frequently Asked Questions
Chapter 65. Introduction: Open Distance Learning (ODL) in South Africa
Chapter 66. A Fit for Purpose Mission for Widening Access through Open Distance Learning
Chapter 67. Participation in Open Distance Learning
Chapter 68. Assessment in Open and Distance Learning
Chapter 69. Best Practices in Open Distance Learning Assessment
Chapter 70. Pass Rates in Open Distance Learning (ODL)
Chapter 71. Throughput Rates in Open Distance Learning: Towards Understanding and Managing the ‘Revolving Door’ Syndrome
Chapter 72. Conceptions of Success in Open Distance Learning
Chapter 73. Student Support for Open Distance Learning (ODL)
Chapter 74. Shift from Open Distance Learning to Open Distance e-Learning
Chapter 75. The Nexus between Open Distance Learning and the Labor Market
Chapter 76. Conclusion: After Thought
Chapter 77. Leadership: The Missing Link
Chapter 78. PACT Model for Successful Learner Outcomes in Schools Facing Multiple Deprivation in South Africa
Chapter 79. The Extent of Decentralisation in Education: Evidence from Selected Secondary Schools in the Northern Education Division in Malawi
Chapter 80. Botswana School Leaders and the Law: Perspectives of Practice
Chapter 81. How Well Are School Heads Prepared for School Headship Positions? Evidence from Basic and Senior High Schools in Ghana
Chapter 82. The Development of Learner Voice and Leadership in Namibian Schools: A Case Study of Two Formative Interventionist Research Projects
Chapter 83. Enhancing School Principals’ and Teachers’ Emotional Intelligence: Perspectives of Four School Principals in Ekiti State, Nigeria
Chapter 84. Surviving or Thriving? The Status of School Leadership Preparation in Kenya
Chapter 85. Diversity and School Leadership in Rapidly Transitioning Schools in Zimbabwe: Towards School Cultures That Are Inclusive in Their Diversity
Chapter 86. Educational Leadership in Egypt
Chapter 87. Learning-Centred Leadership and Student Achievement in Schools: Evidence from Uganda
Chapter 88. No-Fee Schools in South Africa: Narrative Vignettes of School Leaders’ Response to Context
Chapter 89. A Microscopic View of Education Act 2010 in the Management of the Lesotho Education System: Its Prospects and Flaws
Chapter 90. School Leadership and Management in a Changing Eswatini Context: Tensions in the Dominant Models of Practice
Chapter 91. School Leadership and the Creation of a Gender Responsive Environment in Zimbabwe
Chapter 92. Exploring Successful School Leadership Practices: Lessons from South African Schools in Rural Settings
Chapter 93. South African Teachers Seeking to Cope with Daily Workload: Implications for School Leadership
Volume 5
Chapter 94. The Nature of The Deprived School Context
Chapter 95. Expansive Teacher Leadership in Deprived School Contexts
Chapter 96. How Thethema High School Transformed Me
Chapter 97. Thinking and Acting outside the Box: A Woman Principal’s Lived Experience of Starting and Leading a School
Chapter 98. Leading Teaching and Learning: Secondary School Principals’ Perspectives
Chapter 99. Ethical and Responsible School Leadership in a Deprived School Context: Evidence of Success from One Primary School in Zimbabwe
Chapter 100. Leadership for School-Community Partnership: A School Principal’s Experience in a Deprived Context
Chapter 101. Leading to Serve: Lessons from School Management Team Members in Deprived Contexts
Chapter 102. Learning from the Narratives of Deputy Principals: A Discussion of Their Work in Deprived Contexts
Chapter 103. School Governance That Works in Deprived Primary Schools
Chapter 104. Mobilising and Managing Resources in Deprived Schools
Chapter 105. School Leaders Leading and Managing in Deprived Contexts: A Policy Perspective
Chapter 106. Overview: Adult, Community and Lifelong Education and Development in Africa
Chapter 107. Defining Adult Education as a Field of Study and a Practice: An Overview
Chapter 108. Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Adult Learning
Chapter 109. Adult Education and Indigenous Knowledge Systems
Chapter 110. Ethical Issues in Adult Education Research: Beyond the Belmont Model
Chapter 111. Enhancing Community Education through the Lens of Community Vocational Education: A Strategy for Addressing Unemployment in South Africa?
Chapter 112. Managing University of Ghana Learning Centres as Service-Delivery Organisations: How Can Kouzes and Posner’s (2012) Management Model Explain Their Transformation?
Chapter 113. Innovative Assessment Practices in Adult Basic Education: The Kha Ri Gude Programme in South Africa
Chapter 114. Adult Women Education: A Missing Link in the Niger Delta – Nigeria Amnesty Project
Chapter 115. Learner Support in Adult Education
Chapter 116. The Use of Employability Skills Development as a Panacea for the Economic Problems in Africa
Chapter 117. Perceptions of Adult Learners’ on the Facilitation Methods in Adult Education in South Africa
Chapter 118. Adult Basic Education and Small Business Development in South Africa
Chapter 119. A Comparison Study of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Botswana
Chapter 120. Adult Education in Correctional Facilities: A Global Perspective
Chapter 121. The Kabake Programme: Popular Education to Address Community Challenges in Acholiland, Northern Uganda
Chapter 122. Incentivised Volunteerism in Non-Formal Adult Education in Ghana: Facilitators’ Perceptions
Volume 6
Chapter 123. Tunisia: In Brief
Chapter 124. Morocco: Background and U.S. Relations
Chapter 125. Liberia: Political Transition and U.S. Relations
Chapter 126. Ghana: Current Issues and U.S. Relations in Brief
Chapter 127. Rwanda: In Brief
Chapter 128. Nigeria: Current Issues and U.S. Policy (Updated)
Chapter 129. Gulf of Guinea: Recent Trends in Piracy and Armed Robbery
Chapter 130. Algeria: In Focus
Chapter 131. Cameroon
Chapter 132. Democratic Republic of Congo: Background and U.S. Relations
Chapter 133. Ebola Outbreak: Democratic Republic of Congo
Chapter 134. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations (Updated)
Chapter 135. Eritrea
Chapter 136. Failed Coup Attempt in Gabon
Chapter 137. Senegal
Chapter 138. Sub-Saharan Africa: Key Issues and U.S. Engagement
Chapter 139. Sudan
Chapter 140. Sudan: Pressure Mounts on the Government
Chapter 141. Ebola Recovery: USAID Has Initiated or Completed Most Projects, but a Complete Project Inventory Is Still Needed for Evaluating Its Efforts
Volume 7
Chapter 142. U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act
Chapter 143. African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA): Background and Reauthorization
Chapter 144. Statement of Ambassador Johnnie Carson, Assistant Secretary for African Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Hearing on “Economic Statecraft: Embracing Africa’s Market Potential”
Chapter 145. Statement of Earl W. Gast, Assistant Administrator for Africa, U.S. Agency for International Development. Hearing on “Economic Statecraft: Embracing Africa’s Market Potential”
Chapter 146. Statement of Florizelle Liser, Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Africa, Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. Hearing on ”Economic Statecraft: Embracing Africa’s Market Potential”
Chapter 147. Analyisis and Modelling of Complex Secondary Data: An Overview of Methodological Issues and Challenges
Chapter 148. A Mixed Discrete-Time Survival Analysis of Length of Hospitalization: Applications to Malaria Admissions among Peadiatric Children in Malawi
Chapter 149. Bivariate Model of Health Seeking Behaviour among Women for Their Under-Five Children with Fever
Chapter 150. Mover-Stayer Model on Future Contraceptive Use among Married Women in Malawi
Chapter 151. Investigating Causal and Mediating Risk Factors for Stunting in under Five Children in Malawi Using Structural Equation Modelling Techniques
Chapter 152. Linking Food Insecurity to Quality of Life Using Structural Equation Models
Chapter 153. A Zero-Truncated Negative Binomial Regression Model for Dietary Diversity in Namibian Under-5 Children
Chapter 154. A Copula Approach to Sample Selection Modelling of Treatment Adherence and Viral Suppression among HIV Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Namibia
Chapter 155. Copula-Linked Generalized Joint Regression Model for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Coverage in Namibia
Chapter 156. Bivariate Copula-Based Regression to Model Timing and Frequency of Antenatal Care Utilization
Chapter 157. Multiscale Spatial Modelling of Diabetes and Hypertension in Namibia
Chapter 158. Models for Analyzing Spatial Patterns in Risk of Urban Malaria: A Case Study of Blantyre, Malawi
Chapter 159. Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Malaria Risk in Malawi: An Application to Health Management Information System Data
Chapter 160. Modelling Spatial and Spatial-Temporal Patterns of TB and HIV Mortality in Namibia
Chapter 161. Attrition of Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) under Option B+: Cox Proportional Hazards, Competing Risks and Multistate Survival Models
Volume 8
Chapter 162. Has the South African Academic Profession Transformed Itself for an Age of Transformation?
Chapter 163. Spirituality, Ubuntu, and Social Development: The Lessons Learned from Vulnerable Children in South Africa
Chapter 164. Focusing on South Africa’s Public Health Nutrition Economics
Chapter 165. The Rainbow Nation Versus the Colors of the Rainbow: Nation-Building and Group Identification in Post-Apartheid South Africa
Chapter 166. Western Cape Bush Medicine: Hunting and Gathering Coloured Healing Traditions
Chapter 167. Socio-economic and Demographic Transformations in South Africa: Implications for Work-family Conflict and Gender Inequality
Chapter 168. A ‘Double Burden’? Multiple Challenges of Caregiving and Disability in the Context of Generalised HIV and AIDS in Southern Africa
Chapter 169. Teenage Motherhood and Long-Run Outcomes in South Africa
Chapter 170. The Health System in South Africa: Historical Perspectives and Current Challenges
Chapter 171. South Africa: Politics, Economy, and U.S. Relations
Chapter 172. South Africa 2012 Human Rights Report
Chapter 173. South Africa 2012 International Religious Freedom Report
Chapter 174. Trafficking In Persons Report 2013: South Africa
Chapter 175. 2013 Investment Climate Statement: South Africa
Chapter 176. Africa’s Booming Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and Production: National Security Implications for the United States and China
Chapter 177. Hidden Dragon, Crouching Lion: How China’s Advance in Africa is Underestimated and Africa’s Potential Underappreciated
Volume 9
Chapter 178. Revival of Political Islam in the Aftermath of Arab Uprisings: Implications for the Region and Beyond
Chapter 179. Political Transition in Tunisia
Chapter 180. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations
Chapter 181. Morocco: Current Issues
Chapter 182. Digital Politics in North Africa: Possibilities to Reverse Subversion
Chapter 183. The Prospect of the Sahara Solar Energy Research Centre in Algeria as the First Stage of the Sahara Solar Breeder Initiative and a Proposal for the Second Stage
Chapter 184. Formation and Maintenance of an African Easterly Wave Mesoscale Convective System in 2004 over East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula
Chapter 185. Foundation, Development and Significance of ARENA
Chapter 186. Overview of Vegetation in North Africa
Chapter 187. Towards a Deeper Collaboration of Indigenous Knowledge and Academia through ARENA: Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Tunisia as a Case Study
Chapter 188. Identification of 6-Octadecynoic Acid, a Rare Acetylenic Fatty Acid, from a Methanol Extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor  Agonist
Chapter 189. Anti-obesity and Anti-allergic Effects of Tunisian olives, Halophytes and Medicinal Plants
Chapter 190. Harnessing the Potential of North African and Mediterranean Bioresources for the Regulation of Signal Transduction in Melanogenesis and Cancer Cell Differentiation
Chapter 191. Neuroprotective Properties of Tunisian Aromatic and Medicinal Plants
Chapter 192. Breeding for Salt and Drought Tolerant Crops in North Africa
Chapter 193. From Natural Resources to Bioactives Delivery Systems
Chapter 194. Regional Development based on Creation of Innovative Value Chain for Olive Oil between Tunisia and Japan
Chapter 195. Water Resources in Tunisia
Chapter 196. Reconsidering Modern and Traditional Oases – Productivity and Technical Efficiency of Dates Palm Farmers in Nefzaoua (Southern Tunisia)
Chapter 197. Issue of Surface Water Resources and Alternative Solutions
Chapter 198. Alternative Water Resource – Desalination of Sea Water and Brackish (Salty) Water
Chapter 199. Comprehensive Solution and Innovation for the Sustainability of Water Resources
Chapter 200. Energy-Related Projects at the University of Tsukuba
Chapter 201. Science and Technology Cooperation between Japan and Algeria Initiated from University of Science and Technology of Oran – Strategy and Current Status of Sahara Solar Breeder (SSB) Plan
Chapter 202. Determination of Nonradiative Recombination Center in Polycrystalline Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Thin Films
Chapter 203. Oxide/Oxide Composite Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Chapter 204. Surface Science for Carbon Electronics Based on Atomistic and Non-destructive Observations
Chapter 205. Effect of Cu-dependent Compositional Variation on Polycrystalline CuGaSe2 Thin Films and Solar Cells
Chapter 206. ARENA and Research Activities of the Humanities and Social Sciences
Chapter 207. Global 30 Project and Japanese e-Learning in the University of Tsukuba
Chapter 208. Possibility of Establishing Higher Education as an Export Industry in North Africa
Chapter 209. Japanese Cooperation for Evolutional Housing and Slum Upgrading Projects under Mayor Chevallier-Spatial Experience of Gyoji Banshoya in Algiers
Chapter 210. The Libyan Economy after the 2011 Revolution -Economic Reform and Future of the Oil-Producing Nation-
Chapter 211. Research and Education Activities in ARENA
Chapter 212. Impact of ARENA on North-African Countries
Volume 10
Chapter 213. Sub-Saharan Africa: Trends in U.S. and Chinese Economic Engagement
Chapter 214. Sub-Saharan Africa: Case Studies of U.S and Chinese Economic Engagement in Angola, Ghana, and Kenya
Chapter 215. U.S. Strategy Toward Sub-Saharan Africa
Chapter 216. African Growth and Opportunity Act: Insights from Other Countries’ Preference Programs and Participation in Trade Negotiations
Chapter 217. Eight Steps to Counter the Drug Trade in West Africa
Chapter 218. Statement of Thomas Harrigan, Deputy Administrator, Drug Enforcement Agency. Hearing on “Countering Narcotics Threats in West Africa”
Chapter 219. Statement of William R. Brownfield, Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs. Hearing on “Countering Narcotics Threats in West Africa”
Chapter 220. Testimony of Johnnie Carson, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, U.S. State Department. Hearing on “Countering Narcotics Threats in West Africa”
Chapter 221. Statement of William F. Wechsler, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Counternarcotics and Global Threats, Department of Defense. Hearing on “Countering Narcotics Threats in West Africa”
Volume 11
Chapter 222. Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa
Chapter 223. From Chaos to Cohesion: A Regional Approach to Security, Stability, and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
Chapter 224. African Growth and Opportunity Act: USAID Could Enhance Utilization by Working with More Countries to Develop Export Strategies
Chapter 225. African Growth and Opportunity Act: Eligibility Process and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
Chapter 226. African Growth and Opportunity Act: Lessons Learned from Other Countries’ Trade Arrangements with Sub-Saharan Africa
Chapter 227. AGOA: Trade and Investment Performance Overview

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