Eicosanoids, Inflammation and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Pathophysiology, Health Effects and Targets for Therapies

Carmela Rita Balistreri, PhD (Editor)
Department of Pathobiology and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

Series: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in the Post Genomic Era
BISAC: SCI007000

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Eicosanoids constitute a large and expanding family of bioactive lipids synthesized from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to either pro-inflammatory omega-6 arachidonic acid (AA) or anti-inflammatory omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In these last cases, two essential fatty acids (FAs) (ω-6 linoleic acid (C18:2n6) and ω-3 linolenic acid (LA) (C18:3n3) are utilized as substrates and a series of desaturase and elongase enzymes are essential for their production. Among these different members, the AA-derived eicosanoids operate as potent signaling mediators that provide an efficient way for cells to respond to various stimuli. As a result, they act as part of a complex regulatory network and control a number of important physiological processes.

Some of these processes include:
• smooth muscle tone
• vascular permeability
• platelet aggregation
• broncho-constriction/dilation
• intestine motility
• inhibition of gastric acid secretion
• uterus contraction
• kidney filtration renal blood flow
• an increase in hypothalamic
• pituitary hormone secretion.

Their action is mediated through the binding to specific G-protein-coupled membrane receptors. These receptors can trigger a fluxuation in the rate of cytosolic second messenger generation (cAMP or Ca2+), activation of specific protein kinases or changes in membrane potential. Different cellular types are involved in their production from classical inflammatory cells including polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages (important producers) and mast cells to dentritic cells that represent both a source and target of AA-derived eicosanoids. In addition, human activated T and B cells produce significant amounts of eicosanoids, particularly prostaglandins such as PGD2 and PGE2. This propriety might be principally central to several functions of B cells.

However, AA-derived eicosanoids also constitute the optimal amount of immune/inflammatory responses by mediating their effects on macrophages, mast cells, dentritic cells, lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Thus, they are also able to exert both the evocation of immune responses and immune-modulation. In addition to their capacity to elicit biological responses, eicosanoids (in particular AA-derived eicosanoids) are now understood to regulate immunopathological processes ranging from inflammatory responses to chronic tissue remodeling, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Allergic diseases, cardiovascular complications (i.e. coronaropathies, aneurysm, etc.), cancer, rheumatoid and autoimmune disorders are additional bodily functions affected as well. A genetic basis has been postulated for susceptibility to each of these diseases.

Each of these medical conditions are syndromic; that is, they are caused by more than one molecular defect. On the other hand, they are multifactorial diseases. Recently, it has been suggested that genetic variants of eicosanoid pathways have a role in the risk of these diseases. Their combinations have been observed in patients affected by these maladies. Thus, they might be used as promising biomarkers in a pre- and post-treatment clinical setting. Indeed, their identifications may hold promise for the realization of a personalized medicine. The evidence is growing in terms of the role eicosanoids play in tissue regeneration and wound healing. It is also interesting how a Mediterranean diet might be suggested as an advantageous and new form of anti-inflammatory therapy. This implies the possibility of using eicosanoids as both health and disease biomarkers and to consider them as potential therapeutic targets. Many of these aspects are summarized in this book. The data described is based on expert opinion derived from the findings of studies on aging, age-related diseases and inflammation.
(Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Preface

Chapter 1. Eicosanoids: Structure, Function and Role in Local and Systemic Inflammation
(Giuseppina Candore, Department of Pathobiology and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy)

Chapter 2. Eicosanoids and Immune/Inflammatory Cells
(Matteo Bulati and Silvio Buffa, Department of Pathobiology and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy)

Chapter 3. Paraoxonases, Eicosanoids and their role in Age Related Diseases
(Francesca Marchegiani,Franco Busco and Maurizio Cardelli, Clinical Laboratory and Molecular Diagnostics, INRCA-IRCCS, Italy)

Chapter 4. Eicosanoids: Functions in Physiological Processes
(Pietro Tralongo and Carmela Rita Balistreri, Department of Pathobiology and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy)

Chapter 5. Eicosanoids and Pathophysiology of Inflammatory Diseases: Their Dual role as Enhancers and Inhibitors
(Carmela Rita Balistreri, Department of Pathobiology and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy)

Chapter 6. Eicosanoids in Adipocyte Metabolism and Obesity
(Marcello Gabrielli, Giacomo Tirabassi, and Laura Mazzanti, Department of Clinical Sciences - Section of Biochemistry, Biology and Physics - Faculty of Medicine; Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy and School of Nutritional Science Modena-Ancona, Italy, and others)

Chapter 7. Eicosanids in Atherosclerosis, Coronaropathies and Complications
(Giuseppina Novo and Vincenzo Evola, Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy)

Chapter 8. Eicosanoids and Aneurysms
(Giovanni Ruvolo and Calogera Pisano, Unit of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery and Oncology University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy)

Chapter 9. Eicosanoids in Alzheimer disease
(Federica Maria Di Maggio, Department of Pathobiology and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy)

Chapter 10. Eicosanoids and Cancer
(Floriana Crapanzano and Carmela Rita Balistreri, Department of Pathobiology and and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy)

Chapter 11. Allergic Disease and Mast Cells: The Role of Eicosanoids in the Pathogenesis and Therapy
(Gabriele Di Lorenzo, S Leto-Barone, Simona La Piana and LuigiMacchia, Dipartimento BioMedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica (Di.Bi.M.I.S), Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy, and others)

Chapter 12. Eicosanoids in Rheumatic Diseases: Patho-Physiology and Targets for Therapies
(Angelo Ferrante and Giovanni Triolo, UOC di Reumatologia – Policlinico Universitario di Palermo, Palermo, Italy)

Chapter 13. Eicosanoids and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
(Fabio Salvatore Macaluso and Salvatore Petta, Sezione di Gastroenterologia, Di.Bi.M.I.S.,University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy)

Chapter 14. Eicosanoids in Tissue Regeneration, Repair and Injury Healing
(Floriana Crapanzano, Caterina Maria Gambino and Carmela Rita Balistreri, Department of Pathobiology and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Palermo Italy)

Chapter 15. Eicosanoids as Health and Disease Biomarkers
(Gabriella Misiano, Department of Pathobiology and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy)

Chapter 16. Therapeutic Potential of Lipoxins in the Prevention and Treatment of Inflammatory Disorders
(Floriana Crapanzano, Caterina Maria Gambino and Carmela Rita Balistreri, Department of Pathobiology and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy)

Chapter 17. Therapeutic Potential of Resolvins and Docosatriene in the Prevention and Treatment of Inflammatory Disorders
(Floriana Crapanzano Pietro Tralongo and Carmela Rita Balistreri, Department of Pathobiology and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy)

Chapter 18. Genetic and Epigenetic Factors and Modulation of Eicosanoid Function: Translation in the Personalized Medicine
(Carmela Rita Balistreri, Department of Pathobiology and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy)

Biography

Index

My book might be focused to address extensive audiences including health care professionals, nutritionists, food scientists, biologists, physicians and diverse scientific community. It will be a valuable resource for clinical scientists and researchers, university professors, nutritionists, health practitioners, nursing and dieticians, food and nutraceutical researchers, gerontologists and geriatricians, students, and for all those who wish to broaden their knowledge in the allied field.

Policy makers and agencies involved in implementing food and dietary supplement policies might also use this book as an updated integral resource. All government and private organizations, including libraries at the college level, academic universities, and research institutions will be benefited as resource complied in this text book for their reference.

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