Education, Society, and Cultures: Hong Kong Higher Education in Transition

Wai-Chung Ho
Department of Music, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China

Series: Education in a Competitive and Globalizing World
BISAC: EDU015000

Clear

$110.00

Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

eBook

Digitally watermarked, DRM-free.
Immediate eBook download after purchase.

Product price
Additional options total:
Order total:

Quantity:

Details

Higher education is an important resource for any country, and it serves as the key agent in forming a better society. The development of higher education has aroused widespread concerns among stakeholders in the sector, including policymakers, university administrators, academics, parents, and students. While there is a growing trend toward incorporating general education into the compulsory curriculum of higher education, this topic is under-researched. The broader societal benefits of including cultural understanding in higher education have received less attention, but these benefits are fundamental to the well-being of society. No direct research between the learning and teaching of cultures or musical cultures in higher education can be found in academic references. Dialogue on this issue will help to map humanities and social studies, education policies, and practices in contemporary and future higher education.

This book addresses the overriding issues concerning the consequences of links between higher education and social change. The main objective of this book is to present information and scholarly research on the development of and challenges to social change, cultures, and higher education in Hong Kong. Major trends and movements in the literature of education and their effects on cultural diversity and social experiences will be reviewed in order to develop a framework for the study of diverse cultures and higher education. This study will trace the development of education and cultures and musical cultures in Hong Kong from 1984 to 1989 framed by the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration Agreement, as well as the return of Hong Kong’s political sovereignty from the United Kingdom to Mainland China on July 1, 1997. It will also discuss the sociopolitical contexts and cultural practices of the Hong Kong Chinese community and show how the interactions between globalization, localization, and Chinesenization have created their respective conditions under the influence of diverse musical cultures. Particular reference will be made to a study of the General Education Course “Music, Culture, and Society”, which is one of the core requirements offered in the history and civilization category at Hong Kong Baptist University. The principal research question of the study focuses on two issues: To what extent might students be helped in knowing and understanding music and society, and how might such cultural and social awareness be perceived by students and inform contemporary educational practices? This study will report the researcher’s recent survey data and the students’ assignments collected from the general education course, delivered to three different sessions of the course “Music, Culture and Society” between Spring 2013 and Autumn 2014. The data will also include the students’ reflection assignments on the 2014 Umbrella Movement, where popular songs were used to support pro-democratic activities. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Social Change, Political Culture, and Education in a Transforming Hong Kong Society

Chapter 3. Hong Kong Higher Education: The Triple Processes of Globalization, Chinesenization, and Localization

Chapter 4. The Value of Liberal Education, General Education, and a Research Study of the Selected Course “Music, Culture, and Society” In Higher Education in Hong Kong

Chapter 5. An Analysis of Hong Kong University Students’ Social Movements, Students’ Assignments on the Umbrella Movement, and Their Expression of Democratic Songs

Chapter 6. Conclusion and Implications: General Education and Values in the Development of Global Citizenship and Cultural Understanding in the Contemporary World

References

About the Author

Index

“Professor Ho is already a well-respected researcher in the field of music education in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, with special reference to interactions between culture and politics. In this fascinating and scholarly book she has applied her considerable analytic skills to a broader spectrum, showing how Higher Education in general has functioned in the cultural-political nexus following the hand-over of Hong Kong from British sovereignty to become an autonomous region of China. Whilst her discussion will be of interest to readers across many subject areas, she has used music - both as a marker of taste and identity, and as a part of curriculum content - in order to illustrate a meeting-point between the individual and the larger civic society. A highly recommended read.” - Professor Lucy Green, UCL Institute of Education, London, UK

Abbas, A. (1994). Building on disappearance: Hong Kong architecture and the city. Public Culture, 6(4), 441–459.
Abbas, A. (1997). Hong Kong: Culture and the politics of disappearance. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Abelson, P. (1939). The seven liberal arts: A study in medieval culture. New York: Teachers’ College, Columbia University.
Academy of Visual Arts, Hong Kong Baptist University. (2014, October). News on “Umbrella Patchwork” – An impressive installation artwork by AVA students. Retrieved November 25, 2015, from: http://ava.hkbu.edu. hk/2014/10/%E2%80%9Cumbrella-patchwork%E2%80%9D-in-admiralty/.
Alamzeb, A., Ur, Rehman, S. & Rasheed, M. F. (2014). Influence of social responsibility on university reputation case study of King Saud University (KSU) Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Academic Research, 6(2), 108–114.
Aloi, S. L., Gardiner, W. S. & Lusher, A. L. (2003). A framework for assessing general education outcomes within majors. Journal of General Education, 52(4), 237–252.
Altbach, P. G. (1970). Student movements in historical perspective: The Asian case. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 1(1), 74–84.


Altbach, P. G. & Peterson, P. M. (Eds.) (1999). Higher education in the 21st century: Global challenge and national response (vol. 23). Annapolis Junction, MD: IlE Books.
Altbach, P. G. (2001). Higher education and the WTO: Globalization Run Amok. International Higher Education, 23, 2–4.
Altbach, P. G. (2007). Tradition and transition: the international imperative in higher education. Rotterdam, Netherlands, Sense Publishers.
Atlbach, P. G. (2013). The international imperative in higher education (vol. 27). Boston: Sense Publishers.
Altbach, P. G. & Kelly, G. P. (eds.) (1991). Education and the colonial experience (2nd edition). New Brunswick: Transaction Books.
Andrew, M. (2014). Whose cultural competence? Do the definitions ally beyond Western borders? Journal of General Education, 63(2/3), 232–236.
Apple, M. W. (1979/2004). Ideology and curriculum (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.
Apple, M. W. (Ed.) 2003). The state and the politics of knowledge New York and London: Routledge.
Apple, M. W. & Christian-Smith, L. K. (Eds.) (1991). The politics of the textbook. New York: Teachers College Press.
Askew, K. M. (2002). Performing the nation: Swahili music and cultural politics in Tanzania. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Assmann, J. (2008). Communicative and cultural memory. In A. Erll & A. Nünning (Eds.), Cultural memory studies. An international and interdisciplinary handbook (pp. 109–118). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.


Assmann, J. & Czaplicka, J. (1995). Collective memory and cultural identity. New German Critique, 65, 125–133.


Assmann, A., & Shortt, L. (2011). Memory and political change. London: Palgrave Macmillan.


Association of American Colleges and Universities. (AAC&U) (2002). Greater expectations: A new vision for learning as a nation goes to college. Washington, DC: Author.


Association of American Colleges and Universities. (AAC&U) (2004). Taking Responsibility for the Quality of the Baccalaureate Degree. Washington, DC: Author.


Association of American Colleges and Universities. (2007). College learning for the new global century. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://archive.aacu.org/leap/pdfs/LEAP_Report_FINAL.pdf.


Astin, A., Korn, W., & Green, K. (1987). Retaining and satisfying students. Educational Record, 68(1), 36–42.


Astin, A., Vogelgesang, L., Ikeda, E. & Yee, J. (2000). How service-learning affects students. Los Angeles, CA.: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA.


Awbrey, S. M. (2005). General education as organizational change: the importance of integrating cultural and structural change. Journal of General Education, 54(1), 1–21.


Ball, S. J. (1990). Politics and policy making in education: Exploring in policy sociology. London: Routledge.


Ball, S. J. (2000). Sociology of education: Major theme. New York: Routledge.
Banks, J. (Ed.) (2004). Diversity and citizenship education: Global perspectives. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Banks, J. (2006). Race, culture, and education: the selected works of James A. Banks. New York: Routledge.
Barthes, R. (1985). Of what use is an intellectual?. In The grain of the voice: Interviews 1962-1980 (translated by L. Coverdale) (pp. 258–280). New York: Hill and Wang.
Barnett, S. W. & Symons, V. J. (Eds.) (2000). Asia in the undergraduate curriculum: A case for Asian studies in liberal arts education. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe.
Benitez, M. A. (2015, May 22). Youngsters urged to attend June 4 vigil, Hong Kong Standard. Retrieved November 29, 2015, from: http://www.the standard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?we_cat=4&art_id=157242&sid=44518479&con_type=1&d_str=20150522&fc=8.
Bennett, T. (2007). Making culture, changing society: the perspective of culture studies. Cultural Studies, 21(4–5), 610–629.
Bensimon, M. (2012). The sociological role of collective singing during intense moments of protest: The disengagement from the Gaza strip. Sociology, 46(2), 241–257.
Bernstein, B. (1973). Class, codes and control (vol. 2). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Bernstein, B. (1975). Class, codes and control (vol. 3). London: Routledge.
Bernstein, B. (1996). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: Theory, research, critique. London: Taylor & Francis.
Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: Theory, research, critique (revised edition). Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield.
Bhabha, H. K. (1994). The location of culture. London: Routledge.
Biggs, J. B. (1987). Student approaches to learning and studying. Hawthorn, Victoria: Australian Council for Educational Research.
Biggs, J. B. (1993). From theory to practice: A cognitive systems approach. Higher Education Research and Development, 12, 73–86.
Biggs, J. B. (1996). Enhancing teaching through constructive alignment. Higher Education, 32, 1–18.
Biggs, J. (1999). Teaching for quality learning at university. Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.
Bourdieu, P. (1977). Cultural reproduction and social reproduction. In J. Karabel & A. H. Halsey (Eds.), Power and ideology in education (pp. 487–511). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J. C. (1990) [1977]. Reproduction in education, society and culture. London: Sage.
Boyer, E. L. & Levine, A. (1988). A quest for common learning: The aims of general education. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Boren, M. E. (2001). Student resistance: A history of the unruly subject. New York: Routledge.
Bray, M. & Koo, R. (2004). Language and education. In M. Bray & R. Koo (Eds.), Education and society in Hong Kong and Macao: Comparative perspectives on continuity and change (2nd edition) (pp. 141–158). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre.
Bray, M. & Koo, R. (2004) Postcolonial patterns and paradoxes: language and education in Hong Kong and Macao. Comparative Education, 40(2), 215–239.
Bray, M. & Lee, W. O. (1993). Education, democracy and colonial transition: The case of Hong Kong. International Review of Education, 39(6), 541–560.
Breuilly, J. (1982). Nationalism and the state. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Breuilly, J. (1994). Culture, doctrine, politics: Three ways of constructing nationalism. In J. G. Beramendi, R. Máiz, & X. M. Núñez (Eds.), Nationalism in Europe past and present (pp. 127–134). Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela.
Briggs, A. R. J., Clark, J. & Hall, I. (2012). Building bridges: understanding student transition to university. Quality in Higher Education, 18(1)3–21.
Brint, S. (2002). The rise of the “practical arts.” In S. Brint (Ed.), The future of the city of intellect (pp. 231–259). Stanford, CA: Stanford Press.
Brooks, J. R. (2010). “Peace, Salaam, Shalom”: Functions of collective singing in U.S. peace activism. Music and Arts in Action, 2(2), 56–71.
Buote, V. M. (2006). Friendship development and university adjustment among first-year students (Master’s thesis, Wilfrid Laurier University). Retrieved from http://scholars.wlu.ca.
Burns, J. P. (1987). Immigration from China and the future of Hong Kong. Asian Survey, 27, 661–682.
Campbell, P. S., Drummond, J., Dunbar-Hall, P., Howard, K., Schippers, H. & Wiggins, T. (Eds.) (2005). Cultural diversity in music education: Directions and challenges for the 21st century. Brisbane: Australian Academic Press.
Cannon, I. C. (1997). Higher education in Hong Kong. Higher Education Quarterly, 51(4), 308–324.
Carnoy, M. (1995). Structural adjustment and the changing face of education. International Labour Review, 134(6), 653–673.
Carnoy, M. (1999). Globalisation and education reform: What planners need to know? Paris: UNESCO.
Carnoy, M. (2000). Sustaining flexibility: Work, family, and community in the information age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press and New York: Russell Sage.
Carnoy, M. (2002). Foreword. In H. Daun (Ed.), Educational restructuring in the context of globalization and national policy. New York: Routledge Falmer.
Carroll, J. M. (2007). A concise history of Hong Kong. London: Rowan & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Carroll, J. M. (2010). Ten years later: 1997–2007 as history. In K. Louie (ed.), Hong Kong culture: Word and image (pp. 9–24). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Castells, M. (2001). Universities as dynamic systems of contradictory functions. In J. Muller, N. Cloete, & S. Badat (eds), Challenges of globalisation. South African debates with Manuel Castells (pp. 206–223). Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman.
Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong. (2012). 2011 population census (thematic report: ethnic minorities). Hong Kong: Author.
Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. (2014, August). Statistics on students in higher education institutions funded through the University Grants Committee. Hong Kong: Author.
Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong. (2015, February). Yes-end population for 2014 [17 Feb. 2015]. Retrieved October 6, 2015, from: http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/press_release/pressReleaseDetail.jsp?pressRID=3609&charsetID=1.
Chaffinch, M. (2015, March 6). Humanities, honors programs in decline. Daily Gazette. Retrieved October 30, 2015, from: http://daily.swarthmore.edu/ 2015/03/06/humanities-honors-programs-in-decline/.
Chan, C. (2015, June 4). Hong Kong’s young find new meaning in Tiananmen vigil, Associated Press. Retrieved November 30, 2015, from: http://news.yahoo.com/hong-kongs-young-greater-meaning-tiananmen-vigil-055600854.html.
Chan, H. M. (1993). Popular culture and democratic culture: Outline of a perspective on the 1991 Legislative Council Election. In S. K. Lau & K. S. Louie (Eds.), Hong Kong tried democracy: The 1991 elections in Hong Kong (pp. 345–396). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Chan, C. M. A. & Ma, H. K. C.

(2013). A Hong Kong university first: Establishing service-learning as an academic credit-bearing subject. Gateway: International Journal of Community Research and Engagement, 6, 178–198.
Chan, J. M. & Lee, C. C. (1991). Mass media and political transition: The Hong Kong press in China’s orbit. New York: The Guilford Press.
Chan, M. K. (1996). Democracy derailed: Realpolitik in the making of the Hong Kong Basic Law, 1985-1990. In M. K. Chan & G. A. Postiglione (Eds.), The Hong Kong reader: Passage to Chinese sovereignty (pp. 8–40). New York: M. E. Sharpe.
Chan, N. K. F. (2015). Identity and identity education of Hong Kong people: A narrated self-study of an educator. In S. Trahar & W. M. Yu (Eds.), Using narrative inquiry for educational research in the Asia Pacific (pp. 177–191). New York: Routledge.
Chan, N. S. H. (2000). Rewriting history: Hong Kong nostalgia cinema and its social practice. In P. S. Fu & D. Desser (Eds.), The cinema of Hong Kong history, arts, identity (pp. 252–272). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Chatterton, P. (2000). The cultural role of universities in the community: revisiting the university - community debate. Environment and Planning, 32, 165–181.
Cheng, H., & Schweitzer, J. C. (1996). Cultural values reflected in Chinese and US television commercials. Journal of Advertising Research, 36(3), 27–45.
Cheng, Y. C. (2009). Hong Kong educational reforms in the last decade: reform syndrome and new developments. International Journal of Educational Management, 23(1), 65–86.
Cheung, A. C. K., Yuen, T. W. W., Yuen, C. Y. M., & Cheng, Y. C. (2011). Strategies and policies for Hong Kong’s higher education in Asian markets: lessons from the United Kingdom, Australia, and Singapore. International Journal of Educational Management, 25(2), 144–163.
China Vision, HKU. (2015). China vision programme. Retrieved November 2, 2015, from: http://www.als.hku.hk/chinavision/about.
Chinese University of Hong Kong. (2007, July 16). Report of the committee on bilingualism. Hong Kong: Author.
Choi, P. K. D. (1990). A search for cultural identity: The students’ movement of the early seventies. In A. Sweeting (Ed.), Differences & identities: Education argument in late 20th century (pp. 81–108). Hong Kong: Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong.
Chow, F. F. (1984). Hong Kong musicians open Taiwan’s new horizon (Xianggong yinyue jia chuangkai Taiwan xintiande. United Music (Lianhe Yinyue), 13, 18–20.
Chu, G. C. & Ju, Y. N. (1993). The Great Wall in ruins: Communication and cultural change in China. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Chui, S. W. K. & Lui, T. L. (Eds.) (2000). The dynamics of social movement in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Chung, P. (2013). Foreword. In J. Xing, P. S. Ng, & C. Y. Cheng (Eds.), General education and the development of global citizenship in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China: Not merely icing on the cake (pp. xiii-xiv). New York: Routledge.
City University of Hong Kong (CityU). (2015). Facts and figures: International studies (2014–15). Retrieved November 1, 2015, from: http://www.cityu.edu.hk/fnf/student.htm.
Clark, D. (1990). Sedition and Art. 23. In P. Wesley-Smith (ed.), Hong Kong's Basic Law: Problems and prospects (pp. 4546). Hong Kong: Faculty of Law, University of Hong Kong.
Coleman, J. (2014, October 4). Hong Kong protests: The symbols and songs explained. BBC News. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-29473974.
Colvin, M. (1959). Alfred Weber – The sociologist as a humanist. American Journal of Sociology, 65(2), 166–168.
Conole, G., Dyke, M., Oliver, M. & Seale, J. (2004). Mapping pedagogy and tools for effective learning design. Computers & Education, 43(1-2), 17–33.
Cottrell, R. (1993). The end of Hong Kong: The secret diplomacy of imperial retreat. London: John Murray.
CNN Library. (2015, July 3). Tiananmen Square fact facts. Retrieved December 2, 2015, from: http://edition.cnn.com/2013/09/15/ world/asia/ tiananmen-square-fast-facts/.
Curriculum Development Committee, Education Department. (1985). Guidelines on civic education in Hong Kong. Hong Kong, Hong Kong Government Printer.
Curriculum Development Council, Education Department. (1996a). Guidelines on civic education in Hong Kong. Hong Kong, Hong Kong Government Printer.
Curriculum Development Council, Education Department. (1996b). History (Secondary 1 – 3). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Government Printer.
Curriculum Development Council, Education Department. (1997). Zhongguo Lishi (Secondary 13) (Chinese History). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Government Printer.
Curriculum Development Council, Education Department. (2001). Learning to learn: Lifelong learning and whole-person development. Hong Kong: Government Printer.
Curriculum Development Council, Education Department. (2002). Basic education curriculum guide: Building on strengths (Primary 1 – secondary 3). Hong Kong: Government Printer.
Curry, J. M. (2012). Cultural challenges in Hong Kong to the implementation of effective general education. Teaching in Higher Education, 17(2), 223–230.
Das, R. N. (1993). Hong Kong: An experiment in one country, two systems. China Report, 29(2), 153–164.
DeGolyer, M. E. (1994). Politics, politicians, and political parties. In D. H. McMillen & S. W. Man (Eds.), The other Hong Kong report 1994 (pp.75–101). Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.
Denton, K. A. (2012). Yan’an as a site of memory in socialist and postsocialist China. In M. A. Matten (Ed.), Places of memory in modern China: History, politics and identity (pp. 233–282). Leiden: Brill.
Dewey, J. (1923). Democracy and education. New York: Macmillan.
Dewey, J. (1934). Art as experience. New York: Wideview/Pedigree Books.
DiMaggio, P. (1982). Cultural capital and school success. American Sociological Review, 47, 189–201.
Durkheim, E. (1933). The division of labor in society. Glencoe, III: Free Press.
Durkheim, E. (2004). The cultural logic of collective representations. In C. Lemert (Ed.), Social theory the multicultural and classic readings (pp. 90–99). Wesleyan University: Westview Press.
Durkehim, E. (1971) [1902]. Elementary forms of the religious life (trans. by J. W. Swain). New York: Free Press.
Education Bureau, Hong Kong. (2013). Hong Kong as a regional education hub. Retrieved October 6, 2015, from: http://www.ugc.edu.hk/ eng/rgc/hkphd/hkphd.htm.
Education Commission, Hong Kong. (1992). Education Commission report no. 5. Hong Kong: Government Printer.
Education Commission, Hong Kong. (1997). Education Commission report No. 7: Quality school education. Hong Kong: Government Printer.
Education Commission, Hong Kong. (2000). Reform proposals for the education system in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Government Printer.
Education Commission, Hong Kong. (2004). Progress report on the education reform (3). Hong Kong: Government Printer.
Education Commission, Hong Kong. (2005). Report on review of medium of instruction for secondary schools and secondary school places allocation. Hong Kong: Government Printer.
Education and Manpower Branch, Government Secretariat. (1993). School education in Hong Kong: A statement of aims. Hong Kong: Government Printer.
Elliott, D. J. (2005). Praxial music education: Reflections and dialogues. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Elliott, D. J. (2007). “Socializing” music education. Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education, 6(4). Retrieved October 29, 2015, from: http://act.maydaygroup.org/articles/Elliott6_4.pdf.
Endacott, G. B. (1973). A history of Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
Epoch Times. (2014, October 4). Hong Kong Umbrella Revolution song touches millions. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from: http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/999022-hong-kong-umbrella-revolution-song-touches-millions/.
Erni, J. N. (2001). Like a postcolonial culture: Hong Kong re-imagined. Cultural Studies, 15(3/4), 389–418.
Evans, S. (1998). The beginnings of English language education in Hong Kong, 1842–1859. Educational Research Journal, 13(2), 151–176.
Eyerman, R. & Jamison, A. (1998). Music and social movements: Mobilizing traditions in the twentieth century. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fairbrother, G. (2003a). The effects of political education and critical thinking on Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese university students’ national attitudes. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 24(5), 605–620.
Fairbrother, G. (2003b). Toward critical patriotism, student resistance to political education in Hong Kong and China. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Fairbrother, G. (2005). Power and right in Hong Kong’s citizenship education. Citizenship Studies, 9(3), 293–308.


Fairbrother, G. (2008). Rethinking hegemony and resistance to political education in Mainland China and Hong Kong. Comparative Education Review, 52(3), 381–412.
Faries, N. (2010). The “inscrutably Chinese” church: How narratives and nationalism continue to divide Christianity. Plymouth: Lexington Book.
Feinberg, W. & Torres, C. A. (2007), Democracy and education: John Dewey and Paul Freire. In J. Zajda (Ed.), Education and society (pp. 59–70). Albert Park: James Nicholas Publishing.
Fitzpatrick, K. R. (2012). Cultural diversity and the formation of identity: Our role as music teachers. Music Educators Journal, 98(4), 53–59.
Fouts, J. T. & Lee, W. O. (2005). Concepts of citizenship: From personal rights to social responsibility. In W. O. Lee & J. T. Fouts (Eds.), Education for social citizenship: Perceptions of teachers in the USA, Australia, England, Russia and China (pp. 19–51). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed (translated by M. B. Ramos). New York: Seabury Press.
Friederichs, J. O. (1991). Whose responsibility? The impact of imminent socio-political change on Hong Kong education. In International Review of Education (pp.193-209). Netherlands: UNESCO Institute of Education and Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Friederichs, J. O. (1992). Prospects for educational reform during political transformation in Hong Kong. Compare Education, 22(2), 165-182.
Galanin, I. (2004). On patriotic education in the cadet corps of the ministry for civil defense, emergencies, and natural disasters. Russian Education & Society, 46(12), 75–81.
Garg, D. & Garg, A. K. (2008). General education courses at the University of Botswana: Application of the theory of reasoned action in measuring course outcomes. The Journal of General Education, 56(3–4), 252–277.
Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures: Selected essays. New York: Basic Books.
Gellner, E. (1964). Thought and change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gellner, E. (1983). Nations and nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
General Education Office, HKBU. (2015). General education programme: General education & graduate attributes (GAs). Retrieved November 2, 3015, from: http://ge.hkbu.edu.hk/ge-programme/.
Ghai, Y. (1992). Freedom of expression. In R. Wacks (ed.), Human rights in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
Giroux, H. A. (1989). Schooling for democracy: Critical pedagogy in the modern age. London: Routledge.
Giroux, H. A. (2001). Culture, power and transformation in the work of Paulo Freire. In F. Schultz (Ed.), Sources: Notable selections in education (3rd ed.) (pp. 77–86). New York: McGrawHill Dushkin.
Glyer, D. & Weeks, D. L. (Eds.) (1998). The liberal arts in higher education: Challenging assumptions, exploring possibilities. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.
Goldblatt, P. (2006). How John Dewey’s theories underpin art and art education. Education and Culture, 22(1), 17–34.
Government of Hong Kong Special Demonstrative Region. (1998). The 1998 policy address: From adversity to opportunity. Hong Kong: Government Printer.
Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. (2007). Report on economic summit on ‘China’s 11th five-year plan’ and the development of Hong Kong. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from: http://www.info.gov.hk/ info/econ_summit/eng/action.htm.
Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. (2015). Hong Kong: The fact sheet. Retrieved October 27, 2015, from: http://www.gov. hk/en/about/abouthk/factsheets/docs/education.pdf.
Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the prison notebooks. Translated and edited by Q. Hoare & G. N. Smith. New York: International Publishers.
Green, L. (2001). How popular musicians learn: A way ahead for music education. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Green, L. (2003). Music education, cultural capital, and social group identity. In M. Clayton, T. Herbert & R. Middleton (Eds.). The cultural study of music: A critical introduction (pp. 263–274). New York and London, Routledge.
Gutmann, A. (1987). Unity and diversity in democratic multicultural education: Creative and destructive tensions. In J. A. Banks (Ed.), Diversity and citizenship education: Global perspectives (pp. 71–98). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Halbwachs, M. (1992) [1952]. On collective memory, ed. and trans. L. A. Coser. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.
Hall, S. (Ed.) (1997). Representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices. London; Thousand Oaks.
Hamrick, F. A. (1998). Democratic citizenship and student activism. Journal of College Student Development, 39(5), 449–459.
Handler, R. (1988). Having a culture: The preservation of Quebec’s patrimoine. In R. Handler (ed.) Nationalism and the politics of culture in Quebec (pp. 140–158). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Harvard University. (2007). Report of the task force on general education. Cambridge, MA: Author.
Haydon, G. (1993). Values education in a democratic society. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 12(1), 33–44.
Hayhoe, R. (1995). An Asian multiversity? Comparative reflections on the transition to mass higher education in East Asia. Comparative Education Review, 39(3), 299–321.
Hewitt, D. (1989/9190). Martin Lee: Counter-revolutionary or Democrat?. China Now, 132, p.7.
Higgins, L. (2012). Community music in the practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hille, K. (2009, March 27). China’s ‘angry youths’ are novel heroes. Financial Times. Retrieved August 30, 2015, from: http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/ s/0/3ce4216a-1af4-11de-8aa3-0000779fd2ac.html#axzz1W0kym9ho.
Ho, W. C. (1996). Hong Kong secondary music education: A sociological enquiry. Unpublished PhD Thesis. London: Institute of Education, University of London.
Ho, W. C. (1999a). The socio-political transformations and Hong Kong secondary music education: politicization, culturalization and marketization. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 140, 41–56.
Ho, W. C. (1999b). Hong Kong secondary music education: Political transition and civic education. Music Education Research, 1(2), 171–189.
Ho, W. C. (2001). Educational development according to quality, commercialization and internationalization: a study of music faculties at Hong Kong universities. Music Education Research, 3(2), 187–201.
Ho, W. C. (2009). Social developments and school music education: the struggles in Hong Kong. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 30(2), 179–193.
Ho, W. C. (2009). Social developments and school music education: the struggles in Hong Kong. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 30(2), 179–193.
Ho, W. C. (2011). School music education and social change in Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.
Ho, W. C. (2015). A study of the “Music, Society, and Culture” course for undergraduate students in Hong Kong. In R. V. Nata (Ed.), Progress in education (Volume 33) (pp.123–139). New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Ho, W. C. & Law, W. W. (2015). The promotion of multiple citizenships in China's music education. In C. Benedict, P. Schmidt, G. Spruce, & P. Woodford (eds.), The Oxford handbook of social justice and music education (pp. 91–106) Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Holloway, M. C. (2005). A comparison of the impact of two liberal arts general education core curricula on student humanitarian values. Journal of General Education, 54(3), 237–266.
Hook, B. (1997). From repossession to retrocession: British policy towards Hong Kong 1945-1997. In P. K. Li (Ed.), Political order and power transition in Hong Kong (pp. 1–30). Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Hong Kong-America Center. (2012). Fulbright Hong Kong general education Project. Hong Kong: Author.
Hong Kong Education Department. (1992). Education Commission report 5. Hong Kong: Government Printer.
Hong Kong Government. (1961). Hong Kong triennial survey of the director of education of the year 1958-61. Hong Kong: Government Printer.
Hong Kong Government. (1965). White paper on education policy. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Government Printer.
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). (2010). The 2010–11 policy address: Sharing prosperity for a caring society. Hong Kong: Author.
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST). (2015). 2013–2014 annual report: Global wisdom. Hong Kong: Author.
Hsing, K. C. (1987). “One country, two systems”: Theory and practice. Issues and Studies, 23(3), 7790.
Hsü, I. C. Y. (1990). The rise of modern China. New York: Oxford University.
Hu, X. Z. & Cao, L. (2013). Meaning and methods: Some thoughts on the role of general education and curriculum design. In J. Xing, P. S. Ng, C. Y. Cheng (Eds.), General education and the development of global citizenship in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China: Not merely icing on the cake (pp. 61–80). New York: Routledge.
Huang, C. C. (2013). A personal view of the evaluation of the humanities and social sciences in higher education. In J. Xing, P. S. Ng, & C. Cheng (Eds.), General education and the development of global citizenship in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China: Not merely icing on the cake (pp. 179–187). New York: Routledge.
Huang, H. X. (1991). Political message of Hong Kong’s culture (Xianggong wenhua de zhengzhi xunxi). The Nineties (Jiushi Niandai), 260, 55–57.
Hung, C. F. S. (2014a). The prewar school civic education policy in Hong Kong: A historical comparative analysis. Journal of US-China Public Administration, 11(2), 132–151.
Hung, C. F. S. (2014b). Political participation of students in Hong Kong – a historical account of transformation. In J. Y. S. Cheng (Ed.), New trend of political participation in Hong Kong (pp. 241–284). Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong.
Hurtado, S. (2007). Linking diversity with the educational and civic missions of higher education. The Review of Higher Education, 30(2), 185–196.
Ichilov, O. (Ed.) (1998). Citizenship and citizenship education in a changing world. London: Woburn Press.
Ip, S. (2015, January 15). The music that fueled occupy Hong Kong. Interlude. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from: http://www.interlude.hk/front/music-fuelled-occupy-hong-kong/.
Irwin, L. G. (2004). The policy analyst's handbook: Rational problem solving in a political world. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe.
Jackson, L. (2014). Who belongs in what Hong Kong? Citizenship education in the Special Administrative Region. In J. E. Petrovic & A. M. Kuntz (Eds.), Citizenship education around the world: Local contexts and global possibilities (pp. 22–42). New York: Routledge.
Jaffee, D. (2012). The general education initiative in Hong Kong: organized contradictions and emerging tensions. Higher Education, 64(2), 193–206.
Jencks, C., & Riesman, D. (1968). The academic revolution. New York: Doubleday.
Jiang, Y. G. (2013). Current thinking and liberal arts education. Boston College electronic thesis. Retrieved October 27, 2015, from: https://dlib.bc.edu/islandora/object/bc-ir:104094/datastream/PDF/view.
Johnson, R. K. (1998). Language and education in Hong Kong. In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), Language in Hong Kong at century’s end (pp. 265–276). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Johnson, C. D. (2012). Memory, metaphor, and Aby Warburg’s atlas of images. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press/Cornell University Library.
Johnson, J. A., Musial, D., Hall, G. E., Gollnick, D. M. & Dupuis, V. L. (2008). V. L. (2008). Foundations of American education: Perspectives on education in a changing world (14th ed.). Boston: Pearson Educational. Educational.
Jones, A. F. (1992). Like a knife: Ideology and genre in contemporary Chinese popular music. Ithaca, N. Y.: East Asian Program, Cornell University.
Jones, D. (Ed.) (2015). Censorship: A world encyclopedia (vols. 1–4). New York: Routledge.
Jorgensen, E. R. (2003) Transforming music education. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Kam, C. P. I. (2012). Personal identity versus national identity among Hong Kong youths – personal and social education reform after reunification. Social Identities, 18(6), 649–661.
Kelly, S. N. (2002). A sociological basis for music education. International Journal of Music Education, 39, 40–49.
Kellner, D. (1995). Media culture: Cultural studies, identity, and politics between the modern and the postmodern. London: Routledge.
Kember, D. (2010). Opening up the road to nowhere: problems with the path to mass higher education in Hong Kong. Higher Education, 59, 167–179.
King, A. (1977). The political culture of Kwun Tong: A Chinese community in Hong Kong. Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science, 59, 1–29.
King, P., Brown, M., Lindsay, N., & van Hecke, J. (2007). Liberal arts student learning outcomes: An integrated approach. About Campus, 12(4), 2–9.
Klimke, M. (2010). The other alliance: Student protest in West Germany and the United States. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Koskimaa, V. & Rapeli, L. (2015). Political socialization and political interest: The role of school reassessed. Journal of Political Science Education, 11(2), 141–156.
Kuah-Pearce, K. E. (2009). Defining Hong Kong as an emerging protest space: the anti-globalisation movement. In K. E. Kuah-Pearce & G. Guiheux (Eds.), Social movements in China and Hong Kong: The expansion of protest space (pp. 91–116). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Kochhar-Lindgren, G. (2013). Between: Capital, culture, and the transformation of Hong Kong’s universities. ASIANetwork Exchange, 20(2), 1–8.
Kuan, H. C. (1991). Power dependence and democratic transition: The case of Hong Kong, The China Quarterly, 128, 774–793.
Kwong, C. M. & Tsoi, Y. L. (2015). Eastern fortress: a military history of Hong Kong, 1840-1970. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Lai, E. F. K. (1996). Language and attitudes in the transitional period of Hong Kong. New Horizons in Education, 37, 39–45.
Lai, A. (2012, July 30). National education’ raises furor in Hong Kong. Cable News Network. Retrieved on October 11, 2015, from http://www.cnn. com/2012/07/30/world/asia/hong-kong-national-education-controversy/.
Lai, P. S. & Byram, M. (2003). The politics of bilingualism: a reproduction analysis of the policy of mother tongue education in Hong Kong after 1997. Compare, 33(3), 315–334.
Lam, J. T. M. (1995). Hong Kong’s democratic challenge. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 17(1), 53–66.
Lam, M., Chan, G., Marcet, M. M., Wong, W., Wong, J. & Wong, D. (2014). Spontaneous self-concept among Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong. Social Behavior and Personality, 42(8), 1353–1363.
Lam, Y. Y. (2010). Impact of globalization on higher education: An empirical study of education policy & planning of design education in Hong Kong. International Education Studies, 3(4), 73–85.
Lam, C. C. & Lai, B. L. L. (1994). Revising the junior secondary school geography curriculum: meeting the challenges of the twenty-first century. In C. C. Lam al et. (Eds.), Conference on curriculum changes in Hong Kong: The needs of the new era (pp. 107–113). Hong Kong: Department of Curriculum and Instruction, CUHK, and Curriculum Development Institute, Education Department.
Lam, J. T. M. (1993). Chris Patten’s constitutional reform package: Implications for Hong Kong’s political transition. Issues and Studies, 29(7), 55–72.
Lam, J. T. M. (1995). Hong Kong’s democratic challenge. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 17(1), 53–66.
Larkev, E. (1992). ustropop: Popular music and national identity in Austria. Popular Music, 11(2), 151–185.
Lau, E. & Rosario, L. D. (1985, August 1). Making friends on the media and cultural fronts. Far Eastern Economic Review, 30–31.
Lau, J. H. C. (2008). The narrowing gap: How Hong Kong media is inching towards the China model. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the study of journalism, University of Oxford. Retrieved December 9, 2015, from: https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/THE%20NARROWING%20GAP-%20Hong%20Kong%20and%20Chinese%20media %20models.pdf.
Lau, S. (1981). Utilitarianistic familism: The basis of political stability. In A. King & R. Lee (Eds.), Social life and development in Hong Kong (pp. 195–216). Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.
Lau, S. K. (1990). Institutions without leaders: The Hong Kong Chinese view of political leadership. Pacific Affairs, 63(2), 191–209.
Lau, S. K. (1992). Political attitudes. In S. K. Lau, M. K. Lee, P. S. Wan & S. L. Wong (Eds.), Indicators of social development: Hong Kong 1990 (pp. 129–157). Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Lau, S. K. & Kuan, H. C. (1989). The ethos of the Hong Kong Chinese (2nd Edition) Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.
Lau, T. (2013). State formation and education in Hong Kong: Pro-Beijing schools and national education. Asian Survey, 53(4), 728–753.
Law, W. W. (1997). The accommodation and resistance to the decolonisation, new-colonisation and recolonisaton of higher education in Hong Kong. Comparative Education, 32(2), 187–209.
Law, W. W. (2004). Globalization and citizenship education in Hong Kong and Taiwan, Comparative Education Review, 8(3), 253-273.
Law, W. W. (2007). The accommodation and resistance to the decolonisation, neocoloisation and recolonisation of higher education in Hong Kong. Comparative Education Review, 33, 187–209.
Law, W. W. & Ho, W. C. (2014). Music education and musical experiences in Hong Kong. Debates, 13, 103–114.
Lee, E. W. Y., Chan, E. Y. M., Chan, J. C. W., Cheung, P. T. Y., Lam, W. F. & Lam, W. M. (2013). Public policymaking in Hong Kong: Civic engagement and state-society relations in a semi-democracy. New York: Routledge.
Lee, F. & Chan, J. (2009). Organizational production of self-censorship in the Hong Kong media. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 14(1), 112–133.
Lee, J. C. Y. (1992). All for Freedom: The rise of patriotic/pro-democratic popular music in Hong Kong in response to the Chinese student movement. In R. Garofalo (ed.) Rocking the boat: Mass music & mass movements (pp. 129–147). Boston: South End Press.
Lee, M. H. (2014). Hong Kong higher education in the 21st century. Hong Kong Teachers’ Centre Journal, 13, 15–34.
Lee, W. O. (1998). Social class, language and achievement. In G. A. Postiglione & W. O. Lee (Eds.), Schooling in Hong Kong: Organization, teaching and social context (pp. 155–174). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Lee, W. O. (2003). Students’ concept and attitudes toward citizenship: The case of Hong Kong. International Journal of Educational Research, 39, 591–607.
Lee, W. O. (2004a). Emerging concepts of citizenship in the Asian context. In D. Grossman, K. Kennedy, G. Fairbrother, & W. O. Lee (Eds.), Citizenship education in Asia and the Pacific, concepts and issues (pp. 25–36). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong.
Lee, W. O. (2004b). Citizenship education in Hong Kong: Development and challenges. In D. Grossman, K. Kennedy, G. Fairbrother, & W. O. Lee (Eds.), Citizenship education in Asia and the Pacific, concepts and issues (pp. 59–80). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong.
Lee, W. O. (2004c). Concepts and issues of Asian citizenship: Spirituality, harmony and individuality. In D. Grossman, K. Kennedy, G. Fairbrother, & W. O. Lee (Eds.), Citizenship education in Asia and the Pacific, concepts and issues (pp. 277–288). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong.
Lee, W. O. (2008a). The development of citizenship education curriculum in Hong Kong after 1997: Tensions between national identity and global citizenship. In D. Grossman, K. Kennedy, & W. O. Lee (Eds.), Citizenship curriculum in Asia and the Pacific (pp. 29–42). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong.
Leung, B. K. P. (2000). The student movement in Hong Kong: Transition to a democratizing society. In S. W. K. Chiu & T. L. Lui (Eds.), The dynamics of social movement in Hong Kong (pp. 209–226). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Leung, B. K. P. (2011). Social movement as cognitive praxis: The case of the student movement and the labor movement in Hong Kong. In J. Broadbent & V. Brockman (Eds.), East Asian social movements: Power, protest, and change in a dynamic region (pp. 347–364). New York: Springer.
Leung, B. W. (2013). Transmission and transformation of Cantonese opera in Hong Kong: From school education to professional training. In S. Leong, & B. W. Leung (Eds.), Creative arts in education and culture: Perspectives from Greater China (145–156). Dordrecht: Springer.
Leung, K. W. Y. (1999). How free is the press of Hong Kong: 1997 and after? In L. C. H. Chow, & Y. K. Fan (Eds.), The other Hong Kong report 1998 (pp. 115–138). Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.
Leung, M. Y. (2013). From liberal education to general education. In In J. Xing, P. S. Ng, C. Y. Cheng (Eds.), General education and the development of global citizenship in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China: Not merely icing on the cake (pp. 46–58). New York: Routledge.
Leung, Y. W., Chai, W. L., & Ng, S. W. (2000). The evolution of civic education: From guidelines 1985 to guidelines 1996. In Y. C. Cheng, K. W. Chow, & K. T. Tsui (Eds.), School curriculum change and development in Hong Kong (pp. 351–368). Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute of education.
Leung, Y. W. & Ng, S. W. (2004). Back to square one: The re-depoliticizing of civic education in Hong Kong. Pacific Asian Education, 24(1), 43–60.
Leung, Y. W. & Yuen, T. W. W. (2009). School civic education since 1980s: A brief review of the literature in Hong Kong. Educational Research Journal, 24(2), 257–292.
Lewin, T. (2013, October 30). As interest fades in the humanities, colleges worry. The New York Times. Retrieved from October 30, 2015, from: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/31/education/as-interest-fades-in-the-humanities-colleges-worry.html?_r=0.
Li, J. (2009). Fostering citizenship in China’s move from elite to mass higher education: An analysis of students’ political socialization and civic participation. International Journal of Educational Development, 29(4), 382–398.
Li, J. (2011). Equality, institutional change and civil society – The student experience in China’s move to mass higher education. In R. Hayhoe, J. Li, J. Lin, & Q. Zha (Eds.), Portraits of 21st century Chinese universities: In the move to mass higher education (pp. 58–93). Hong Kong: Education Research Centre, the University of Hong Kong.
Li, P. S. (2005). The rise and fall of Chinese immigrants to Canada: Newcomers from Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China and Mainland China, 1980-2000. International Migration, 43(3), 9–32.
Liang, Y. M. (1989, June). Burning from our hearts: Entertainers talking about the Chinese democratic movement (Cong zinli re chului: Yingtijie renshi tan zhonggong mingyun). The Nineties (Jiushi Niandai), p.54.
Liebman, A., Walker, K. N. & Glazer, M. (1972). Latin American university students: A six nation study. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Lilley, R. (1993). Claiming identity: Film and television in Hong Kong. History & Anthropology, 6(2-3), 261–292.
Lilley, R. (1998). Staging Hong Kong: Gender and performance in transition. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon.
Lin, A. (2009). Local interpretation of global management discourses in higher education in Hong Kong: potential impact on academic culture. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 10(2), 260–274.
Lin, M. C. (2013). The relationship in curriculum design of general education and whole-person education in higher education. In J. Xing, P. S. Ng, & C. Y. Cheng (Eds.), General education and the development of global citizenship in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China: Not merely icing on the cake (pp. 81–97). New York: Routledge.
Liu, J. (2012, September 1). Hong Kong debates ‘national education’ classes. BBC News. Retrieved October 11, 2015, from: http://www.bbc.com/news/ world-asia-china-19407425.
Lo, Y. C. (2004). Curriculum reform. In M. Bray & R. Koo (Eds.), Education and society in Hong Kong and Macau: Comparative perspectives on continuity and change (2nd edition) (pp. 161–174). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, the University of Hong Kong.
Lo, S. H. (1994). An analysis of Sino-British negotiations over Hong Kong’s political reform. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 16(2), 178–209.
Lo, S. H. (1995). A profile of the ‘Pro-China Hong Kong elite’: Images and perceptions. Issues and Studies, 31(6), 98–127.
Loh, C. (2010). Underground front: the Chinese Communist Party in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Lombardo, J. R. (2000). A mission of espionage, intelligence and psychological operations: The America consulate in Hong Kong, 1949-64. In R. J. Aldrich, G. D. Rawnsley, & M. Y. T. (Eds.), The Clandestine Cold War in Asia, 1945–65 (pp. 64–87). London: Frank Cass.
Lowenthal, D. (1985). The past is a foreign country. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Luk, B. (2003). Cong rongshu xia dao diannao qian: Xianggang jiayu de gushi (From under the banyan tree to in front of the computer: the story of Hong Kong education). Hong Kong: Step Forward Multimedia.
Luk-Fong, P. Y. Y. (2005). Globalisation and localization enmeshed – towards a framework for the developing of guidance curriculum in Hong Kong. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 3(1), 83–100.
Ma, C. H. K., & Chan, A. C. M. (2013). A Hong Kong university first establishing service-learning as an academic credit-bearing subject. Gateway: International Journal of Community Research and Engagement, 6, 178–198.
Ma, E. K. W. (2001). Peripheral vision: Chinese cultural studies in Hong Kong. In T. Miller (Ed.), A companion to cultural studies (pp. 259–274). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
Marginson, S. (2011). Higher education in East Asia and Singapore: Rise of the Confucian model. Higher Education, 61(5), 587–611.
Marginson, S. (2014). Student self-formation in international education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(1), 6–22.
Mark, C. K. (2005). American “China hands” in the 1950s. In C. Y. Y. Chu (Ed.), Foreign communities in Hong Kong, 1940s–1950s (pp. 171–194). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Merriam, C. E. (1931). The making of citizens. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Matthews, W. J. (2003). Constructivism in the classroom: Epistemology, history, and empirical evidence. Teacher Education Quarterly, 30(3), 51–64.
Melucci, A. (1995). The process of collective identity. In H. Johnson & B. Hlandermans (eds.), Social movements and culture (pp. 41–63). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Middleton, R. (2003). Introduction: music studies and the idea of culture. In M. Clayton, T. Herbert & R. Middleton (Eds.), The cultural study of music: A critical introduction (pp. 1–15). New York: Routledge.
Miller, G. E. (1988). The meaning of general education: The emergence of a curriculum paradigm. New York: Teachers College Press.
Mitchell, G. (2007). The North American folk music revival: Nation and identity in the United States and Canada 19451980. Burlington: Ashgate.
Miller, B. J. & Sundre, D. L. (2008). Achievement goal orientation toward general education versus overall coursework. Journal of General Education, 57(3), 152–169.
Mok, K. H. (1999). The cost of managerialism: the implications for the ‘McDonalisation’ of higher education in Hong Kong. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 21(1), 117–127.
Mok, K. H. (2003). Globalization and higher education restructuring Hong Kong, Taiwan and mainland China. Higher Education Research and Development, 22(2), 117–129.
Mok, K. H. (2007). Questing for internationalization of universities in Asia: Critical reflections. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3–4), 433–454.
Mok, K. H. (2009). Globalisation and higher education restructuring in Hong Kong, Taiwan and mainland China. In M. Tight, K. H. Mok, J. Huisman, & C. Morphew (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of higher education. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge.
Mok, K. H. & Tan, J. (2004). Globalization and marketization in education: A comparative analysis of Hong Kong and Singapore. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Mok, K. H. & Welch, A. (Eds.) (2003). Globalization and educational re-structuring in the Asia Pacific Region. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.
Mok, K. H. & Yu, K. M. (Eds.) (2014). Internationalization of higher education in East Asia: Trends of student mobility and impact on education governance. New York: Routledge.
Moore, M. (2014, September 30). How a song from Les Misérables became Hong Kong’s protest anthem. The Telegraph. Retrieved November 25, 2015, from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/ asia/ hongkong/11130092/How-a-song-from-Les-Miserables-became-Hong-Kongs-protest-anthem.html.
Morris, P. (1992). Political and educational reform: the case of Hong Kong prior to its return to the sovereignty of the People’s Republic of China in 1997. Compare Education, 22(21), 153–164.
Morris, P. (1997). Civics and citizenship education in Hong Kong. In K. Kennedy (Ed.), Citizenship education and the modern state (pp. 107–125). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Morris, P. (1998). School knowledge, the state and the market: An analysis of the Hong Kong secondary school curriculum. In P. Stimpson & P. Morris (Eds.), Curriculum and assessment for Hong Kong: Two components, one System (pp. 141–170). Hong Kong: Open University of Hong Kong Press.
Morris, P. (2009). Education, politics and the state in Hong Kong. In M. Lall & E. Vickers, Education as a political tool in Asia (pp. 83–101). London: Routledge.
Morris, P. & Chan, K. K. (1997). The Hong Kong school curriculum and the political transition: politicisation, contextualisation and symbolic action. Comparative Education, 33(2), 247–264.
Morris, P., Kan, F. & Morris, E. (2000). Education, civic participation and identity: Continuity and change in Hong Kong. Cambridge Journal of Education, 30(2), 243–262.
Morris, P., McClelland, G. & Wong, P. M. (1998). Explaining curriculum changes: social studies in Hong Kong. In P. Stimpson & P. Morris (Eds.), Curriculum and assessment for Hong Kong: Two components, one system (pp. 103–124). Hong Kong: Open University of Hong Kong Press.
Morris, P., McClelland, J. A. G. & Yeung, Y. M. (1994). Higher education in Hong Kong: The context of and rationale for rapid expansion. Higher Education, 27(2), 125–140.
Morris, P. & Morris, E. (2002). Civic education in Hong Kong: A tale of two schools. In J. J. Cogan, P. Morris, & M. Print (Eds.), Civic education in the Asia-Pacific region: Case studies across with six societies (pp. 46–69). New York: Routledge.
Morris, P. & Sweeting, A. (1991). Education and politics: The case of Hong Kong from an historical perspective. Oxford Review of Education, 17(3), 249–267.
Nelson, C. & Grossberg, L. (Eds.) (1988). Marxism and the interpretation of culture. Urbana: University of Illinois.
Nenga, S. K. & Taft, J. K. (Eds.) (2013). Youth engagement: The civic-political lives of children and youth. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Ng Lun, N. H. (1984), Interactions of East and West: Development of Public Education in Early Hong Kong. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.
Ngai, S. S. Y. (2006). Service-learning, personal development, and social commitment: A case study of university students in Hong Kong. Adolescence, 41(161), 165–176.
Ngai, S. S. Y. (2009). The effects of program characteristics and psychological engagement and service-learning outcomes: A study of university students in Hong Kong. Adolescence, 44(174), 375–389.
Njogu, K. & Maupeu, H. (Eds.) (2007). Songs and politics in Eastern Africa. Dar es Salaam. Tanzania: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers.
Nussbaum, M. (1997). Cultivating humanity: a classical defense of reform in liberal education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Okihiro, G. Y. (Eds.) (2014). The great American mosaic: An exploration of diversity in primary documents (vol. 1: African American experience). Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood.
Olson, K. (2005) Music for community education and emancipatory learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 7, 55–64.
Olssen, M. & Peters, M. (2005). Neoliberalism, higher education and the knowledge economy: from the free market to knowledge capitalism. Journal of Education Policy, 20(3), 313–347.
Ong, K. C. & Chan, D. K. K. (2007). Transnational higher education and challenges for university governance in China. Higher Education Policy (Special Issue: Transnational Education and Student Mobility), 25(2), 151–170.
Ortmann, S. (2015). The Umbrella Movement and Hong Kong’s protracted democratization process. Asian Affairs, 46(1), 32–50.
Ozgur, I. (2015). Islamic schools in modern Turkey: Faith, politics, and education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Palfreyman, D. & McBridge, D. L. (eds.) (2007). Learning and teaching across cultures in higher education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Pangle, L. S. (2013). Reclaiming the core: Liberal education in the twenty-first century. Perspectives in Political Science, 42, 207–211.
Pascarella, E. T. & Terenzini, P. T. (1991). How college affects students: Findings and insights from twenty years of research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Pascarella, E. T. & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students. Vol. 2: A third decade of research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Pennycook, A. (1998). English and the discourses of colonialism. London: Routledge.
Pereira, E. M. A. (2002). Implications of Postmodernity for the University. Revista Avaliação, 7, 35–46.
Pereira, E. M. A., Carneiro, A. M. & Gonçalves, M. L. (2014). Innovation and evaluation in the Brazilian higher education culture: interdisciplinary and general education. Creative Education, 5, 1690–1701.
Perkin, H. (2006). History of universities. In J. F. J. Forest & P. G. Altbach (Eds.), International handbook of higher education (pp. 159–205). Doordrecht: Springer.
Perkins, D. (2008). Beyond understanding. In R. Land, J. H. F. Meyer, J. Smith (Eds.), Threshold concepts, within the discipline (pp. 3–20). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Postiglone, G. A. (1995). Hong Kong higher education and its academic profession: entering the red chamber. International Higher Education, 3, 14–16.
Postiglone, G. A. (2013). Anchoring globalization in Hong Kong’s research universities: Network agents, institutional arrangements and brain circulation. Studies in Higher Education, 38(3), 345–366.
Postiglone, G. A. (2014). What matters in global outreach? The case of the University of Hong Kong. In Y. Cheng, Q. Wang, & N. C. Liu (Eds.), How world-class universities affect global higher education: Influences and responses (pp. 163–176). Boston: Sense Publishers.
Reason, R. D. (2011). Expanding the conversation. Perspective taking as a civic outcome of college. Journal of College and Character, 12(2), 1–6.
Reason, R. D., Ryder, A. J. & Kee, C. (2013). Higher education’s role in educating for personal and social responsibility: a review of existing literature. New Directions for Higher Education, 164, 13–22.
Reimer, B. (1989). A philosophy of music education (2nd ed.). Eaglewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Reimer, B. (2009). Seeking the significance of music education: Essays and reflections. Lanham, NY: Rowman & Littlefield.
Renan, E. (1990). What is a nation?. In H. K. Bhabha (Ed.), Nation and narration (pp. 8–22). New York: Routledge.
Renan, E. (2004). The antiquity of nations. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Rhoades, G. (2014). The higher education we choose, collectively: reembodying and repoliticizing choice. Journal of Higher Education, 85(6), 917–930.
Richerson, P. J. & Boyd, R. (2005). Not by genes alone: How culture transformed and human evolution. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
RiCharde, R. S., Olney, C. A. & Erwin, T. D. (1993). Cognitive and affective measures of student development. In T. Banta and Assoc. (Eds.), Making a difference: Outcomes of a decade of assessment in higher education (pp. 179–195). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Roberson, J. E. (2009). Memory and music in Okinawa: The cultural politics of war and peace. Positions, 17(3), 683–711.
Roberson, J. E. (2010). Singing diaspora: Okinawan songs of home, departure, and return. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 17(4), 430–453.
Roblyer, M. D. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Rosario, L. D. (1995a). Thorn in the Side: Democratic Party continues to fight China. Far Eastern Economic Review, 28–29.
Rosario, L. D. (1995b). A court too far: Democrats vow to reject Sino-British accord. Far Eastern Economic Review, 20.
Rosario, L. D. (1995c). Sharp distinction: Attitudes to China dominate election fray. Far Eastern Economic Review, 15–16.
Roy, W. G. (2010). Social movements, folk music, and race in the United States: Reds, whites, and blues. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Saich, T. (1990). The Chinese people’s movement: Perspectives on Spring 1989. New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc.
Said, E. W. (2004). Humanism and democratic criticism. New York: Columbia University Press.
Schippers, H. (2010). Facing music education from a global perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Scott, R. E. (1968). Student political activism in Latin America. Students and Politics, 97(1), 70–98.
Sears, D. 0. (1990). Whither political socialization research: The question of persistence. In O. Ichilov (Ed.), Political socialization, citizenship education, and democracy (pp. 69–97). New York: Teachers College Press.
Segal, G. (1993). The fate of Hong Kong. London: Simon & Schuster Ltd.
Sensicle, A. (1992). The Hong Kong initiative. In A. Craft (Ed.), Quality assurance in higher education: proceedings of an international conference, Hong Kong, 1991 (pp. 65–82). London: Falmer Press.
Shapiro, A. (2002). A service-learning approach to teaching gerontology: A case study of a first-year undergraduate seminar. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 23(2), 25–36.
Shor, I., (1992). Empowering education: Critical teaching for social change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Smith, A. D. (1995). Nations and nationalism in a Global Era. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Smith, A. D. (2004). The antiquity of nations. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Sperber, D. (1996). Explaining culture. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
So, A. Y. (2006). One Country, Three Systems? State, Nation, and Civil Society in the Making of Citizenship in the Chinese Triangle of Mainland-Taiwan-Hong Kong. In A. S. Ku & N. Pun (Eds.), Remaking citizenship in Hong Kong: Community, nation and the global city (pp. 235–253). Oxon: Routlegde.
Song, S. G. (2013). University culture building. In J. Xing, P. S. Ng, C. Y. Cheng (Eds.), General education and the development of global citizenship in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Mainland China: Not merely icing on the cake (pp. 30–45). London and New York: Routledge.
Stallman, J. (2003). John Dewey’s new humanism and liberal education for the 21st century. Education and Culture, XX(2), 18–22.
Steen, A. (2013). Voices of the main stream: Red songs and revolutionary identities in the People’s Republic of China. In C. Utz & F. Lau (Eds.), Vocal music and contemporary identities: Unlimited voices in East Asia and the West (pp. 225–247). New York: Routledge.
Steger, I. (2015, May 27). In Hong Kong, Tiananmen vigil highlights a rift. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 29, 2015, from: http://www.wsj.com/articles/in-hong-kong-june-4-marks-a-rift-1432696667.
Strauss, C. & Quinn, N. (1994). A cognitive/cultural anthropology. In R. Borofsky (Ed.), Assessing cultural anthropology (pp. 284–300). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Sweeting, A. (1989). The reconstruction of education in post-war Hong Kong, 1945-1954: Variations in the process of policy-making. Ph.D. Dissertation. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong.
Sweeting, A. (1990). Education in Hong Kong Pre-1841 to 1941: Fact & opinion. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Sweeting, A. (1991). The medium of instruction in Hong Kong schools. In N. Crawford & E. K. P. Hui (Eds.), The curriculum and behavior problems in schools: a response to Education Commission Report No.4 (Education Paper No.11) (pp. 67–78). Hong Kong: Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong.
Sweeting, A. (1993). A phoenix transformed: The reconstruction of education in post-war Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
Sweeting, A. & Vickers, E. (2007). Language and the history of colonial education: The case of Hong Kong. Modern Asian Studies, 41(1), 1–40.
Strauss, C. & N. Quinn (1994). A cognitive/cultural anthropology. In R. Borofsky (Ed.), Assessing cultural anthropology (pp. 284–297). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Tan, S. H. (2004). China’s pragmatist experiment in democracy: Hu Shih’s pragmatism and Dewey’s influence in China. Metaphilosophy, 35(2), 44–64.
Tang, H. H. H. (2015). Democratizing higher education in China’s Hong Kong: Between rhetoric and reality. In P. Blessinger & J. P. Anchan (Eds.), Democratizing higher education: International comparative perspectives (pp. 155–168). New York: Routledge.
Task Force on Higher Education and Society. (2000). Higher education in developing countries: Peril and promise. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Teo, S. (1997). Hong Kong cinema: The extra dimension. London: BFI.
Thompson, R. J. Jr. (2014). Beyond reason and tolerance: The purpose and practice of higher education. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Torres, C. A. (1998). Democracy, education, and multiculturalism: Dilemmas of citizenship in a global world. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Tsang, K. C. (2004). Civic and political education. In M. Bray & R. Koo (Eds.), Education and society in Hong Kong and Macao: Comparative perspectives on continuity and change (pp. 175–200). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong.
Tsang, W. K. (1994). Review and prospect of the political education in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Economic Journal [in Chinese], 8(5), 34–40.
Tse, T. K. C. (2004). Civic and political education. In M. Bray & R. Koo (Eds.), Education and society in Hong Kong and Macao (2nd edition) (pp. 175–200). Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, the University of Hong Kong.
Tubbs, N. (2014). Philosophy and modern liberal arts education: Freedom is to learn. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Turner, S. E., & Bowen, W. G. (1990). The flight from the arts and sciences: Trends in degrees conferred. Science, 250(4980), 517–521.
Umemoto, K. (1989). “On strike!” San Francisco state college strike, 1968-69: The role of Asian American students. Amerasia Journal, 15(1), 3–41.
University and Polytechnic Grants Committee. (1993). Higher education 1991–2001: An interim report. Hong Kong: Author.
University Grants Committee, Hong Kong. (1996). UGC quadrennial report 1991–95. Hong Kong: Author.
University Grants Committee, Hong Kong. (1996b). Higher education in Hong Kong – a report. Hong Kong: Author.
University Grants Committee, Hong Kong. (2010). Aspirations for the higher education system in Hong Kong: Report of the University Grants Committee. Hong Kong: Author.
University Grants Committee, Hong Kong. (2013). University Grants Committee annual report 2012–13. Hong Kong: Author.
University Grants Committee, Hong Kong. (2015a). University Grants Committee annual report 2013–14 (New horizons in teaching, learning and research). Hong Kong: Author.
University Grants Committee, Hong Kong. (2015b). Hong Kong PhD Fellowship Scheme. Retrieved October 6, 2015, from: http://www.ugc. edu.hk/eng/rgc/hkphd/hkphd.htm.
Verger, J. (1992). Patterns. In H. de Ridder-Symoens (Ed.), Universities in the middle ages: A history of the university in Europe, Vol. 1 (pp. 35–69). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Vickers, E. (2002). The politics of history education in Hong Kong: the case of local history. International Journal of Education Research, 37, 587-602.
Vickers, E. & Kan, F. (2003). The reeducation of Hong Kong: identity, politics, and education in postcolonial Hong Kong. American Asian Review, 21(4), 179-228.
VTC, School of Higher and Professional Education (SHAPE). Top-up degree prospectus for HD graduate 2010/11. Hong Kong: VTC.
Walker, M. (2015). Imagining STEM higher education futures: advancing human well-being. Higher Education, 70(3), 417–425.
Wallerstein, I. (1976). The modern world-System: Capitalist agriculture and the origins of the European world-economy in the sixteenth century. New York: Academic Press.
Wallerstein, I. (1990). Culture as the ideological battleground of the modern world-system. Theory, Culture & Society, 7, 31–55.
Wang, J. C. Z. (2005). John Dewey as a learner in China. Education and Culture, 21(1), 59–73.
Wang, J. C. Z. (2007). John Dewey in China: To teach and to learn. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Wang, L. X. & Kirkpatrick, A. (2015). Trilingual education in Hong Kong primary schools: an overview. Multilingual Education, 5(3), 1-26. Retrieved October 10, 2015, from: http://www.multilingual-education.com/content/pdf/s13616-015-0023-8.pdf.
Wang, X. H. (1989, August). You, educators have offended the law (in Chinese). Ming Pao Monthly Journal, 16–18.
Washburn, D. (2012, March 19). Revolution: The unlikely rise of Chinese rock and roll. Retrieved November 20, 2015, from: http://www.the atlantic.com/international/archive/2012/03/counter-cultural-revolution-the-unlikely-rise-of-chinese-rock-and-roll/254702/
Webster, J. J. (2007). Languages in Hong Kong: Ten years on (1997-2007). In T. Hoffmann & L. Siebers (Eds.), World Englishes – problems, properties and prospects (pp. 143-154). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Weber, M. (1968). The methodology of the social sciences (translated & edited By E. A. Shils & H. A. Finch). New York: The Free Press.
Weiss, M. L. & Aspinall, E. (Eds.) (2012). Student activism in Asia: Between protest and powerlessness. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Westbrook, R. B. (1991). John Dewey and American democracy. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Westheimer, J. & Kahne, J. (2003). Reconnecting education to democracy: Democracy dialogues. Phi Delta Kappan, 85(1), 9–14.


Wilde, S. (Ed.). (2005). Political and citizenship education: International perspectives. Oxford: Symposium Books.
Wilson, D. (1990). Hong Kong! Hong Kong! London: Unwin Hyman.
Wong, L., & Gui, S. X. (2004). Introduction. In L. Wong, L. White, & S. X. Gui (Eds.), Social policy reform in Hong Kong and Shanghai: A tale of two cities (pp. 1–11). Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe.
Wong, P. W. (2000). The pro-Chinese democracy movement in Hong Kong. In S. W. K. Chiu & T. L. Lui. (Eds.), The dynamics of social movement in Hong Kong (pp. 55–90). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Wong, S. Y. Y. (2006). Globalization and the transformation of higher education in Hong Kong. Unpublished PhD thesis. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.
Woodhouse, K. (2015, June 4). Arts and sciences deficits. Inside Higher Education. Retrieved October 30, 2015, from: https://www. insidehighered.com/news/2015/06/04/colleges-arts-and-sciences-struggle-deficits-enrollment-declines.
Woodford, P. G. (2005). Democracy and music education: Liberalism, ethics, and the politics of practice. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Xin, J. & Ma. C. (Eds.) (2010). Service-learning in Asia: Curricular models and practices. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Xu, Z. C. (2014). Functional English and Chinese as mediums of instruction in a higher institution in Hong Kong. In K. Dunworth & G. Zhang (Eds.), Critical perspectives on language education: Australia and the Asia Pacific

(pp. 209–228). New York: Springer.
Xue, L. (2002). Searching for life’s meaning: Changes and tensions in the worldviews of Chinese youth in the 1980s. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Yang, R. (2003). Globalization and higher education development: A critical analysis. International Review of Education, 49(3/4), 269–291.
Yee, A. H (1992). A people misruled: The Chinese stepping-stone syndrome (2nd edition). Hong Kong: UEA Press Ltd.
Yeh, M. D. (1990). Hong Kong’s 1997 deadline and its probable impact on Taiwan. Issues and Studies, 26(8), 96–115.
Yin, A. C. & Volkwein, J. F. (2010). Assessing general education outcomes. New Directions for Institutional Research, 2010, 79–100.
Yu, C. Z. (1988). Be brave to be Chiese (Zuge xonggan de Zhongguo ren). The Nineties (Jiushi Niandai), 218, 8–9.
Yuen, M. M. Y. (1997) The Catholic church in political transition. In J. Y. S. Cheng (Ed.), Hong Kong report 1997 (pp. 505–528). Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.
Zhao, D. X. (2001). The power of Tiananmen: State-society relations and the 1989 Beijing student movement. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Zhao, S. S. (2008). The Olympics and Chinese nationalism. China Security, 4(3), 48–57.
Zhou, H. S. (1990). Xiaofei wenfua: Yingxiang wenzi yinyue (Consuming culture: Image, words and music). Hong Kong: Qing Wen Wenhua Shiye Youxian Gongsi.
Zhou, X. L. (2007). Young rebels in contemporary Chinese cinema. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.


Internet Sources:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nwAYpLVyeFU.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yp7mLusFcn0.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qTEiWOOUleY.

Intended audience is quite broad. The target audience include undergraduate students; post-graduate students; researchers in the humanities and social sciences, general education, international education, and educational development; and government officials, policymakers, and education administrators.

You have not viewed any product yet.


SHOW ALL OF MY RECENTLY VIEWED BOOKS