Education, Society, and Cultures: Hong Kong Higher Education in Transition


Wai-Chung Ho
Department of Music, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China

Series: Education in a Competitive and Globalizing World
BISAC: EDU015000

Higher education is an important resource for any country, and it serves as the key agent in forming a better society. The development of higher education has aroused widespread concerns among stakeholders in the sector, including policymakers, university administrators, academics, parents, and students. While there is a growing trend toward incorporating general education into the compulsory curriculum of higher education, this topic is under-researched. The broader societal benefits of including cultural understanding in higher education have received less attention, but these benefits are fundamental to the well-being of society. No direct research between the learning and teaching of cultures or musical cultures in higher education can be found in academic references. Dialogue on this issue will help to map humanities and social studies, education policies, and practices in contemporary and future higher education.

This book addresses the overriding issues concerning the consequences of links between higher education and social change. The main objective of this book is to present information and scholarly research on the development of and challenges to social change, cultures, and higher education in Hong Kong. Major trends and movements in the literature of education and their effects on cultural diversity and social experiences will be reviewed in order to develop a framework for the study of diverse cultures and higher education. This study will trace the development of education and cultures and musical cultures in Hong Kong from 1984 to 1989 framed by the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration Agreement, as well as the return of Hong Kong’s political sovereignty from the United Kingdom to Mainland China on July 1, 1997. It will also discuss the sociopolitical contexts and cultural practices of the Hong Kong Chinese community and show how the interactions between globalization, localization, and Chinesenization have created their respective conditions under the influence of diverse musical cultures. Particular reference will be made to a study of the General Education Course “Music, Culture, and Society”, which is one of the core requirements offered in the history and civilization category at Hong Kong Baptist University. The principal research question of the study focuses on two issues: To what extent might students be helped in knowing and understanding music and society, and how might such cultural and social awareness be perceived by students and inform contemporary educational practices? This study will report the researcher’s recent survey data and the students’ assignments collected from the general education course, delivered to three different sessions of the course “Music, Culture and Society” between Spring 2013 and Autumn 2014. The data will also include the students’ reflection assignments on the 2014 Umbrella Movement, where popular songs were used to support pro-democratic activities. (Imprint: Nova)



Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Social Change, Political Culture, and Education in a Transforming Hong Kong Society

Chapter 3. Hong Kong Higher Education: The Triple Processes of Globalization, Chinesenization, and Localization

Chapter 4. The Value of Liberal Education, General Education, and a Research Study of the Selected Course “Music, Culture, and Society” In Higher Education in Hong Kong

Chapter 5. An Analysis of Hong Kong University Students’ Social Movements, Students’ Assignments on the Umbrella Movement, and Their Expression of Democratic Songs

Chapter 6. Conclusion and Implications: General Education and Values in the Development of Global Citizenship and Cultural Understanding in the Contemporary World


About the Author



“Professor Ho is already a well-respected researcher in the field of music education in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, with special reference to interactions between culture and politics. In this fascinating and scholarly book she has applied her considerable analytic skills to a broader spectrum, showing how Higher Education in general has functioned in the cultural-political nexus following the hand-over of Hong Kong from British sovereignty to become an autonomous region of China. Whilst her discussion will be of interest to readers across many subject areas, she has used music – both as a marker of taste and identity, and as a part of curriculum content – in order to illustrate a meeting-point between the individual and the larger civic society. A highly recommended read.” – Professor Lucy Green, UCL Institute of Education, London, UK


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