Table of Contents
Glucagon like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted from the L cells of intestines, on meal ingestion and work in concert to promote postprandial insulin secretion and regulate glucagon secretion [1, 2]. GLP-1 also suppresses appetite, and slows gastric emptying, whereas GIP has a role in modulating lipid metabolism. Interestingly, incretins have become more important due to their role as GLP-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Combining the glucose and body weight-lowering effects of GLP-1 causing greater improvement in β cell function through additional GIP action may offer a more effective treatment of obesity and T2DM. This combination may have improved efficacy as well as lower adverse effects compared to selective GLP-1R agonists. Therefore, new drugs, the twin incretins, designed to co-activate both the GIP receptor and the GLP-1 receptors simultaneously, are under development [1-3]. The present review aims to address advances in the field of receptor signaling related to GIP and GLP-1 co-agonism, which may have beneficial effects on obesity, T2DM, metabolic syndrome and CVDs.