Ecotoxicology in Latin America

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Latin America is one of the most diverse but also vulnerable regions in the world that is under continuous anthropogenic pressure due to increasing urban, industrial and agricultural developments. Although there are many research groups studying the impacts caused by those pressures, the results and conclusions obtained by many of them are largely unknown because their studies are mostly published at the local or regional scale.

Ecotoxicology in Latin America represents an effort to collect and share research performed in Latin America in the area of ecotoxicology and environmental risk assessment, presenting a collection of relevant and innovative studies focused on the following topics: (i) Contaminant entrance, transportation, distribution and fate; (ii) Environmental risk in freshwater ecosystems; (iii) Ecological risk in coastal zones; (iv) Biomonitoring programs: water, sediment and air; (v) Physiological effects and biomarkers; (vi) Soil ecotoxicology; (vii) Bioaccumulation and human risk; (viii) Toxicity of emerging contaminants; and (ix) Frontiers in Ecotoxicology. This selection of topics aims at covering the most important subjects and applications of ecotoxicology, including classical and novel subjects. Therefore, this book contains chapters related to different environmental compartments prone to contamination (water, sediment, soil and air), to different contamination sources (agriculture, industry, urban discharges and natural emissions), and to multiple biological responses at different organizational levels (individual to ecosystems, including human beings).

It is envisioned to have an international projection within and beyond Latin American countries, as it is a great opportunity to increase the networks not only among Latin American research teams working on similar subjects, but also with teams from other regions. The idea of this book was to favor the connection among groups to quickly improve the development of methods and their application in ecotoxicological and environmental risk studies in Latin America. This book will be useful to important sectors of environmental sciences and related areas, and to specific target demographics such as students and researchers acting in environmental studies, and decision-makers (i.e., politicians and environmental organizations). Ecotoxicology in Latin America presents 34 chapters authored by 111 researchers from 12 Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) and from 6 non-Latin American countries (Austria, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and USA).

About the Book

Foreword

List of Contributors

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1. What Risks do the Contaminants Really Represent? A Standpoint on Effects from Organisms to Ecosystems/Landscapes based on Non-Forced Aquatic Exposure Scenarios
Cristiano V. M. Araújo, Cândida Shinn, Matilde Moreira-Santos, and Rui Ribeiro (CFE-Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal, and others)

Chapter 2. Biomarkers in Native Central American Species
Freylan Mena Torres, Margaret Pinnock Branford, Silvia Echeverría Sáenz, Luisa E. Castillo Martínez and Rocío Ugalde Salazar (Central American Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances (IRET), Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica)

Chapter 3. Aquatic Ecotoxicology: Native Freshwater Gastropods from Argentina
Paula F. Cossi, Lucila T. Herbert, Beverly Boburg, Gisela Kristoff (Laboratorio de Ecotoxicología Acuática: Invertebrados Nativos (EAIN), Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón II, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, and others)

Chapter 4. Energy Physiology as Biomarker in Assessing Environmental Pollution
Beatriz Toro Restrepo and Jorge M. Navarro (Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia, and others)

Chapter 5. Laboratory and Field Based Studies Provide Insights of Copper Tolerance Mechanisms in Brown Seaweeds and Biotechnology Tools for Environmental Diagnosis
Claudio A. Sáez (Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Research, Centro de Estudios Avanzados, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Viña del Mar, Chile)

Chapter 6. Endocrine Gene Expression in Aquatic Animals as Indicator of the Presence of Xenobiotic Compounds
Maurilio Lara-Flores, Yassir Edén Torres-Rojas and Jaime Rendón von Osten (Instituto de Ecología, Pesquerías y Oceanografía del Golfo de México de la Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Mexico)

Chapter 7. Sensitivity of Tropical Cladocerans and Chironomids to Toxicants and Their Potential for Routine use in Toxicity Tests
Arnola C. Rietzler, Odete Rocha, Ana L. Fonseca, Marcela M. Ribeiro, and Mariana F. Matos (Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, General Biology Department, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 8. Anthropogenic Impact Modifies the Blood Antioxidant Status in Pygoscelis adeliae and Pygoscelis papua at Hope Bay, Antarctic Peninsula
Julieta D. Cebuhar, Carla I. Di Fonzo, Laura P. Dopchiz, and Martín Ansaldo (Instituto Antártico Argentino, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and others)

Chapter 9. Metallothioneins as Biomarkers of Contamination by Metals in Bivalves of Eastern Venezuela
Mairin Lemus, Julián Castañeda, Kyung Chung (Laboratorio de Biología Celular, Departamento de Biología, Escuela de Ciencias, Universidad de Oriente, Cumaná, Venezuela, and others)

Chapter 10. Ecotoxicological Studies of Freshwater Ecosystems in Latin America: Diagnosis, Perspectives, and Proposals
Roberto Rico-Martínez, Ignacio Alejandro Pérez-Legaspi, Gustavo Emilio Santos-Medrano, Jesús Alvarado-Flores, and Mario Alberto Arzate-Cárdenas (Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Centro de Ciencias Básicas, Departamento de Química, Aguascalientes, AGS, Mexico, and others)

Chapter 11. Freshwater Ecotoxicology in Costa Rica
Rocío Ugalde, Silvia Echeverría-Saénz, Elba de la Cruz, Margaret Pinnock-Branford, Freylan Mena, Luisa E. Castillo (Central American Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances (IRET), Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica)

Chapter 12. Environmental Risk in a Coastal Zone of Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) Due to Dredging Activities
Ana Paula de Castro Rodrigues, Alexandre Paoliello Lemos, Christiane Monte, Sarah K. Rodrigues, Ricardo Gonçalves Cesar and Wilson Machado (Universidade Federal Fluminense, Geochemistry Department, Niterói-RJ, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 13. Assessment of the Risk Generated by Natural and Anthropic Agents on Peruvian Coastal Marine Environments
Guadalupe Sánchez and Aldo G. Indacochea (Universidad Científica del Sur, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias y Biológicas, Panamericana Sur, Lima, Perú)

Chapter 14. Assessing the Ecological effects of Contaminants in Estuaries in Brazil: Gaps and Future Directions
Marcos Krull, Denis M. S. Abessa and Francisco Barros (Laboratório de Ecologia Bentônica, PPGEcoBio, Instituto de Biologia, Salvador, BA, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 15. Avoidance and Recolonization Responses of the Gastropod Olivella semistriata Exposed to Coastal Sediments
Cristiano V.M. Araújo, David Salvatierra, Victoria Vera-Vera, Luís A. Cedeño-Macías, Katherine Benavides, Dayanara Macías-Mayorga, Matilde Moreira-Santos and Rui Ribeiro (CFE-Centre of Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal, and others)

Chapter 16. Pollution in Coastal Areas: An Integrated Perspective in Environmental Risk Studies
Javier García-Alonso and Delfina Castiglioni (Departamento de Ecología Teórica y Aplicada, Centro Universitario de la Región Este, Universidad de la República, Maldonado, Uruguay)

Chapter 17. Ecotoxicology in the Marine Environment: Bioaccumulation and Bioconcentration Factor of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Mónica M. Zambrano, Robinson F. Casanova and Gustavo Arencibia (University of Antioquia, Academic Environmental Corporation, Marine Sciences Headquarters, Turbo, Colombia, and others)

Chapter 18. Soil Ecotoxicology in Environmental Risk Assessment: A Case Study in a Metal Contaminated Site in Brazil
Júlia Carina Niemeyer, Eduardo Mendes da Silva and José Paulo Sousa (Federal University of Santa Catarina, Centre of Curitibanos, Curitibanos, SC, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 19. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Dredged Sediments from Guanabara and Sepetiba Bays (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) using Bioassays with Earthworms
Ricardo G. Cesar, Ana P.C. Rodrigues, Bianca C.R.C. da Rocha, Tácio M. de Campos, Christiane N. Monte, Simone Dealtry, Zuleica C. Castilhos, and Wilson T.V. Machado (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Department of Geography, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 20. Soil Ecotoxicology: Chilean Studies with Soils Polluted by Copper Mining
Alexander Neaman, Rosanna Ginocchio and Carolina Yáñez (Escuela de Agronomía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Quillota, Chile, and others)

Chapter 21. Inter-Laboratory Calibration of the Ostracodtoxkit F Assay using the Crustacean Heterocypris incongruens on PAH-Contaminated Soils
Belgis Chial Z., Guido Persoone, Doris Hirmann, and Andreas P. Loibner (Departamento de Biología Marina y Limnología. Universidad de Panamá, Ciudad Panamá, Panamá, and others)

Chapter 22. Mining in Venezuela: Its Effects on the Environment and Human Health
Antonio Machado-Allison (Academia de Ciencias Físicas, Matemáticas y Naturales, Instituto de Zoología y Ecología Tropical, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado de Correos, Caracas, Venezuela)

Chapter 23. Environmental Risk of Lead Accumulation in Crops Irrigated with Water from the Mantaro River, Jauja Sector, Peru
Edith Orellana and Raymundo Erazo (Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente, Av. Mariscal Castilla, Huancayo, Peru, and others)

Chapter 24. Human Health Risks Due to Air Mercury Exposure Produced by Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Activities in Portovelo, Ecuador
María Fernanda Rivera-Velásquez, Patricio Colón Velásquez-López, Victor Hugo Gonzalez-Carrasco, and Carmine Fallico (Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo, Facultad de Ingeniería, Avenida Antonio José de Sucre, Riobamba, Ecuador, and others)

Chapter 25. Environmental Impact of Agricultural Activities on Human and Wildlife Populations from Palizada, Campeche, Mexico
Jaime Rendón von Osten, Lucia Guilhermino and Amadeu M.V.M. Soares (Instituto EPOMEX, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Campeche, Mexico, and others)

Chapter 26. Bioaccumulation of Mercury in Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) from Ecuador and other Worldwide Regions: A Comparative Study
Luis A. Cedeño-Macias, David Villarreal, Fernando R. Diz and Dayanara Macías-Mayorga (Departamento Central de Investigación (DCI), Ecuadorian AquaticEcotoxicology (ECUACTOX) Group, Universidad Laica Eloy Alfaro de Manabi (ULEAM), Manta, Ecuador, and others)

Chapter 27. Lichens and Air Quality in Latin America
Jesús Hernández, Raiza Fernandez, Mariana Cárdenas Henao, Christopher Franco, Henry Gomez, Antonio Roschman-González, Zully Benzo, and Federico Galarraga (Instituto Experimental JardínBotánico Dr. Tobías Lasser, Jardín Botánico de Caracas. Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Caracas, Venezuela, and others)

Chapter 28. Lichens as Bioindicators of Air Quality in Mining areas of Latin America, with Special Reference to Catamarca, Argentina
Martha S. Cañas, Raquel C. Jasan and Rita R. Plá (Facultad de Tecnología y Ciencias Aplicadas - Centro de Investigación y Transferencia de Catamarca (CITCA, CONICET – UNCA), Universidad Nacional de Catamarca, Argentina, and others)

Chapter 29. Dynamics of Priority Pollutants and Adequacy of Wastewater Treatments in the Lake Maracaibo Basin (Venezuela)
Julio César Marín-Leal, Sedolfo José Carrasquero-Ferrer, María Carolina Pire-Sierra and Elisabeth Hedwig Behling de Calmón (Departamento de Ingeniería Sanitaria y Ambiental (DISA), Escuela de Ingeniería Civil, Facultad de Ingeniería, La Universidad del Zulia, Estado Zulia, Venezuela, and others)

Chapter 30. Importance of Bacterial Biofilm for Zn Retention in the Sediment-Water Interface: the Role of Bacterial Zn Resistance
Wilson Machado, Elisamara Sabadini-Santos, Katia N. Suzuki, Edimar C. Machado, Alfredo V.B. Bellido, Ricardo E. Santelli, Ricardo T. Lopes, and Mirian A.C. Crapez (Departamento de Geoquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 31. Overview of the Occurrence, effects and Risks of Regulated and Emerging Contaminants to Freshwater Organisms in Latin American Watersheds
Diana Míguez (Water Program, Environmental Projects, R&D&I Division, Technological Laboratory of Uruguay (LATU), Montevideo, Uruguay, and others)

Chapter 32. Nanomaterials as CECs: From Environmental Interaction to Regulatory Efforts for a Safe use in Latin America
Pamela Zuniga Fallas, Jaime F. Quesada-Kimzey and Ricardo A. Morales Vargas (Health Technologies School, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Costa Rica, Montes de Oca, Costa Rica, and others)

Chapter 33. Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in the Environment: Latin American Occurrences, Adverse Effects and Perspectives
Luciane Alves Maranho and Camilo Dias Seabra Pereira (Departamento de Ciências do Mar, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Santos, São Paulo, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 34. Restoration and Conservation Actions: Chilean Studies on Phytoremediation of Metal-Polluted, Acidic Soils
Alexander Neaman, Rosanna Ginocchio and Carolina Yáñez (Escuela de Agronomía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Quillota, Chile, and others)

Index

The book will be useful to sectors of environmental sciences (and related areas - agriculture, biology, chemistry, ecology, environmental engineering, hydrology, limnology, oceanography, soil sciences, public health and others) and to the target public such as students (under-graduate students, and Master and PhD degrees), researchers acting in environmental studies and decision makers (politicians and environmental organizations).

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