Drug Resistance Mechanisms of Fungal Biofilms

C. Jayampath Seneviratne (Editor)
Lakshman P. Samaranayake (Editor)
The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Series: Immunology and Immune System Disorders, Pharmacology – Research, Safety Testing and Regulation
BISAC: MED000000

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Fungi are ubiquitous in nature and exist in soil, water, plants, and in animals and humans. Similar to bacteria, fungi also form confluent biofilms either singly or with other microbial species. Fungal biofilms are known to be highly resistant to the adverse environmental conditions including antimicrobials and biocide compared to its planktonic counterparts. Although bacterial biofilms have been studied in detail, relatively little is known of fungal biofilms, its properties and their role in infections.

Fungal biofilm infections, particular caused by Candida species have dramatically increased in the past decade due to increased numbers of compromised populations such as HIV/AIDS patients, organ transplant recipients and patients on chemotherapy. Candida biofilm associated infections are frequently refractory to antifungal agents owing to the properties that are unique to the biofilm phenotype. This book reviews the current knowledge on the drug resistance mechanisms of fungal biofilms, focusing on that of Candida biofilms. (Imprint: Nova)

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

FUNGI

MEDICAL IMPORTANCE OF FUNGI

FUNGAL BIOFILMS

ADHESION PHASE

MICROCOLONY FORMATION AND MATURATED STAGE

DISSEMINATION STAGE

MODEL SYSTEMS TO STUDY FUNGAL BIOFILMS

FACTORS AFFECTING FUNGAL BIOFILM FORMATION

TEMPERATURE

PH

ANTIFUNGALS, DO WE HAVE ENOUGH CHOICES?

ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS AND THEIR MODE OF ACTION

POLYENES

AZOLES

ECHINOCANDINS

FLUCYTOSINE (5-FC)/NUCLEIC ACID SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS

DRUG RESISTANCE IN FUNGAL BIOFILMS

MECHANISM/S OF ANTIFUNGAL RESISTANCE IN FUNGAL BIOFILMS

ALTERED GROWTH RATE/METABOLIC ACTIVITY

VARIED MOLECULAR DIFFUSION

PRESENCE OF EXTRACELLULAR POLYMERIC SUBSTANCE (EPS)

RESISTANT GENES

PERSISTER CELLS

INCREASED STRESS RESPONSE/ANTIOXIDANTS

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

INDEX

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