Dinoflagellates: Classification, Evolution, Physiology and Ecological Significance


Subba Rao V. Durvasula (Editor)
Adjunct Research Professor, Center for Global Health, Dept. Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, US

Series: Marine and Freshwater Biology
BISAC: SCI039000

Dinoflagellates are fascinating protists, mostly unicellular, distributed in environments ranging from the polar to tropical seas, hypersaline, coastal, estuarine and oceanic waters. There are about 2,377 dinoflagellate species recognized. They exhibit a great diversity of shape, size, biochemical composition and physiological characteristics. Generally free floating, dinoflagellates are photosynthetic, a few species such as the Symbodinium are symbiotic, living in corals, while a few are parasitic.

This volume presents a discussion on dinoflagellate phylogeny based on recent developments in molecular biology. It provides insights into the similarity of pigment composition with other microalgae. A comprehensive coverage of their carbon assimilation rates is presented, which appear to be low compared to other microalgae. Besides photosynthetic assimilation, an interesting aspect of acquiring carbon is through mixotrophy which appears to be wide spread amongst dinoflagellates and a thorough discussion is presented.

Key features of this book include recent methods of culturing dinoflagellates, which can serve as analogues of their blooms in understanding their physiology, biochemistry and production of phycotoxins. This book, based on massive data collected over decades of research, provides an informative overview on the spatial and temporal distribution and dispersal of dinoflagellates by ocean currents, ballast water introductions and climate changes.

About 70 species of dinoflagellates are implicated in the production of ephemeral harmful algal blooms (HABs), which are on the increase globally. Based on several case studies, a comprehensive coverage of the phycotoxins produced by HAB species (PSP, DSP, ASP, Ciguatera, NSP) is presented. The adverse effects of phycotoxins on human health, and the loss of revenues ($50 million in the USA) due to fish kills are evaluated. Latest advances in the methodology of genomics are presented with a view to highlight their importance and to understand their linkage with phycotoxin production. A discussion of remediation measures to manage HABs is presented, which would be highly useful in aquaculture operations.

This book provides a large number of illustrations, microphotographs and color photographs. It is ideal for any audience requiring an in-depth exposure to current issues, ideas and methods used in dinoflagellate studies. The topics discussed serve as a useful reference to researchers, scientists, environmental managers, undergraduate and graduate students.
(Imprint: Nova)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents




Chapter 1. Diversity and Classification of Dinoflagellates
(Fernando Gómez, Carmen Panisse, Puerto de Santa María, Spain)

Chapter 2. Photosynthetic Pigments in Dinoflagellates
(Francisco Rodríguez, José L. Garrido and Carole A. Llewellyn, Mareas Rojas y Fitoplancton Tóxico
Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Vigo, Spain, and others)

Chapter 3. Species Assemblies and Seasonal Succession of Dinoflagellates
(Karin Rengefors, Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden)

Chapter 4. Culture and Growth of Dinoflagellates
(D. V. Subba Rao, Ravi V. Durvasula, Adinarayana Kunamneni and Chava V. Nageswara Rao, Department of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Chicago, IL, US, and others)

Chapter 5. Growth and Feeding Behaviour of Mixotrophic Dinophysis Species in Laboratory Cultures
(Satoshi Nagai, Sirje Sildever, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Goh Nishitani, Leila Basti and Takashi Kamiyama, National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan, and others)

Chapter 6. Carbon Assimilation: Dinoflagellates
(D.V. Subba Rao, Ravi V. Durvasula and Adinarayana Kunamneni, Department of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Chicago, IL, US)

Chapter 7. Mixotrophy in Dinoflagellates: Prey Selection, Physiology and Ecological Importance
(Per Juel Hansen and Urban Tillmann, Marine Biological Section, University of Copenhagen, Helsingør, Denmark, and others)

Chapter 8. Ecophysiology and Bloom Dynamics of Karenia with Emphasis on Karenia Brevis in Florida Waters
(M. C. Villac, A. Hoeglund, C. Tilney, M. Garrett, C. Lopez, K. A. Hubbard and K. A. Steidinger, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Saint Petersburg, Florida, US)

Chapter 9. Pfiesteria: A Common Estuarine Dinoflagellate with a Colorful Past
(Kimberly S. Reece, R. Wayne Litaker, Allen R. Place and Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, Department of Aquatic Health Sciences, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA, US, and others)

Chapter 10. Karlodinium veneficum: Still Blooming and Toxic Sixty-Two Years Later
(Jason E. Adolf, Matthew W. Parrow and Allen R. Place, Biology Department, Marine and Environmental Biology and Policy Program, Monmouth University, West Long Branch, NJ, US, and others)

Chapter 11. Ciguatera-Causing Dinoflagellates in the Genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa: Distribution, Ecophysiology and Toxicology
(Mireille Chinain, Clémence M. Gatti, Mélanie Roué and H. Taiana Darius, Institut Louis Malardé, Laboratoire de Recherche Sur les Biotoxines Marines, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, and others)

Chapter 12. Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning
(Toshiyuki Suzuki, National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan)

Chapter 13. The Toxic Marine Thecate Dinoflagellate Pyrodinium Bahamense
(Po Teen Lim, Aletta T. Yñiguez and Chui Pin Leaw, Bachok Marine Research Station, Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Malaya, Bachok, Kelantan, Malaysia, and others)

Chapter 14. Ecology and Range Expansion of Noctiluca Scintillans in the Global Oceans
(Helga do Rosario Gomes, Joaquim I. Goes, Khalid Al-Hashimi and Lubna Al-Kharusi, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University, Palisades, NY, US, and others)

Chapter 15. Putting It All Together: The Arabian Gulf Dinoflagellates
(D. V. Subba Rao and Ravi V. Durvasula, Department of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Chicago, IL, US)

Chapter 16. Dinoflagellates and Global Environmental Change
(Gustaaf Hallegraeff, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia)

Chapter 17. Evolution of Dinoflagellate Genomics and Gene Expression of Toxins
(Adinarayana Kunamneni, S. V. Subba Rao and Ravi Durvasula, Department of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, US)

Chapter 18. Impacts and Management of Dinoflagellate Harmful Blooms
(Elisa Berdalet, Institute of Marine Sciences, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain)

Chapter 19. Mitigation of the Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms Originated by Dinoflagellates
(Juan Blanco, Centro de Investigacións Mariñas, Consellería do Mar, Xunta de Galicia, Vilanova de Arousa, Spain)



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