Dextromethorphan: Pharmacology, Clinical Uses and Health Effects

Xin Wang (Editor)
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China

Series: Pharmacology – Research, Safety Testing and Regulation
BISAC: MED071000

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Volume 10

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Dextromethorphan (DM) is an over-the-counter antitussive drug that is also used as one of the active ingredients in many cold and cough medicines. In recent years, DM has also been used in other medicines, ranging from pain relief (as either the primary analgesic or an opioid potentiater) over psychological applications to the treatment of addiction. Pharmacodynamics of DM have been gradually discovered with the elucidation of the following properties, including uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, σ1 and σ2 sigma receptor agonists, α3β4-nACh receptor antagonist, and others.

DM is transformed to its primary and active metabolite dextrorphan predominantly via the metabolic enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6. Hence, DM is the first-choice substrate for CYP2D6 phenotyping because it is relatively safe and possesses many favorable pharmacokinetic characteristics for a marker substrate. This book aims to meet the needs of basic molecular biochemists, pharmacologists, pharmacists, medical students, clinical practitioners and scientists, as well as broad readers who wish to understand the pharmacology of DM and its clinical uses. The contributing authors are basic scientists, pharmacologists, pharmacists and on-service physicians in neuro-psychiatric, anesthesiologic and hepatologic fields from the Czech Republic, Austria, the United States, and China.

As a collection of masterpieces by well-known experts, this book presents current research in the study of DM, focusing on its pharmacology, clinical uses and health effects. Topics discussed in this compilation include the new pharmacological application of DM; pharmacogenetics of DM; pharmacodynamics and toxicological profiles of DM; long cutaneous block by lidocaine and DM; toxic and beneficial effects of DM on the central nervous system; pharmacokinetics of DM and drug interactions; DM as a probe drug for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 phynotyping; evaluation of CYP2D6 in DM-herb interactions; and clinical uses and health effects of DM.
(Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Preface

Chapter 1
New Pharmacological Applications of Dextromethorphan
(Xuan Qin and Xin Wang, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences and School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China)

Chapter 2
Pharmacogenetics of Dextromethorphan: A Systematic Review
(Yu Zhang, Min Huang and Huichang Bi, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, China, and others)

Chapter 3
Supra-Additive Cutaneous Anesthesia in the Rat from Combining Lidocaine with Dextromethorphan
(J. K. Birknes, J. G. Thalhammer, and G. R. Strichartz, Pain Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA, USA, and others)

Chapter 4
Dextromethorphan: Pharmacodynamic and Toxicological Profile
(Ondřej Zendulka and Gabriela Dovrtělová, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice, Brno, Czech Republic)

Chapter 5
Toxic and Beneficial Effects of Dextromethorphan on Central Nervous System
(Mingfang He and Lingling Jiang, College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Institute of Translational Medicine, Nanjing Tech University, China)

Chapter 6
Assessment of Cytochrome P450 2D6 in Dextromethorphan-Herb Interactions
(Ang Chen and Xin Wang, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences and School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China)

Chapter 7
Dextromethorphan as a Probe Drug for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 Phenotyping
(Jan Juřica, Miroslav Turjap, Kristýna Nosková, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice, Brno, Czech Republic, and others)

Chapter 8
Pharmacology and Clinical Uses of Dextromethorphan
(Zhenliang Sun, South campus of Sixth People's Hospital , Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China)

Chapter 9
Dextromethorphan Pharmacokinetics and Drug-Drug Interactions
(Xiaoqiang Xiang and Weimin Cai, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, China)

Chapter 10
Dextromethorphan: A Mini Review of Clinical Uses and Health Effects
(Ying Zhan and Kang Xu, Zhongda hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China)

Index

This book is to meet the needs from basic molecular biochemists, pharmacologists, pharmacists, medical students, clinical practitioners and scientists, as well as broad readers who wish to understand the pharmacology of DM and its clinical use.

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