Development of the Cerebellum: Clinical and Molecular Perspectives

Severina Fabbri (Editor)

Series: Neuroscience Research Progress
BISAC: MED057000

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The cerebellum is an important part of the central nervous system in most vertebrates. This brain structure is involved in several functions, such as motor control, reflex adaptation, motor learning and cognition (Buckner 2013; Lupo et al., 2018). The opening review in this compilation focuses on the development of the cerebellum, and more specifically, on the production of several types of neurons. It will show that these cells are sequentially generated following strict neurogenetic timetables.

Following this, the authors review manuscripts focusing on the negative impacts of maternal diabetes in pregnancy on the developing cerebellar cortex. Dissecting out the mechanisms responsible for maternal diabetes-related changes in the development of cerebellum is helpful in preventing impaired neurocognitive and neurobehavioral functions in offspring.

The authors also investigate the consequences of repetitive drug administration on cerebellar synaptic efficiency. Insight into the neural mechanisms underlying these impairments has largely stemmed from clinical animal studies. The molecular and neuronal actions of addictive drugs in the cerebellum involve long-term adaptive changes in receptors, neurotransmitters and intracellular signaling transduction pathways that may lead to the reorganization of cerebellar microcomplexes or recreation of new domains of attraction.

The gecko is proposed as a prospective animal model for a spaceflight experiment. Geckos demonstrate effective adaptation to weightlessness, quickly attaching themselves to surfaces by means of their subdigital pads, and during the spaceflight they retain both attached positions and normal locomotion, showing normal foraging, exploratory, social, and even play behavior.

Next, an investigation was performed on Wistar rats with STZ – induced diabetes. High frequency were delivered to the VI-th lobula of the paleocerebellum in two different regimes – one ES per two daily and thrice per day. VEP were registered in 6 and 12 weeks from the moment of diabetes induction.

Lastly, a meta-analysis of recent findings of cerebellar involvement in executive functions is provided. A methodological issue is raised which is relevant for models explaining cerebellar connectivity and effects on cognitive performance in old age.

Preface

Chapter 1. Timetables of Neurogenesis in the Development of the Cerebellum
(Lucía Rodríguez-Vázqueza and Joaquín Martí-Clúaa, Unidad de Citología e Histología, Departamento de Biología Celular, de Fisiología y de Immunología, Facultad de Biociencias, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain)

Chapter 2. The Impacts of Maternal Diabetes in Pregnancy on Cerebellum Development in Offspring
(Javad Hami, PhD, and Akram Sadeghi and Ghasem Ivar, PhD, Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Science, Iran, and others)

Chapter 3. The Spaces Where Addiction Acts: Focus on Drug-Induced Molecular and Cellular Changes in the Cerebellum
(Saeed Solouki and Hossein Soltanloo, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Human Motor Control and Computational Neuroscience Lab, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, and others)

Chapter 4. Gecko Cerebellum after a Long-Term Spaceflight during the “BION-M1” Space Mission
(A. S. Kharlamova, A. E. Proshchina, V. I. Gulimova, V. M. Barabanov, O. A. Junemann, and S. V. Saveliev, Research Institute of Human Morphology, Moscow, Russia)

Chapter 5. Retina Protection with Cerebellum Activation in Experimental Diabetes and Translational Perspectives
Leonid S. Godlevsky, PhD, Nataliya V. Kresyun. PhD, Hanna O. Son, MD, Vladlena V. Godovan, PhD, Oxana N. Nenova, PhD, Mihail P. Pervak, MD, Tamara L. Godlevska, PhD, Katerina A. Bidnuk, PhD, Tatyana V. Prybolovets, Department of Biophysics, Informatics and Medical Devices, Odesa National Medical University, Odesa, Ukraine, and others)

Chapter 6. The (Surprising) Role of the Cerebellum in Cognitive Functions in Old Adults
(Daniela Aisenberg, Department of Clinical Psychology - Gerontology, Ruppin Academic Center, Emek Hefer, Israel)

Index

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