Development of End-Markets for Recycled Construction and Demolition Waste Resources in Australia


Salman Shooshtarian, PhDLecturer, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia
Tayyab Maqsood, PhD – Professor, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia
Savindi Caldera, PhD – Lecturer, University of the Sunshine Coast, Petrie, Australia
Tim Ryley, PhD – Professor, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia
Peter SP Wong, PhD – Professor, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

Series: Waste and Waste Management; Construction Materials and Engineering
BISAC:TEC010020; BUS043060; ARC022000

A growing population and urbanisation have led to a significant increase in construction and demolition (C&D) waste generation. There are urgent calls for government and industry to develop better methods for C&D waste management. The creation and stimulation of a market for C&D waste PwRC have emerged as targeted interventions to divert waste from landfill sites and create a second life for waste material. In response to industry and public concerns related to unsustainable C&D waste management, this book aims to enhance understanding of the operation and capacity of end-markets for C&D waste recyclables in Australian jurisdictions.

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Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures



About the Authors

List of Abbreviations

Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Content

Chapter 2. Impact of Government Policy Frameworks on the Operation of End-Markets for C&D Waste Stream
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Australia
2.3. Approach
2.4. Results: Review of Regulations, Specifications, Guidelines and Standards
2.4.1. Australia
2.4.2. Australian Capital Territory (ACT)
2.4.3. New South Wales (NSW)
2.4.4. Northern Territory (NT)
2.4.5. Queensland (Qld)
2.4.6. South Australia (SA)
2.4.7. Tasmania (Tas)
2.4.8. Victoria (Vic)
2.4.9. Western Australia (WA)

Chapter 3. The Capacity of Existing End-Markets in Australian Jurisdictions
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Approach
3.2.1. Data Collection and Processing
3.3. Analysis of Existing C&D Waste End-Markets: Australia
3.3.1. Introduction
3.3.2. C&D Waste Data
3.3.3. The Economy of C&D Waste
3.3.4. The Market for C&D Waste PwRC
3.4. Analysis of Existing C&D Waste End-Markets: Australian States and Territories
3.4.1. Operation of C&D Waste E nd-Markets in the ACT
3.4.2. Operation of Existing C&D Waste End-Markets in NSW
3.4.3. Operation of Existing C&D Waste End-Markets in the NT
3.4.4. Operation of Existing C&D Waste End-Markets in Qld
3.4.5. Operation of Existing C&D Waste End-Markets in SA
3.4.6. Operation of Existing C&D Waste End-Markets in Tas
3.4.7. Operation of Existing C&D Waste End-Markets in Vic
3.4.8. Operation of Existing C&D Waste End-Markets in WA
3.5. Barriers to Creation and Stimulation of End-Market
3.5.1. Increase in Energy and Transport Costs
3.5.2. Limited Knowledge of PwRC
3.5.3. Limited Technologies for Waste Recovery
3.5.4. Low Quality and Reduced Performance
3.5.5. Lack of Market Availability of PwRC
3.5.6. Limitations Caused by Specifications, Standards and Permits
3.5.7. Limited Acceptability and Negative Perceptions (Public and the Industry)
3.6. Strategies to Create and Stimulate End-Markets
3.6.1. Increase Community Awareness and Education on PwRC
3.6.2. Develop Supportive Regulations, Policies and Specifications
3.6.3. Facilitate Sustainability Rating Programs
3.6.4. Promote Recycled Product Certification
3.6.5. Advocate Targeted Technologies and Innovative Practice

Chapter 4. Impact of Sustainable Procurement on the Operation of C&D Waste End-Markets
4.1. Introduction
4.1.1. Review of Sustainable Procurement Application: Global Context
4.1.2. Sustainable Procurement in Australia: The Need for Research
4.2. Approach
4.2.2. Research Design
4.2.3. Data Collection and Analysis
4.3. Results
4.3.1. Descriptive findings
4.3.2. Sustainable Procurement Significance, Benefits and Principles in the Australian Context
4.3.3. Barriers
4.3.4. Enablers
4.3.5. Conceptual Model for Implementation and Promotion of Sustainable Procurement
4.3.6. Review of the Existing Sustainable Procurement Policies in Australia
4.3.7. Public State Agencies Involved in Sustainable Procurement of PwRC
4.3.8. Sustainable Procurement Initiatives  in Australia
4.3.9. Evaluation of Sustainable Procurement
4.4. Emergent Model for Sustainable Procurement in the AEC Industry
4.4.1. Model Development and Recommendations
4.4.2. Research Contribution

Chapter 5. Impacts of COVID-19 on the C&D Waste Management and Resource Recovery Industry
5.1. Introduction
5.1.1. Literature Review
5.1.2. Research Aim and Scope
5.2. Approach
5.2.1. Data Collection
5.2.2. Data Analysis
5.3. Results
5.3.1. Participant Profile
5.3.2. COVID-19 Impacts on Businesses and the C&D Waste Industry
5.3.3. Responses to COVID-19 Impacts and Lessons Learned
5.3.4. Emergent Impact Matrix
5.3.5. Adaptive Measures

Chapter 6. Optimal Model for the Creation and Stimulation of End-Markets for C&D Waste Streams
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Approach
6.2.1. Participant Profiles
6.3. Results
6.3.1. NSW
6.3.2. Qld
6.3.3. SA
6.3.4. Vic
6.3.5. WA

Chapter 7. Conclusion
7.1. Introduction
7.2. National and Jurisdictional Policy Frameworks
7.3. Operation of Existing End-Markets
7.4. Sustainable Procurement Practices
7.5. Impacts of COVID-19 on C&D Waste Industry


Author’s ORCID iD

Salman Shooshtarian: 0000-0002-6991-8931
Tayyab Maqsood: 0000-0001-7166-8110
Tim Ryley – 0000-0003-0878-5546
Peter SP Wong – 0000-0002-8429-2551

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