Dementia, Diabetes, and Hypertension: Is There a Unified Theory through a Dysregulation of the Ca2+ Homeostasis?


Series: Research Progress in Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia

BISAC: MED000000

Dementia, diabetes, and hypertension are considered huge medical problems around the world, costing many millions of dollars to the medical health systems. Curiously, hypertension has been clinically linked with a higher risk for decline of cognition, as shown in dementia patients. In addition, there is a clear clinical association between hypertension and diabetes, reflecting substantial similarities in their etiology. In fact, consistent data support that patients diagnosed with diabetes have shown an increased risk of presenting cognitive dysfunctions, clinical signs of dementia. Considering the cumulative knowledge from the scientific literature, we can now link Ca2+ signals dysregulations as an upstream issue for hypertension, diabetes and other inflammatory processes, and dementia. Regarding therapeutics, hypertensive patients have been classically treated with Ca2+ channel blockers (CCBs), medicines whose mechanism of action consists in reducing the influx of Ca2+ into the cells. Intriguingly, many clinical reports have been demonstrating off-label effects for CCBs. In hypertensive patients treated with CCBs, it can be observed a lower incidence of dementia such as Alzheimer´s disease. The possible mechanism of action could be attributed to a restoration of the Ca2+ homeostasis. In addition, in hypertensive patients treated with CCBs, it can be also observed an improvement of diabetes status such as glycemic control. A possible mechanism of action could be due to a restoration of insulin secretion, then achieving glycemic control, and a reduction of the pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. Thus, this book puts together fundamental concepts, and current therapies to treat dementia, hypertension, and diabetes, including novel therapeutics coming from the pharmacological manipulation of Ca2+/cAMP signalling. Finally, this book compiles more than 300 references from the scientific literature, including data of high evidence such as meta-analysis and systematic reviews, and discusses pharmaceuticals already approved and clinically safe, e.g., CCBs, then allowing sustained increments in the life quality of age-related patients.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Importance of the exocytosis study for the neurotransmitters and hormones release: fundamental findings for understanding neurological and psychiatric diseases

Chapter 3. Ca2+ signalling involved in the exocytosis of neuroendocrine cells: basic concepts for understanding neurological and psychiatric diseases

Chapter 4. Role of cAMP in the exocytosis of the neuroendocrine cells: fundamental concepts for studying neurological and psychiatric diseases

Chapter 5. Novel concepts from the Ca2+/cAMP interaction: Impact in neurological and psychiatric diseases

Chapter 6. The pharmacological modulation of the Ca2+/cAMP signalling interaction as a therapeutic strategy for neurological and psychiatric diseases: a theory and supporting data

Chapter 7. Paradoxical effects of the CCB and their pleiotropic effects

Chapter 8. Additional interesting findings, and concepts, for the Ca2+/cAMP signalling pathways and neurological/psychiatric disorders field

Chapter 9. Hypertension and higher risk for the decline of cognition

Chapter 10. Hypertension and higher risk for diabetes

Chapter 11. A link between diabetes and dementia

Chapter 12. Synopsis

Chapter 13. Future directions

Chapter 14. Conclusions




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