Data to Knowledge: Interdisciplinary Research Methodologies for Agricultural Sciences


Tofael Ahamed, Ph.D.
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

Series: Research Methodology and Data Analysis
BISAC: EDU037000

This book provides a sound understanding for creating new knowledge, which takes three main forms: Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems; constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem; and empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence. This book encompasses both qualitative and quantitative research and analysis. The reader should gain an understanding of the skills needed to design and undertake a research project, including legal and ethical requirements in planning research projects, choosing the best experimental design and analytical methods, and how to present data for extension to the wider community and establish the knowledge. Hands-on exercises are provided to improve reasoning skills, emphasizing agricultural problems and issues to solve and interpret the experimental data to knowledge. The book covers research methods within these three forms with basic knowledge of research methodology. Design of experiments and significant results are interpreted through the scientific organization and information in each of the chapters. The inherent discussion should help interdisciplinary graduate students and researchers accomplish their scientific experiments and write research articles. The cognitive writing style to interpret the observed data from experiments and surveys is emphasized in this book. The cognitive summary for each of the chapters is provided in the form of wording and graphics to focus on the chapter highlights as well as the use of analytical tools in the research. The utmost care is taken to present a varied range of research problems along with their solutions in agriculture and its allied fields, which should be of immense use to the readers interested in this topic. (Imprint: Nova)



Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Research Design and Types
Creation of Knowledge from Research Design and Type Practices in the field of Agricultural Sciences
1.1 Type of Research
1.2 Applied Research
1.3 Applied Research Methodology
1.4 Research Design
1.5 Creative Applied Research
1.6 Vertical and Lateral Thought
1.7 Individual Research Management
1.8 Capturing Creativity
1.9 Right Process and Right product
1.10 Effects of Resource Availability
1.11 Research Resources
1.12 Designing and Conducting Agricultural Research
1.13 Research Employing Controlled Techniques
1.14 Research Questions
1.15 Research Methodology

Chapter 2. Research Methods
In-depth Understanding of Research Methods for Solutions to Problems in Agricultural Sciences
2.1 Classifications of Research
2.2 Research Based on Purpose
2.3 Research Based on Method
2.4 Research Based on Statistical Analysis
2.5 Data Collection
2.6 Components of a Survey Method
2.7 Delphi Technique

Chapter 3. Research Problems and Hypotheses
Observations of Data from Sampling to Establish Knowledge of Population
3.1 Research Plan
3.2 Specification of Research Problem
3.3 Hypothesis
3.4 General Procedure for Hypothesis Testing
3.5 Type of hypothesis tests

Chapter 4. Univariate Data Analysis
Process to Synthesize Data to Obtain the Answer for a Specific Key Evaluation of the Research Question
4.1 Measures of Central Tendency
(Mode, Median and Mean)
4.2 Measures of Dispersion
4.3 Measure of Skewness
4.4 Measure of Kurtosis
4.5 Probability Distribution
4.6 Statistical Inference

Chapter 5. Bivariate and Multivariate Data Analysis
Statistical Inference for Conclusions on a Population using Data from a Subset, or Sample
5.1 Correlation Analysis
5.2 Regression Analysis
5.4 Explained and Unexplained Variation
5.5 Coefficient of Determination, R2
5.6 Error in Regression Equation
5.7 Inference about the Slope
5.8 Residual Analysis
8.16 Principal Component Analyses (PCA)
5.9 Multiple Linear Regression

Chapter 6. Attribute Data Analysis
Categorical Data Analysis to Measure the Attributes or Quality of a System
6.1 The Chi-Square Test
6.2 Test for Goodness of Fit
6.3 Test for Independence

Chapter 7. Experimental Design
Systematic Approach for Problem Solving during Data Collection Stage for Conclusion
7.1 Basic principles
7.2 Design of Experiments
7.3 Block Design

Chapter 8. Survey Sampling
Survey Questions and Pilot Testing are a Critical part of the Planning of a Research Process
8.1 Some Concepts Related to Sampling
8.2 Types of sampling
8.3 The Logic of Probability Sampling
8.4 Sampling frames
8.5 Sampling weights
8.6 Sample Size
8.7 Confidence Interval (CI): Method of Determining
8.8 Central limit theorem (CLT)
8.9 Error Types
8.10 Survey
8.11 Survey Research
8.12 Research Questions to Ask Before Doing Survey Research
8.13 Strengths of Survey Research
8.14 Written Instruments
8.15 Choosing the Format of Your Questions

Chapter 9. Data to Knowledge
Publication Ethics to Sharing Data to Establish Knowledge
9.1 Background vs. Research Ethics
9.2 Methodology vs. Research Ethics
9.3 Results vs. Research Ethics


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