Curcuma longa and Its Health Effects. Volume 2

Noboru Motohashi, PhD (Editor)
Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose-shi, Tokyo, Japan

Series: Natural Products and Therapeutics
BISAC: MED004000

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Volume 2

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Curcumin, which is contained in turmeric in India and surrounding areas, has been widely used for colorants such as curry for thousands of years. Recent studies of curcuminn have reported that curcumin is effective in preventing and treating lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, dementia, liver disease, heart failure and eye strain.

This volume contains the following contents:

In Chapter 1, curcumin, also known as diferuloylmethane is a primary and essential constituent of turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes with numerous biological activities. Curcumin was established to benefit in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, metabolic syndrome, pain as well as in controlling inflammatory and degenerative eye conditions including cancers. In addition, curcumin aided in the control of ailments associated with kidneys. These numerous therapeutic benefits of curcumin supplementation were accredited to its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

Some of these activities by curcumin were attributed through its interference with aberrant cellular signaling pathways that resulted in many diseases such as cancer, arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. In recent times curcumin is available in multiple formulations including capsules, cosmetics, energy drinks, ointments, soaps and tablets. Curcumin was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as “Generally Recognized As Safe” (GRAS) and curcumin excellent tolerability and safety were established through clinical trials, even at relative high doses. Since 4000 years, turmeric has been used to treat a variety of ailments.

Turmeric is used in religious ceremonies as well as textile dyeing owing to its vibrant orange color. In Ayurveda and Chinese traditional medicine (CTM), turmeric is often expended as anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of digestive and liver ailments, skin diseases including wounds. Turmeric has been consumed in different forms in various countries due to curcumin beneficial effects. In USA, turmeric is used in mustard sauce, cheese, butter, and chips, as a preservative and a coloring agent.

In Chapter 2, Curcuma longa L. belongs to the ginger family. It is widely cultivated and distributed in South and Southeast Asia. Besides gastronomic uses, Curcuma is one of the main plants used throughout the folklore medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and Chinese medicine. To date, traditional medicinal treatments have been increasing worldwide to treat common diseases.

Therefore, this chapter focused on the curcuma´s essential oil beneficial properties. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of curcuma´s essential oil are highly important due to become natural methods to prevent food deterioration and extend shelf life caused by Aspergillus, Fusarium or Colletotrichum genus. Moreover, Curcuma´s essential oil exhibits antimicrobial activities against pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger that cause diverse infections in humankind. According to these properties, Curcuma´s essential oil may be an ecofriendly alternative to produce antimicrobial and anti-fungicides agents with important industrial applications.

Chapter 3, flavanones are one of the most diverse and widespread group belongs to the subclass of flavanoids. They contain hydroxyl and methoxy groups and occupy a prominent position in the plant kingdom due to the wide variety of multi-directional pharmacological properties. The discovery of vital molecules by isolation and synthesis of natural products from medicinal plants has always been a challenge in the field of natural products chemistry. Syzygium samarangense is a famous plant belongs to the family Myrtaceae and widely cultivated and grown thought out India for their edible fruits. Then, here, one of the family Myrtaceae contains diarylheptanoids (curcuminoids).

Then, Chapter 3 reviews the isolation and semisynthesis of typical biocomponents other than diarylheptanoids (curcuminoids) for Syzygium samarangense (water apple. wax apple), a family Myrtaceae. The fruit pulp and leaves of water apple is a rich source of phenols, flavonoids, triterpenoids, chalcones, tannins, and several antioxidant compounds and as a result, it is believed to have great potential health benefits and is used in traditional medicine to cure diabetes. Syzygium samarangense was reported to posses antidiabetic activity, antihyperglycemic activity, spasmolytic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activity.

Basing on the excellent pharmacological properties of Syzygium samarangense, we have selected the stem bark of Syzygium samarangense, extracted with different organic solvents, subjected to acid hydrolysis and then purified by using preparative HPLC. 7-Hydroxy flavanone was isolated and then subjected to semi synthesis by using different substituted isoxazoles and cinnamic acid. The present chapter discusses the isolation of 7-hydroxy flavanone from the stem bark of Syzygium samarangense and also explored the facile synthesis of 7-hydroxyflavanone with isoxazoles and cinnamic acids.
(Imprint: Nova Medicine and Health)

Preface

Chapter 1. Curcumin Induced Alteration of Cellular Signaling Mechanisms and Its Role in Disease Control and Prevention
(Rao Gollapudi, Anuradha Vanam and Noboru Motohashi, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, US, and others)

Chapter 2. Curcuma’s Essential Oil and Its Beneficial Properties
(Carla Patricia Plazola-Jacinto, María Dolores Henández-Navarro, Marcela Hernández-Ortega and Lourdes Valadez-Carmona, Departamento de Ingeniería Bioquímica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México, and others)

Chapter 3. Isolation and Facile Synthesis of 7-Hydroxyflavanone from Stem Bark of Syzygium samarangense (Family: Myrtaceae)
(P. Asha Bhanu, B. Kesava Rao, B. China Raju and Noboru Motohashi, Department of Chemistry, University College of Sciences, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjunanagar, Andhra Pradesh, India, and others)

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